Westland Wyvern
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1946

Одноместный палубный ударный самолет
Westland Wyvern
   Последним боевым самолетом, серийно выпускавшимся компанией «Westland», стал W34 - одноместный палубный ударный самолет, создание которого осложнялось выбором нового 24-цилиндрового двигателя Rolls-Royce Eagle с гильзовым распределением, разработанный под требования N.11/44 британских ВМС. Причем планер самолета должен был допускать простую и быструю замену этого двигателя на турбовинтовой - как только представится возможность.
   Первый из шести прототипов Wyvern был облетан 12 декабря 1946 года, за ним последовали 10 предсерийных Wyvern TF.Mk 1 с двигателем Eagle. Данный мотор имел много проблем, поэтому доводочные летные испытания затянулись настолько, что еще до того, как было принято решение о серийном выпуске этих самолетов, стала возможной установка на них уже турбовинтовых двигателей.
   В итоге выбор пал на двигатель Armstrong Siddeley Python - им решили оснастить 20 предсерийных Wyvern TF.Mk 2, 13 из которых поступили к заказчику именно под таким обозначением, остальные же были построены как серийные Wyvern TF.Mk 4 (позднее Wyvern S.Mk 4). Аналогичный двигатель был использован на 90 серийных S.Mk 4, первый из которых поступил на вооружение в мае 1953 года - примерно через шесть с половиной лет после первого полета прототипа. Самолет позже поступил на вооружение 827-й, 830-й и 831-й эскадрилий.
   830-я эскадрилья стала единственной, использовавшей самолет Wyvern в боевых действиях - во время Суэцкого кризиса. Самолет оставался на вооружении до марта 1958 года, когда была расформирована 813-я эскадрилья.


   Westland Wyvern S.Mk 4

   Тип: одноместный палубный ударный самолет
   Силовая установка: один ТВД Armstrong Siddeley Python ASP.3 мощностью 4110 л. с. (3065 кВт)
   Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 708 км/ч; дальность 1448 км
   Масса: макс. взлетная 11113 кг
   Размеры: размах крыла 13,41 м; длина 12,88 м; высота 4,80 м; площадь крыла 32,987 м2
   Вооружение: четыре 20-мм пушки, плюс возможность нести одну 508-мм торпеду, либо бомбы, либо мины, либо глубинные бомбы под фюзеляжем, и 16 реактивных снарядов массой по 26,7 кг под крылом
Westland Wyvern S.Mk 4 из 830-й эскадрильи авиации ВМС летали с британского авианосца "Игл". Они наносили штурмовые удары по прибрежным целям, в том числе казармам между Эль-Гамилем и Порт-Саидом и по аэродрому Дехейла. При атаке автодорожного моста Дамиетта один самолет был сбит зенитным огнем, летчика спас дежуривший на "Игл" вертолет Whirlwind HAS.Mk 3.
Westland Wyvern S.4 WN328 of 830 Squadron, HMS ‘Eagle’ (hence fin-code ‘J’). Abandoned following damage from light anti-aircraft fire during a raid on the Coast Guard Station near Gamil airfield, November 5, 1956. Pilot, Lt Cdr Bill Cowling ejected successfully and was rescued by helicopter. Aircraft was coded ‘371’ but this was obliterated by the application of ‘Suez stripes’ to the rear fuselage. Spinner and finlets were painted maroon. Note that the finlet does not appear to carry the diagonal yellow stripe (or stripes) usually carried. (This maroon and yellow was called ‘custard and prunes (or plums)’ by squadron personnel.
Sole surviving W.34 Wyvern TF.1 VR137 is exhibited at the Fleet Air Arm Museum Yeovilton, Somerset. Seven Rolls-Royce Eagle 22 piston-engined TF.1s were built and all but VR137 flew. Sold to the College of Aeronautics at Cranfield in November 1950, it was used extensively for ground vibration tests and airframe system demonstrations before ultimately passing on to the FAAM.
TS371 - первый прототип W.34/TF.Mk 1. Его собрали в Йовиле в октябре 1946 года. Прототип потерпел катастрофу 15 октября 1947 года. На прототипах стояли моторы Eagle, самые мощные и последние поршневые авиадвигатели компании "Rolls-Royce". Впервые в Великобритании моторы были снабжены восьмилопастными соосными винтами противоположного вращения.
The ultimate piston engine from Rolls-Royce, the Eagle, powered the Wyvern but was overtaken by gas turbine development.
Prototype W.34 Wyvern TS371 first flew on December 23, 1946, powered by a Rolls-Royce Eagle 22 piston engine. Note that it lacks a wing-folding mechanism, cannon armament and ‘sting’ type arrester hook. It is seen here during its fatal last flight on October 15, 1947 in the hands of Peter Gamer - failure of the pitch translation bearing resulted in the airscrew stopping and the aircraft was burnt out in the ensuing unsuccessful wheels-up, dead-stick landing near Yeovil.
The first prototype Wyvern TF. Mk 1, TS271, powered by a 2,690 h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle piston engine, seen here in the hands of Sqn Ldr P. J. Garner on a flight from Yeovil on Wednesday, October 15, 1947. During this sortie the propeller stopped owing to failure of the pitch translation bearing and Garner was killed whilst attempting a forced landing.
This photo of TS375 from the rear highlights the Youngman flaps, seen extended in the “cruise” setting. This type of flap had proved itself on the wartime Fairey Barracuda and Firefly, acting as a slotted flap for take-off and landing or as an auxiliary aerofoil to increase wing area and efficiency to extend endurance in cruising flight.
The second prototype Wyvern, TS375, first flew on September 10, 1947. It was originally used for aerodynamic and handling tests.
With a strap placed around its rear fuselage. TS375 is prepared for a tethered engine test run. Only a few early test Eagles had been built before 15 examples of the 3,500 h.p. Eagle 22 were produced by Rolls-Royce, largely for the Wyvern test programme. The prominent gills in the forward part of the cowling are the outlets for hot air passing over the intercoolers, which were arranged in a semi-annular fashion around the reduction gear.
The second Westland Wyvern prototype, TS375, has its Rolls-Royce Eagle sleeve-valve engine run up at RNAS Merry field, a satellite of RNAS Yeovilton, around the time of its first flight in September 1947. The noise from the massive powerplant and its eight-bladed contra-rotating propeller must have been deafening, and at least two of the bystanders are, quite sensibly, covering their ears!
The test crew assembles for the tethered engine run, and the Wyvern is fuelled from a small Brockhouse-type bowser. The battery trolley has also been plugged in. Note the square carburettor intake under the nose, wedged between the annular intercooler intakes, and the staining along the forward fuselage from the exhaust.
Seen here from the front in “clean” configuration, with flaps retracted, TS375 did not have folding wings or any armament fitted; the first two prototypes were purely aerodynamic and systems test vehicles. The first prototype, TS371, was lost in a fatal crash little more than a month after TS375 first flew.
As Westland’s factory at Yeovil was not suitable for the Wyvern’s early test flights, much of its development flying was undertaken from Merryfield. Here we see TS375 in front of a T2 hangar, with engineers working on the complex Rotol propeller. Only the rear blades are yet in place; the apparatus to lift the front blade unit into place may be seen to the left.
A different Wyvern and possibly a different location - the aircraft is probably the third or fourth of the original six prototypes. Of the Eagle-powered machines, only TS378 and TS380 appear to have worn the post-war Admiralty colour scheme of Extra Dark Sea Grey over Sky as seen here in this group shot. The location is hard to establish, although it may be Merry field or even Rolls-Royce’s aerodrome at Hucknall. The gentleman in the white shirt and spectacles is believed to be Dennis Edkins, Wyvern designer Teddy Petter’s assistant.
Один из семи предсерийных Wyvern TF.Mk 1 с подвешенной под фюзеляжем 46-см торпедой. Все TF.Mk 1 были оснащены моторами Eagle.
Westland Wyvern TF.1 VR137.
Of four TF.2 prototypes ordered to Specification N.12/45, only VP120 was powered by a R-R Clyde turboprop, the others were fitted with AS Pythons. First flown on January 18,1949, it was delivered to Rolls-Royce at Hucknall on July 4, 1949 for trials and latterly went to RAE Farnborough on September 11, 1950 for crash barrier trials until being struck-off-charge in February 1951. It is seen here undergoing an engine test.
VP113, the second prototype T.F.2, was lost on October 31, 1949, when it overshot into council houses at Yeovil after engine failure, killing Sqn Ldr M. Graves.
Wyvern T.F.2 VW867, which replaced VP113 in the test programme, first flew on February 16, 1950. It survived until it was broken up at Yeovil in 1955.
"Вайверн" TF.2
First production Wyvern TF.2 VW867, wearing prototype markings, seen fully ‘bombed-up' with centreline torpedo and underwing rockets en route to the SBAC show at Farnborough in September 1950. First flown on February 16,1950, VW867 replaced second prototype TF.2 VP113 in the test programme. Used by the A&AEE Boscombe Down for deck landing trials and also by Westland and Armstrong-Siddeley at Bitteswell, it was eventually broken-up at Yeovil in 1955.
This view of a TF.2 clearly illustrates the Wyvern’s outer wing and tailplane dihedral and eight-bladed propeller.
Westland «Wyvern»
Носовая часть и капот на TF.Mk 2 были переделаны под установку ТВД Armstrong Siddeley Python, так как он был значительно больше двигателя Clyde. Мотор Clyde работал на шестилопастный соосный винт, а Python - на восьмилопастный.
This study of Wyvern T.F.2 VP109 was taken at Yeovil in May 1950. This aircraft featured a tailplane with 10° dihedral and first flew on March 22, 1949, from Merryfield. It suffered engine failure and crashed into a Farnborough hangar on April 24, 1952.
TF.4 / S.4
Wyvern S.4 VW870 was a converted T.F.2, and is seen at the SBAC Show, Farnborough, in September 1951 with torpedo, auxiliary tanks and fences inboard of the ailerons.
The Westland Wyvern TF 4 seen here was the only production turboprop fighter to be built, not just in Britain, but the world. It was an ill-starred venture from the beginning. However, before reviewing the Wyvern and its closest US contemporary, the need for a turboprop front-line combat aircraft in the post-World War II jet era, must be considered. The turboprop engine may have had its limitations in terms of out-and-out speed as the propeller tips encountered compressibility shock, but it was lightweight and powerful. This aspect of the turboprop had been grasped by would-be engine producers by the early 1940s, some time before the first flight-worthy units existed. One particular design approach that found favour first in the US, was to couple two turboprops together to drive contra-rotating propellers through a combining gearbox. This type of turboprop had particular appeal to naval forces, who saw the advantages of eliminating take-off torque reaction from a confined flight deck as a marvellous plus point. As a bonus, they could shut down one of the units in cruise flight to economise on fuel. In Britain, the Royal Navy already had Westland developing the Wyvern by the end of World War II, albeit in piston engined form, using the Rolls-Royce Eagle. What could be simpler than changing engine from piston to turboprop? As it turned out, the desk-bound naval warrior's 'chop and change' approach failed, with the usual British procurement vacillations complicating more fundamental problems concerning the development of the generic turboprop, and deadlines were not met. The first turbo-proppowered Wyvern, the TF 2, took to the air on 18 January 1949, this with the 4.030eshp Rolls-Royce Cyde. Even before this flight, it had long been decided to put the Wyvern into production, as the TF 4, using the 4,110eshp Armstrong Siddeley Python. First flown with the Python on 22 March 1949, the TF 4 was reluctantly given its restricted service release over four years later, in May 1953. Incidentally, the intervening and protracted development programme that was predominantly propulsion-centred, was strewn with fatal crashes. Propulsion troubles continued to plague the Wyvern to the end, most flying from shore prior to an early service withdrawal in March 1958.
Wyvern стал последним самолетом компании «Westland». На фотографии периода 1955-1956 годов изображен Wyvern S.Mk 4 из 830-й эскадрильи, а буквенный код «J» означает принадлежность к авиагруппе авианосца «Игл».
VZ761 shows off the auxiliary vertical surfaces on the tailplanes which became a feature of the S.4.
Wyvern S.4s of 813 Squadron at RNAS Ford in 1955 with wings folded and engines running. The nearest aircraft is VZ793/’126/J’. Note the coloured tailplane finlets, which were dark blue with a single white diagonal stripe on the majority of aircraft, although the senior pilot’s aircraft carried two stripes and the CO’s had three.
S.Mk 4 с кодировкой "J" из авиагруппы авианосца "Игл". На самолетах подвешены дополнительные баки, а под плоскостями установлены направляющие для ракет. Wyvern принадлежат 813-й эскадрилье, законцовки килей окрашены в голубой и белый цвета.
Wyvern S.4 WN334 was flying with 831 Sqn based at Ford when photographed on February 22, 1956, with 16 25lb rockets underwing. In June 1957 WN334 underwent trials with the US Navy at Patuxent River.
Вестланд "Уайверн"
Vortices stream off the wingtips of a Wyvern S.4 of 830 Squadron, photographed in 1956. The aircraft is believed to be WN336/‘372/J’ which was later burnt-out in a hangar fire aboard HMS Eagle on November 18, 1956 when a Sea Venom inadvertently fired its 20mm cannon, hitting WN336's drop tank and starting a fire. Two days later the wreck was pushed off the bows of the carrier and committed to the deep.
During development the Wyvern killed three test pilots, Penrose almost became the fourth to succumb to this potentially lethal beast.
The second aircraft from the front in this formation of S.4s from Ford-based 813 Squadron, taken in September 1953, is VZ762. The nearest aircraft is VZ761.
S.Mk 4 из 813-й эскадрильи в полете строем, 1953 год. В этой эскадрилье Wyvern в августе 1953 года заменили самолеты Firebrand. Годом позже Wyvern на авианосце "Альбион" убыли в Средиземное море.
Flight of four Wyverns from 830 Squadron, with codes on the rear fuselage - they moved to the nose following the Suez campaign. Spinners and finlets were maroon with yellow striping, fin-code 'J' denoting HMS ‘Eagle’.
Wyvern S.4 VZ758/‘188’ heads a formation of 813 Squadron examples from RNAS Ford in 1953, shortly after the unit re-equipped with the type, replacing its earlier Blackburn Firebrand TF.5s.
One of the few photographs ever published showing a Wyvern Mk.4 equipped with wingtip tanks.
An 813 Sqn Westland Wyvern lands on HMS Eagle in June 1955, Sea Hawks can be seen parked forward of the carrier's island. No 813 Sqn operated Wyvern S.4s from May 1953 until November 1955 and again from November 1956 to April 1958.
Wyvern на авианосце. На верхнюю палубу Wyvern поднимали самолетоподъемником. Перед взлетом самолет крепили к катапульте.
An 813 Squadron Wyvern, on take-off from HSm ‘Eagle’ in 1957, Gannet ready to go behind. The Wyvern coded ‘276’ with fin-code ‘J’ (denoting ‘Eagle’) with the unit’s white spinner
Wyvern S.4 VZ749/‘272/E’ of 813 Squadron on board HMS Eagle around 1956/7. Initially retained by Westland and then used for trials by Rotol, the aircraft joined 813 Squadron on November 28, 1956, and remained with the unit until April 18, 1958 when it was flown to AHU Lossiemouth for storage and subsequently struck-off-charge on September 23, 1959 and scrapped.
Deck operations on the ‘Eagle’ during ‘Musketeer’. In the foreground is WP337 ‘378’ with WL888 ‘374’ to the left.
Wyvern на авианосце. До запуска катапульты двигатель выводился на режим полного газа, затем срабатывала паровая катапульта.
S.4 VZ790 of 813 Squadron, armed with 25lb underwing rockets, leaves the deck of HMS Eagle in late October/early November 1957. Note the catapult strop falling away beneath the main wheels. VZ790 was struck off charge on September 23, 1959.
Посадка "Вайверна" на авианосец "Игл". Начало октября 1956г.
Wyvern S.Mk 4 VZ79? picks up an arrester wire on HMS Eagle at Spithead, in May 1955. Note generous flap area, rocket rails and drop tanks.
Wyvern S.Mk 4 с красным коком и эмблемой 827-й эскадрильи на борту фюзеляжа складывает крыло и законцовки, авианосец "Игл", лето 1955 года.
Early morning strike of Wyverns, seen from the flight deck of HMS Eagle during Exercise Sea Enterprise in October 1955. A tanker can be seen astern of the carrier.
A view of the rear of ‘Eagle’s’ flight deck, 1957, showing escorts in rough weather. The Wyvern in the foreground is almost certainly VZ765, which served with 813 Squadron from November 1956, until written off in a landing accident on ‘Eagle’ on March 25,1958 and ‘sent over the side’ after spares recovery
HMS ‘Eagle’ with ‘Bulwark’ and ‘Albion’ behind. On the deck, bow to stern, are Sea Venoms, Sea Hawks, Wyverns, a Dragonfly helicopter and an Avenger
A fine photograph of HMS Eagle, taken in July 1955, with Wyverns ranged during flying duties.
Westland Wyvern carrying 16 rockets and a torpedo.
VZ762 is the farthest machine in the production line picture, taken at Yeovil in March 1952.
Единственный двухместный тренировочный T.Mk 3 заказали одновременно с TF.Mk 2. В кабине инструктора был установлен перископ. Самолет оставался собственностью "Westland" и разбился в ноябре 1950 года.
Photographed in January 1950, the one and only Wyvern trainer, T.3 VZ739, first flew on February 11 the same year and was retained by Westland for trials, becoming the station hack when orders were not forthcoming.
The one and only Wyvern trainer, to Spec T.12/48, was the T.Mk 3 VZ739. Photographed in January 1950, it first flew on February 11 the same year. It became a station “hack” when orders were not forthcoming.
Hood jettisoned, the props stopped, Lt Cdr Bill Cowling gets ready to pull the blind and eject from WN328 following a flak hit while bombing the Coast Guard Barracks near Gamil airfield on November 5, 1956. He was eventually picked up by a 'Whirlwind' from the ‘Eagle’.
TF.2 VW867 crashed at Merryfield on January 8, 1952 due to asymmetric flap operation. Flown by Harald Penrose, the aircraft rolled inverted before it was crash landed. Damage was, however, relatively minor and it was subsequently repaired.
Skeletons in the cup­board include (left to right):
Westland W.34 Wyvern TF. Mk. 1 (VR133), one of the ten production models of the piston-engined Wyvern. The eight-blade Rotol contraprop was driven by a 2,690-h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle, with twenty-four cylinders arranged in H-fashion. (Silver overall.) Blackburn B.54 (YA-5), the first prototype (WB781) of this two-seater, powered by a Rolls-Royce Griffon engine driving contra-rotating propellers, flew for the first time on 20th September 1949. The second prototype (WB788), also carrying the type number B.54, was a three-seater and was designated YA-7. It was an interim test vehicle de­signed to the Fairey Gannet Naval Specification GR.17/45. Experience was gained with this machine, powered by a Rolls-Royce Griffon, and paved the way to the turboprop-powered (2,950-e.h.p. Armstrong Siddeley Double Mamba A.S. MD.l) three-seater YB-1 (WB797) which flew for the first time on 19th July 1950. Type number was B.88. (Dark sea-grey top, duck-egg blue undersides.)
Fieseler Fi 156K Storch (VX154), foreground. Tattered fuselage only. Mainplanes on the grass. (Time-ravaged brown and green camouflage.)
De Havilland D.H.112 Sea Venom F(AW) Mk. 20 (WK379). Tail boom of the second prototype showing the revised fin and rudder shape. Port wing panel on the grass. (Dark sea-grey top, duck-egg blue undersides.)
Conceived in 1944 as a long-range naval fighter, the prototype Wyvern first flew on December 16, 1946, with Harald Penrose in the cockpit. On January 18. 1949, the first turboprop-powered Wyvern T.F.2, powered by the Rolls-Royce Clyde, took to the air, followed on March 22 by the first Armstrong Siddeley Python-engined aircraft. The Python became the standard powerplant for the Wyvern, and after protracted development flying, the Fleet Air Arm took delivery of its first aircraft in 1935. The final service variant was the T.Mk.4 (later S.Mk.4), which began carrier operations late in 1954 and served as a front-line strike fighter until 1958, seeing action with 850 Squadron during the Suez crisis in November 1956.
Westland Wyvern S.4
Three-view drawing of the Westland W.35 Wyvern S.4.
Westland Wyvern S.4.