Flight 1938-12
Flight
An example of a modern ducted cooling installation - one of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in an Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley IV.
In the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley fuselage the intermediate frames are not in contact with the skin covering. The stringers are turned with the open side towards the skin.
The aerodynamic aspect of radial-engine installation: Bristol Mercury VIII in long-chord cowling, seen with cooling gills closed.
The stringers of the Bristol Blenheim are notched into the frames, and have their backs turned towards the skin, thus making one row of rivets suffice.
The wing of the Bristol Blenheim is also of the two-spar type, and the skin-covering is stiffened by "hat"-section stringers.
  
On the new Grumman monoplane fighter for the American Navy the wheels retract into the corpulent fuselage.
The first Curtiss Model 75 to carry USAAC markings was this Y1P-36 (37-068) which was delivered to Wright Field in March 1937. It was one of three purchased for service trials.
HAMPDENS about to leave their makers aerodrome for delivery to squadrons.
The inwardly retracting undercarriage of a Hawker Hurricane being tucked away just after taking off from Brooklands.
The majority of the British contingent is grouped in this corner of the Salon. In the foreground are the Hawker Hurricane eight-gun fighter and the Bristol Blenheim bomber which are getting their due share of attention.
How the Rolls-Royce Merlin II permits clean entry and a generally compact installation in the Hurricane. The common housing for the oil and glycol radiators is apparent in the Flight photograph of the nose.
Biplane practice has been adapted to the wing of the Hawker Hurricane monoplane. The most unusual feature is the zig-zag drag bracing, which makes the wing very stiff in torsion. The wing covering is fabric wired to the trough in the rib shown in the smaller sketch.
The ejector type exhaust manifold on the Rolls-Royce Merlin II of the Hawker Hurricane.
A Morane M.406 taken straight off the production line for the French Air Force. There is an engine-mounted shell-gun and two machine guns in the wing. A Bronzavia flame-damping exhaust system is fitted to the Hispano 12Y engine.
The production type Potez twin-engined fighter-bomber suspended over the flying scale model of the Potez-C.A.M.S. six-engined transatlantic flying boat.
DEFENCE BY NIGHT: Docility during take-off and landing makes the Vickers-Supermarine Spitfire a fine night fighter despite its extremely high performance. This view was secured before a test flight at Eastleigh.
The modern formula - the clean lines of entry of the present-day fighter, as exemplified in the Supermarine Spitfire and the Hawker Hurricane with their Rolls-Royce Merlin engines.
The peerless Supermarine Spitfire tucked away in a corner of the Air Ministry's stand. This fighter has eight guns and a performance superior to that of anything in the show.
The De Havilland variable-pitch three-blader (Hamilton licence) as fitted on the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine of the Fairey Battle.
Extruded sections are used in the spar flanges of the Fairey Battle. The covering of the wing is of the stressed-skin type, stiffened by stringers of extruded Z-section, notched into the wing ribs.
By curling over one edge of each fuselage "plank," stringers are avoided in the Fairey Battle, and one row of rivets is saved.
"Mercury,'' in "Maia's" arms, being loaded with Christmas mails.
Loading mail into the floats of Mercury, upper component of the Short Mayo Composite, before she left Southampton on her 2,400-mile non-stop flight to Alexandria on Tuesday of last week, carrying over a ton of Christmas postal load.
Somewhat similar to the construction of the Empire boat wing is that of the Short-Mayo Mercury. The fuel tank is in the form of a large tube which reinforces the wing, particularly in torsion.
The Irving aerodynamically balanced double flaps as experimentally fitted to a Miles Falcon. It will be seen that the balance would be neutral, with the airflow attempting to “raise” the lower half and “lower” the upper half
По две эскадрильи R.E.8 из RFC действовали в Месопотамии и Палестине (на фотографии). Массово британские R.E.8 применялись на Западном фронте, эти самолеты также действовали в Италии, на Балканах и в России.
An R.E.8, shown here in Service form, was used by the Royal Aircraft establishment for early experiments in the measurement of control forces.
“Wilbur and Orville Wright literally suspended themselves in the air on a woodscrew ... Since those early days aircraft construction has become finicking engineering.”
The majority of the British contingent is grouped in this corner of the Salon. In the foreground are the Hawker Hurricane eight-gun fighter and the Bristol Blenheim bomber which are getting their due share of attention.
Features of the wing construction of the long-nosed Bristol Blenheim. Actually the structure differs little from that of the short-nosed version.
The revised nose of the Blenheim which facilitates bomb-aiming and navigation, apart from slightly improving performance.
Features of the fuselage construction of the long-nosed Bristol Blenheim. Actually the structure differs little from that of the short-nosed version.
A portion of the P.Z.L. stand with the Wolf light twin-engined fighter in the foreground and the Elan twin-engined bomber. The sharp tapering of the cowlings on the Elan are noteworthy.
The Westland Lysander is a strut-braced monoplane and has a single-spar wing, with a false rear spar. The spar flanges are very substantial extrusions.
The installation of two Daimler Benz D.B.600 inverted vees in a Heinkel bomber of the German Air Force. An engine of this type is exhibited at Paris.
A portion of the P.Z.L. stand with the Wolf light twin-engined fighter in the foreground and the Elan twin-engined bomber. The sharp tapering of the cowlings on the Elan are noteworthy.
This view shows the grouping of a shell gun and two machine guns in the nose of the P.Z.L. Wolf two-seater fighter. The cowling of the “hush-hush” inverted-vee engines may also be studied.
A dummy Oerlikon shell-gun and two wooden Brownings protrude from the nose of the P.Z.L. Wolf twin-engined light fighter. Note the landing lights.
A view of the P.Z.L. Mouette (Gull) (LWS.3 Mewa) army co-operation machine showing its resemblance to the Westland Lysander, even to the guns in the undercarriage.
One of the fixed guns in the undercarriage of the P.Z.L. Gull army co-operation monoplane. This machine follows Lysander practice in many respects.
Ultimate winner of the Schneider Trophy and for a time holder of the world's seaplane speed record: The Supermarine S.6 B with Rolls-Royce “R” engine of 2,300 b.h.p.
The largest retractable undercarriage unit in the world, as fitted to the Armstrong Whitworth Ensign transport used by Imperial Airways.
The wing of the Armstrong Whitworth Ensign is generally similar to that of the Whitley, but the strips in the corners of the spar box are of different section.
The Galtier 30 fighter developed by the Arsenal at Villacoublay.
A later model with revised accommodation and engine installation.
A model of the new Fairey commercial machine ordered by the Air Ministry.
The forward portion of the model of the new Fairey four-engined transport which will have a nose wheel of substantial proportions.
The first British retracting undercarriage was fitted on a Bristol racing monoplane in 1922. Note the cycle spoke-braced spinner
Showing how the retracted wheels of the D.H. Don are housed in fairings behind the intakes for the cooling air.
The little Sopwith biplane of 1913-14 set a standard, tor the time, of aerodynamic efficiency.
Although occupying a good deal of floor space the German exhibit includes only one full-scale machine, the Dornier Do.17 bomber, seen in the foreground. This aeroplane makes an interesting comparison with the long-nosed Blenheim at the other end of the building.
A section of the German “territory,” showing the Dornier Do.17 with its two Bramo Fafnir radials and its distinctive camouflage.
On the Dornier Do. 17 bomber a forward-firing gun protrudes through the pilot’s windscreen.
Dowty internally sprung wheels simplify the biplane's undercarriage problem in the case of the Gloster Gladiator.
In the Gloster Gladiator the sheet-metal spar web is stiffened by a corrugation running spanwise.
The front of the Koolhoven F.K. 58 single-seater fighter, showing the unusual cowling over the two-row Hispano and the bulges beneath the wings for the four Browning guns.
The somewhat elaborate retractable undercarriage on the Koolhoven F.K.58 fighter. The gun fairings are also visible.
Unfortunate external fairings for the undercarriage characterise the Seversky pursuit used by the U.S. Army.
Caudron’s light single-seater fighter which has two shell-guns and an inverted-vee Renault engine. Coups Deutsch influence is apparent.
The nose of the Caudron light fighter (450 h.p. inverted-vee Renault) show­ing the Bronzavia flame-dampers.
In a class of structure by itself is the Vickers-Wallis geodetic construction. The members, run diagonally around the surface, and tension members are made to stabilise compression members, and vice versa.
One of the neatest large undercarriages yet seen that of the Vickers Wellington twin-engined bomber.
FIAT-POWERED: A recent version of the Italian Caproni Ca.135 twin-engined high-speed bomber fitted with two Fiat A.80 two-row radials giving 1,000 h.p. each at 13,500ft. The top speed is said to be about 290 m.p.h. The front gun mounting is interesting but must of necessity give a limited field of fire.
The arrangement of the tandem Hispano engines on the high altitude Farman. The radiator installation is particularly interesting.
The new Mercier cowling for radial engines is seen for the first time installed on the L.e.O. 46. The cooling air escapes through an annular slot round the nose.
The striking tail unit of the L.e.O. 46 twin-engined bomber now in production for the French Air Force. This gives a good field of fire for the shell-gun on top of the fuselage.
Making the most of slots and flaps - the Fieseler Storch, which has been designed for Army co-operation and communication work. It is seen here in a typical demonstration take-off attitude.
A simple type of corrugated strip spar is used in the Fairey Sea Fox. A minimum of riveting is needed.
In the Saro London flying boats a somewhat unusual type of planking is used. Instead of riveted-on stringers, the planking itself has widely-spaced corrugations. This construction makes for simplicity.
Another and slightly different type of construction is used in the Saro London biplane flying boat.
FOR PATROL AND BOMBING: A new Short Sunderland flying boat, several of which type have already been delivered to the R.A.F., taking off for a test flight from the Medway.
A SULTAN’S GIFT: One of the four Short Sunderlands purchased with a gift of £300,000 from the Sultans of the four Federated Malay States was recently named "Pahang" by the Sultan of Pahang.
The first of the Canadian-built Supermarine Stranraers (two Bristol Pegasus) on the St. Lawrence River. Ten are being constructed by Canadian Vickers, Ltd.
The Vought dive bomber in the foreground is designed for carrier operation and so has folding wings.
A comprehensive view of the wing-folding and undercarriage arrangements of the Vought dive bomber. Note the jury strut between the wing and fuselage.
The compact two-way radio equipment which has been developed by the Canadian Marconi Company for medium-sized transport aeroplanes. This example is actually fitted in a Quebec Airways’ Rapide.
The mid-wing Delanne sailplane over the practical-looking side-by-side two-seater Tipsy.
One of Union Airways D.H. 86s flying over Blenheim where New Zealand’s first aero club was formed.
LOOKING IT IN THE AIR-DUCTS: Mr. Geoffrey de Havilland, Jun., puts the Albatross into an advantageous position for Flight's chief photographer. In the distance is the new Reserve school building at Hatfield.
The D.H. Albatross (in the heading) probably represents the maximum aerodynamic efficiency attainable with a wing-fuselage combination. Further progress must be towards attaining the "all-wing" ideal.
OUT OF THE NEST: The D.H. 95, or Flamingo, comes into the open for engine running tests. These are the first photographs to be taken of the actual machine out of doors. Almost entirely of metal construction planned for quick production, the 95 has two Bristol Perseus XIIC sleeve-valve engines of 850 h.p. each. As the photographs show, the machine is of unusually clean and sturdy appearance, and the passengers should have a first-class view
A fixed-pitch Fairey as used for the Kestrel engines of the Fairey Hendon.
TWENTY-TON TAKE OFF: Last Friday Cabot, the first of the improved “C ” class Short boats left the Medway on a full-load take-off - carrying a thousand pounds more than Caledonia on any of the Atlantic crossings. In due course Cabot will be refuelled in the air from 46,000 lb. to an all-up weight of 53,000 lb.
The longitudinal stringers in the Short Empire boats are interrupted at the frames, which are uncut.
The little Zlin XII touring type.
The mock-up of the new Bloch 162 B.5 four-engined bomber with Hispano 14-cylinder two-row radials. Armament includes two shell-guns.
The Potez 662 has four small diameter Gnome Rhones and is probably the fastest transport machine in the world.
The production type Potez twin-engined fighter-bomber suspended over the flying scale model of the Potez-C.A.M.S. six-engined transatlantic flying boat.
On the picture is shown how snugly the wing float of the Potez-Cams 160 flying model is housed when retracted.
TRANSITORY TRAINER: The new Hanriot 232 twin-engined trainer introduced at the Paris Show. A production order has been placed by the French Government. The engines are 220 h.p. Renaults.
THE LATEST DEWOITINE: Familiar, but considerably cleaned up and modified in detail, is the new three-engined Dewoitine D.342 which is designed to carry twenty-four passengers in normal service. The undercarriage is, of course, retractable, and with three Gnome-Rhone 14-N.17. of 950 h.p. maximum the machine has a cruising speed (65 per cent power), at 6,560ft., of 200 m.p.h. Its maximum at 5,750ft. is 230 m.p.h.
SOUTH AMERICAN Scene: This photograph was taken from one of the rear seats of a Messerschmitt Taifun (Me. 108) while the machine was flying over the famous Serra dos Orgaos near Rio de Janeiro. At the time a sea of clouds and mist covered practically the whole range.
The French President, who displayed great technical knowledge during his tour of the stands, engrossed in the large scale model of the four-Diesel transatlantic Dornier.
A striking photograph that conveys the tenseness (usually felt by everybody but the parachutist himself) just before the jump. It shows the author about to make his first professional jump, and from a low altitude, at Coventry in 1932.
The Cant seaplane which recently obtained eight world's records and has been built for Atlantic mail-carrying.
The latest version of the Lorraine Sterna with extension shaft and oppositely rotating airscrews. This combination has been fitted in the Koolhoven F.K.55 fighter.
AMERICA’S BIGGEST: The Boeing 314, seen here alighting on Lake Washington, Seattle, after a test flight, has now completed its manufacturer’s trials. This particular machine is the first of six being built for Pan-American Airways.
The business end of the Douglas D.C.4 monoplane, which has the largest tricycle undercarriage in the world.
SIMPLIFICATION: In Australia it is usual for the airline companies to put up their own airport buildings. This is a somewhat unique example of such a building at Mildura airport, with two of Ansett Airways’ Lockheeds beside it. The position of this little Ansett building, away from the aerodrome boundary, should simplify the work of loading and unloading.
The vast area of the Fowler type of flap is admirably shown in this photograph of a Lockheed 14 coming in to land.
Two-control in practice. Inside the cabin of the Stearman-Hammond, in which the wheel is used for steering both on the ground and in the air, through the medium, respectively, of the nose wheel and the ailerons. The machine has no movable rudders.
The large lever extending from the floor boards operates the flaps - a pedal providing an additional 20 degrees of movement for gliding angle and/or speed adjustment. The little crank on the control column provides the fore and aft trim adjustment and this column may be swung over for right-seat flying.
The Aeronca Chief in the air at the start of its trans-continental non-stop flight.
A tubular single spar was used in a Blackburn commercial monoplane designed by the late Mr. Duncanson. The compression side of the tube was reinforced by corrugated strips, and the spar also acted as a fuel tank.
A view showing the layout of Fokker’s new D.23 single-seater twin-engined fighter, powered with two Walter Sagitta inverted vees.
The unorthodox Fokker D.23 single-seater fighter has unusual ammunition feed arrangements for its Browning guns, designed to economise space.
The cooling air for the rear Walter Sagitta on the Fokker D.23 is admitted through this scoop.
The nose wheel of the Fokker D.23 tricycle undercarriage showing that when retracted it occupies a good deal of fuselage space.
A neat stabiliser on the tricycle under­carriage leg of the Fokker D.23, to check wheel shimmy
ARMAMENT IN PARIS: The retractable gun and bomb-aiming position on the P.Z.L. single-engined general-purpose machine.
Prof. Hill with the Westland-Hill Pterodactyl Mark V - the last of the series of tailless types designed by him and intended in this case as a two-seater fighter. Earlier examples were in the light category.
The mock-up of the S.E.200 transatlantic leviathan is devouring an endless stream of visitors.
TANDEM SESQUIPLANE is perhaps the best description of this projected French Payen Flechair single-seater fighter, which will have two 100 h.p. Salmson engines driving concentric airscrews. There is one main landing wheel under the fuselage and auxiliary skids at the tips of the "tailplane." The maximum speed at sea level on only 200 h.p. is estimated to be 285 m.p.h. and the landing speed 50 m.p.h.
The graceful Belgian S.A.B.C.A. monoplane which is designed primarily as a two-seater fighter but which can also function as a fast observation or light bombing type.
The outstandingly neat undercarriage on the S. A.B.C.A. two-seater fighter turns through 90 deg. during retraction.
The Supermarine Scapa hull provides an example of continuous stringers and notched frames. The stringers are of vee-section.
The business end of the Hanriot N.C. 510 P.3 avion de travaille. View for observation is considered so important that there is a special compartment below the fuselage
A close-up of the observer’s compartment below the fuselage of the general-purpose twin-engined Hanriot, the French designation of which is avion de travaille.
The mid-wing Delanne sailplane over the practical-looking side-by-side two-seater Tipsy.
AERODYNAMIC ACCOMMODATION: The first of the new British Burnellis emerges from the Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft shops at Southampton for test flights. Bristol Perseus XIVC sleeve-valve engines, giving 900 h.p. each for take-off, are fitted. Among the new features is the control-cabin superstructure, which gives a good view abeam.
This view, secured on the occasion of the new transport’s first “airing,” gives an idea of the proportions and size.
This three-quarter rear view of the new Cunliffe-Owen transport shows the shape of the tail booms.
The nacelles of the Bristol Perseus XIVC sleeve-valve engines are located at the front corners of the central wing portion or fuselage.
The cockpit (in a not-quite completed state), showing the way in which the controls are taken from the sides instead of the floor.
The general layout and accommodation of the new Cunliffe-Owen may be visualised from this specially prepared Flight drawing. The installation of the Bristol Perseus sleeve-valve engines is also evident.
CUNLIFFE-OWEN TRANSPORT (Two Bristol Perseus XIVC)
STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE CUNLIFFE-OWEN TRANSPORT.