Дневной бомбардировщик Hart, поступивший на вооружение 33-й эскадрильи Королевских британских ВВС в Истчерче в январе 1930 года, был разработан в ответ на техническое задание Министерства авиации 12/26. Задание требовало создать бомбардировщик, способный
развивать невиданную до тех пор скорость - 257 км/ч. Но это требование было превышено разработчиками, установившими на обтекаемый планер мощный V-образный двигатель Rolls-Royce F.XIB (позднее Kestrel). Прототип совершил первый полет в июне 1928 года.
Дебют Hart Mk I в строевых частях создал большие проблемы Министерству авиации - оказалось, что новая машина значительно превосходит по скорости не только имевшиеся на вооружении бомбардировщики (зачастую на 124 км/ч), но и все истребители ВВС. Среди множества задач, которые приходилось решать Hart, значится и временное использование его в качестве истребителя в 23-й эскадрилье.
Конечно в ВВС не могли смириться с таким положением вещей, и это дало толчок для разработки истребителей с более высокими характеристиками. Опыт эксплуатации Hart и Hart Fighter в эскадрилье 23(F) позволил усовершенствовать машину и разработать истребительный вариант - Demon. Во всех смыслах Hart оказался очень удачной машиной. Его и самолетов, созданных на его базе, было построено в Британии больше, чем самолетов всех других типов между двумя мировыми войнами. Помимо стандартных дневных бомбардировщиков Hart выпустили шесть Hart Fighter, 507 самолетов Hart Trainer со сдвоенным управлением и некоторое количество невооруженных связных Hart Communications для 24-й эскадрильи, а также тропические варианты, известные как Hart (India) и Hart (Special). Когда в 1936 году в боевых частях началась замена самолетов Hart на Hind, Министерство авиации разрешило передать часть машин южноафриканским ВВС (поставки начались в конце 1936 года). Эстония в конце 1932 года получила восемь Hart, оснащенных сменным колесным/поплавковым шасси. Швеция также выбрала Hart, получив четыре самолета в 1934 году, а затем построив еще 42 по лицензии на Государственном авиационном заводе. Эти машины, построенные в 1935-1936 годах, были оснащены лицензионным вариантом радиального двигателя Bristol Pegasus.
Hart также интенсивно использовался в качестве летающей лаборатории для отработки двигателей, и помимо стандартных Kestrel IB ил XDR, самолет летал с такими моторами, как Rolls-Royce Kestrel IS, IIB, IIS, IIIMS, V, VIS, XFP, XVI, RV.2 и Merlin C и E; Armstrong Siddeley Panther; Bristol Jupiter, Pegasus, Perseus и Mercury; Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs; Lorraine Petrel Hfrs; Napier Dagger.
Суммарное количество построенных самолетов, включая выпущенные по лицензии в Швеции, превысило 1000 экземпляров. Бомбардировщики Hart Mk I были выведены из состава боевых эскадрилий в Британии к 1938 году, но к началу Второй мировой войны они продолжали служить на Ближнем Востоке, пока их не заменили более современными машинами Blenheim. На службе южноафриканских ВВС Hart Mk I использовались в качестве связных до 1943 года.
Hawker Hart Mk I
Тип: двухместный дневной бомбардировщик
Силовая установка: один V-образный рядный двигатель Rolls-Royce Kestrel IB мощностью 525 л. с. (391 кВт) или Kestrel XDR мощностью 510 л. с. (380 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 1525 м - 296 км/ч; время набора высоты 3050 м - 8 мин 20 с; потолок 6510 м; дальность полета 756 км
Масса: пустого 1148 кг; максимальная взлетная 2066 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 11,35 м; длина 8,94 м; высота 3,17 м; площадь крыльев 32,33 м2
Вооружение: один 7,7-мм пулемет Vickers Mk II или Mk III по левому борту носовой части фюзеляжа и один 7,7-мм пулемет Lewis на турели в задней кабине; до 263 кг боевой нагрузки на трех узлах подвески под крылом
Flight, June 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
THE H. G. HAWKER ENGINEERING CO., LTD.
OF the three complete aircraft to be exhibited on the Hawker stand one will be the "Tomtit" two-seater training machine, while the other two will be a "Hart" day-bomber and a "Hornet" single-seater interception fighter, respectively. Air Ministry restrictions prevent a very detailed reference to the two military types, particularly the "Hornet."
The Hawker "Hart" with Rolls-Royce "F"-type engine is a high-speed day bomber, which may also be employed as a Fleet fighter reconnaissance machine. If desired the "Hart" can be put on a float undercarriage and used as a seaplane. The machine is of all-metal construction, and aerodynamically is of very "clean" design, a fact which is reflected in the performance figures. The "Hart" may be fitted with Rolls-Royce F.XI B or F.XI S engine, according to whether it is required to operate at great heights or only at medium heights. With the F.XI B engine the full speed at low altitudes is 184 m.p.h., and at 10,000 ft. 172 m.p.h. The climb to 10,000 ft. occupies 8 mins. If the supercharged Rolls-Royce F.XI S is fitted the full speed at 10,000 ft. becomes 187 m.p.h. and the climb to 10,000 ft. occupies but 7 1/2 mins. This performance refers to the "Hart" as a bomber, and to an all-up weight of 4,320 lbs.
Flight, November 1932
British Aircraft at the Paris Aero Show
The Hawker Exhibits
THE H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., Ltd., will exhibit a "Hart" (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel"), and specimens of Hawker metal construction.
The particular ''Hart” to be shown will be one which has been in service with a British Royal Air Force squadron for a considerable period, and visitors to the show will thus be able to convince themselves that the very simple and light form of construction used by the Hawker firm does not, as some might suppose, give rise to any maintenance trouble during subsequent service. The success in service, particularly from the point of view of maintenance, ease of inspection, and facilities for executing emergency repairs, is a result of simplicity and the use of uncommon quantities of common sense in the design. Put quite briefly, it may be said that what has been done in the Hawker type of construction (which, incidentally, owes much of its extraordinary simplicity to Mr. Fred Sigrist, one of the managing directors of the firm) is to make a very special study of details which occur a large number of times in the machine. By reducing the size and weight of such details to an absolute minimum a great deal of weight has been saved, which can, and is, then utilised in making other parts sturdier than one could otherwise afford to have them.
The "Hart" to be shown at Paris was flown over to Le Bourget early this week by Mr. P. W. S. Bulman, the Hawker firm's chief test pilot, and at the end of the aero show the machine will be transported back to Le Bourget and flown home to England.
In addition to the "Hart," there will be on the Hawker stand a skeleton fuselage, which will exhibit not only the typical Hawker form of construction, but which will also attract the very widest attention for another reason which visitors to the show will discover for themselves. The actual fuselage, incidentally, will be for an "Osprey" two-seater.
Samples of Hawker wing spars, ribs, and detail fittings will also be shown, and altogether one may expect that the Hawker stand will be crowded on most of the days during which the exhibition is open.
Flight, November 1932
The H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., Ltd.
DURING the war period the name Sopwith became a household word. Sopwith machines in enormous numbers, and covering a great variety of types, were in use in many theatres of war. After the war the old Sopwith firm ceased to exist, and out of it grew the present H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., Ltd., which, under the joint managing directorship of Mr. T. O. M. Sopwith and F. Sigrist, has worthily upheld the splendid traditions of the old Sopwith Company.
The next type to be produced by the Hawker firm was the two-seater "Hart," a high-performance day bomber, also fitted with the Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine. The same clean design as characterised the "Fury" was found in the "Hart," and it was not long before that also was adopted in considerable numbers, and for various purposes.
As there appears to exist a good deal of confusion concerning the various Hawker types, it may be of assistance if we outline briefly the purposes for which the various types are used.
In the two-seater class we may begin with the "Hart," which in what may be termed its standard form is a day bomber. As a two-seater fighter the "Hart" is known as the "Demon," and when the "Hart" is equipped for Army co-operation it is known as the "Audax."
The "Osprey," although generally similar to the "Hart," is regarded as a distinct type, and is a fleet fighter reconnaissance machine, and can thus be regarded as the "opposite number" in the two-seater class of the "Nimrod."
Flight, June 1934
NEW AND EXPERIMENTAL
A standard machine, except for the engine installation, this "Hart" is, nevertheless, interesting on account of being fitted with the new Napier "Dagger" engine. The high power and small frontal area of this engine combine to give the machine an excellent performance, and visitors to Hendon are advised to watch its flying carefully. The wing span is 37 ft. 3 in.
The Hawker "Hart" has been very extensively used by the R.A.F., and in sub-types it exists in various forms. Machine No. 6 is chiefly of interest because it is fitted with the Bristol 665-h.p. "Pegasus" III M engine, instead of the Rolls-Royce "Kestrel," which forms its standard power plant.
Flight, December 1934
A MODERN DAY BOMBER
The “Hart" with 660 h.p. "Pegasus" IV Supercharged Engine: a top Speed of 197 m.p.h. with Full War Load
FEW military aeroplanes have met with such unqualified success as that enjoyed by the Hawker "Hart'' two-seater. This aircraft first came into public notice during 1929 as one of the most promising of a number of high-performance Service machines designed to use the Rolls Royce "F" engine, or "Kestrel" as it was named subsequently. Fitted with the 480 h.p. "Kestrel" I.B. unsupercharged engine, the "Hart" was adopted by the Royal Air Force as a high-speed day bomber. Soon it became obvious that the machine's performance and handling qualities were such that it was fitted to perform a multitude of duties apart from day bombing, and accordingly it was developed into the "Osprey" Fleet Fighter Reconnaissance aircraft with "Kestrel" II MS, "Demon" two-seater fighter with "Kestrel" II S, "Audax" Army Co-operation machine, "Hart" (Communication), "Hart Trainer" and "Hardy" general purpose type - all four with "Kestrel" IB - and "Hind" high-altitude day bomber equipped with the new fully supercharged "Kestrel" V of 600 h.p., for which version a sensational performance is claimed.
Following on the official adoption of the "Hart," and the proof, in service, of its qualities of performance and easy maintenance, a number of countries became interested in the type and its variations which, subsequently, were ordered in considerable numbers. Certain of these countries for various reasons, climatic and industrial, requested an air-cooled engine as the power plant of the machine, and, accordingly, the Bristol "Jupiter" and "Pegasus" radials were fitted, and gave eminently satisfactory results.
Early in 1934 a "Hart" was loaned by the Air Ministry and fitted with the 690 h.p. "Pegasus" III moderately supercharged engine - the first of the "Pegasus" family designed to operate on the new Service fuel of 87 minimum octane value. The latest pattern combined exhaust collector and cowling ring was fitted. Flight trials at Filton aerodrome were outstandingly good, and the results of official tests at Martlesham Heath, which were made later, credited the machine with a top speed of 185.5 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft., which height was reached in five minutes four seconds with full war load. This excellent combination of aircraft and engine made its first public appearance in the New and Experimental Types Park at the Royal Air Force Display this year and was demonstrated at the S.B.A.C. Display a few days later. Loaded to a weight of 4,635 lb. the machine took off in 110 yards and had a service ceiling of 26,000 ft. The impressive take-off may be attributed to the high power given by the "Pegasus” III for take off, which is over 770 h.p.
Following on the successful tests of the "Pegasus" III version, a fully supercharged "Pegasus" IV engine normally rated at 660 h.p. at 11,500 ft. was installed. As was confidently expected, a very gratifying increase in performance was obtained, Martlesham figures showing that the "Hart" with this engine was capable of a speed of 197 m.p.h. at 13,400 ft. and a full load climb to 15,000 ft. in seven minutes eighteen seconds. The all up weight was the same as that of the "Pegasus" III engined version, the take off run being 134 yards and the service ceiling 29,800 ft.
These most excellent results were obtained, not in a "stripped" condition, but with the machine carrying full military load, including Vickers and Lewis guns, ammunition, two 250 lb. bombs slung beneath the wings, and fourteen gallons of fuel over and above that demanded by the standard specification.
The Hart prototype, J9052, made its first flight in June 1928 at Brooklands; part of the embanked motor-racing track can be seen behind the tail.
J9052 was later given folding wings to meet Naval Specification O.22/26
Wartime shot of Hawker's Hart G-ABMR in use as a ferry and photographic aircraft - John Yoxall in rear cockpit
Following the speeches at the ceremony PZ865 was prepared for a short flying display in the hands of Bulman. The celebrations continued with displays by several other Hawker types retained by the company, including Tempest V EJ592 (flown by Bill Humble) and Hart II G-ABMR, now on display at RAF Museum Hendon.
The Hawker "Hart" with Rolls-Royce "F" type engine. This machine has been fitted with steam cooling. Note the condensers along the leading edges of the upper and lower planes.
Fl.-Lt. P. W. S. Bulman flying the Hawker "Hart" at Brooklands "India Demonstration."
THE HAWKER "HART": The machine to be exhibited in Paris is one which has been in service for a long period with an R.A.F. Squadron.
Благодаря великолепным качествам самолетов конструкции Кэмма, двухместному Hart и Fury, парк британских ВВС на 84% состоял из самолетов фирмы "Hawker". На фотографии - Hart.
THE HAWKER "HART": This Day Bomber with Rolls-Royce "F" engine is now in use in the Royal Air Force. The machine to be seen at Hendon is of interest in that the engine is steam-cooled.
A RECONNAISSANCE FLEET FIGHTER: Extremely clean lines characterise the Hawker "Hart." Note the careful cowling of the Rolls-Royce "F" type engine and the sheltered position of the rear gunner.
Hawker Hart high-speed day bomber.
The Latest R.A.F. Day Bomber. The Hawker Hart with Rolls Royce F. Engine.
Menzies’ move to the Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment at Martlesham Heath in the spring of 1933 enabled the 27-year-old to get his hands on the most advanced types of the day, including the sleek Hawker Hart light bomber. Hart J9937 spent time at the A&AEE and was probably flown by Menzies while there.
HAWKER "HART" (Rolls-Royce "F").
Hart G-ABMR, Hawker's demonstrator, was restored to airworthy condition and painted in No. 57 Squadron colours after W.W.II. Since donated to the R.A.F. Museum, Hendon, where it now resides
A Hawker Hart (India) of the Indian Air Force flying near Ambala in 1940.
PRACTICE: The Hawker "Harts" of No. 57 in squadron formation on the occasion of the A.A.F. "At Home" last Sunday.
The Hawker Hart two-seat light day bombers of No 57 Squadron were photographed by THE AEROPLANE in the mid-1950s.
Hawker Hart day bomber (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" IB).
A Hawker Hart of No. 603 Squadron over the Lothians in 1934. This particular machine, K3859, carries the "pre-official" squadron badge on its fin
Hart из 603-й эскадрильи "City of Edinburgh" Вспомогательных ВВС пролетает над островом Бэсс-Рок по пути на ежегодный лагерный сбор в Мэнстоне, Кент, в 1934 году.
GREAT STUFF! The Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth, the home of the Solan goose or gannet, is a familiar sight to visitors to the popular resort of North Berwick. This photograph shows one of the "Harts" ("Kestrel") of No. 603 (City of Edinburgh) (Bomber) Squadron flying past the Bass Rock.
Лёгкий бомбардировщик "Харт" стал полноправным наследником легендарного DH-9A, но столь громкой славы этой машине стяжать было не суждено...
The "Hart" light bomber has one fixed gun in front, fired by the pilot who has to aim the whole machine. The rear gun is movable and protects the zone above, that to the rear, except where masked by the tail, and over a wide arc below on each side. There is a blind spot immediately beneath the machine.
Fastest of the R.A.F.'s bombing types, the Hawker "Hart" uses a 525 h.p. unsupercharged water-cooled "Kestrel."
NOT A NIGHT RAIDER: The photograph shows a "Hart" of No. 33 Squadron flying above the clouds.
"OVER THE MOUNTAIN PASSES": Formation flights over ranges of mountains now appear to be a regular routine duty of R.A.F. squadrons in India. Here we see a somewhat awesome aerial view of an imposing mountain range taken from one of the composite flight of five Hawker "Harts" of Nos. Hand 39 (Bomber) Squadrons which flew from Risalpur to Gilgit recently.
INDIA: Nos. 11 and 39 (Bomber) Squadrons &i No. 2 (Indian) Wing from Risalpur regularly fly their "Harts" over the high passes of the Himalayas. They have absolute confidence in their "Kestrel" engines.
A Hart (India), probably K2088, of No 39 Squadron, then based at Risalpur, flying over Gilgit on the North-West Frontier in October 1933
Also operating from Risalpur at the time was No 11 Squadron whose Hart (India) K2104 is shown in the mountains north of Amritsar and equipped with underwing supply panniers
THE MOUNT OF TEMPTATION: The wilderness of Judaea, where once Elijah and John the Baptist lived the lives of hermits, is a grim and folding tract of country. In this picture three Harts pass lightly by the traditional scene of the Temptation, but it is no place for the airman's ideal of "happy landings."
Hawker Hart I K2970 during exercises, probably in 1935.
Harts (India) serving with an F.T.S. at Ambala in 1941. Note yellow-ringed fuselage roundels
Hawker Harts during camera gun practice in 1933.
Now each University Squadron has some Harts in addition to its Tutors. Three Oxford Harts are seen flying along the South Coast.
EMPIRE AIR DAY: A flight of "Harts," from Eastchurch, loaded with 8 1/2 lb. practice bombs, make for the bombing target moored off Leysdown.
CRANWELL: A fine aerial impression of Hawker Harts flying over the R.A.F. Cadet College at Cranwell. In common with that of other R.A.F. centres, the work of the College has been considerably increased by the expansion. Not only are flight cadets turned out as permanent officers, but university candidates for commissions go through a course there.
No 6 Squadron Hans K4483, '4471 and '4469 off the coast of Palestine
Precision bombing by Harts over the Leysdown target (note the bombs near the bottom centre of the picture)
The flight of Hawker "Harts" from No. 605 County of Warwick (Bomber) Squadron, Auxiliary Air Force, which flew in perfect formation from Castle Bromwich.
NO.12 B.S. NOT SO NORMAL: QUERY - LINES ABREAST OR LINES ASTERN?
No. 12 (BOMBER) SQUADRON IN NORMAL SQUADRON FORMATION.
The Hawker "Harts" of No. 15 (Bomber) Squadron at the bottom of their dive across the aerodrome after the Air Drill event, in which they co-operated with Nos. 18 and 57 (B.) Squadrons.
HOLDERS OF THE ESHER TROPHY : Good formation flying by No. 605 (County of Warwick) (Bomber) Squadron, A.A.F.
Immaculate line-abreast vic formation flying by the pilots of No. 3 F.T.S. in their Hart (T) Series 2As; nearest aircraft are K5785, '5040, and ’5047
NO. 33 (BOMBER) SQUADRON FLYING IN "SQUADRON V" FORMATION.
DAY BOMBERS: No. 33 (Bomber) Squadron in Squadron Formation. The Machines are Hawker "Harts" with Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" Engines.
NO. 33 (BOMBER) SQUADRON FLYING IN "SQUADRON FORMATION."
MORE AIR DRILL: Another formation by the "Hart" Wing.
AIR DRILL: Two of the "Hart" Squadrons during their evolutions.
No. 33 Bombing Squadron: Hawker "Harts" (Rolls-Royce engines) in flights abreast.
SOME NEW FORMATIONS WILL BE SEEN AT THIS YEAR'S DISPLAY: THE MACHINES IN THESE ILLUSTRATIONS ARE HAWKER "HARTS" (ROLLS-ROYCE "KESTREL") FLOWN BY NO. 12 (BOMBER) SQUADRON.
AT THE SIGN OF THE WHITE HART: No. 12 (BOMBER) SQUADRON ASSUMES MANY NEW SHAPES.
"WING VEE": Twenty-seven "Harts" beginning their demonstration of air drill.
AIR DRILL: No. 57 (Bomber) Squadron conclude their demonstration of air drill with a flourish of smoke trails past the Royal Enclosure. Nos. 18, 600, and 601 (Bomber) Squadrons also took part in this event.
A fine impression of No. 12 Squadron's Hawker "Harts" about to dire through a gap in the clouds shortly before making an attack on London
Harts of No. 15 Squadron rehearsing for the 1935 Hendon Air Pageant. K3960, (foreground), was one of a batch built by Armstrong-Whitworth
No. 57 (Bomber) Squadron at Upper Heyford, flying the "Hart," which is the fastest light bomber in the R.A.F.
Another "atmospheric" formation shot of Harts, provided by No. 57 Squadron
THE DAWN RAID "Harts" of No. 57 (Bomber) Squadron from Upper Heyford off on a raid over Northland
First R.A.F. squadron to receive the Hart, in January 1930, was No. 33 at Eastchurch. K1430 in the foreground has a camera gun mounted on its lower port wing
AS THE WING MAN SEES THEM: A FORMATION OF HAWKER "HARTS," PHOTOGRAPHED FROM THE EXTREME LEFT-HAND MACHINE OF A VEE FORMATION.
SALUTE. A unique photograph taken from a "Hart" of No. 15 (Bomber) Squadron during the fly-past at Duxford last Saturday. The Royal dais is the light structure in front of the central car park.
The photograph illustrate the attack of a flight of "Gauntlets" on a flight of "Harts." In the picture one fighter is seen on the left, coming up behind and below the starboard bomber, while two "Gauntlets," one behind the other, are stalking the port bomber which appears on the right of the picture.
Another view of the attack by the "Gauntlets," which shows still more clearly one fighter tackling the starboard bomber while two approach the port bomber. If their attacks are successful the leading "Hart" will be left alone to deal with all three fighters.
The photograph illustrate the attack of a flight of "Gauntlets" on a flight of "Harts." In the picture is shown the view of the gunner in the port "Hart" as the two fighters approach him. He dare not fire at them for fear of hitting his own fin, but must trust to cross fire from the "Hart" on his starboard side.
Another view from the gunner's cockpit in the port "Hart." Note how the fighter pilots are shielded by their "Mercury" engines.
AS THE REAR GUNNER SEES IT: The Hawker Fleet Fighter with Rolls-Royce F.MS engine photographed from a Hawker "Hart." Mr. Bulman was piloting the "Hart," and the single setter was piloted by Mr. Sayer. Note that the two machines were making a turn, simulating a flight in which the two-seater is endeavouring to prevent the single-seater from getting "on its tail."
This remarkable photograph shows the attack from the fighter's point of view. The head of the fighter pilot is naturally out of focus. He has now got into position in the blind spot below the "Hart" and is about to riddle it with bullets from his two Vickers guns.
The gunner in a "Hart," disregarding a fighter which is under his own tail, is aiming his gun at a "Gauntlet" which is attacking the "Hart" on his left. The bomber formation relies almost entirely upon cross-fire.
Hand-in-hand: The Westland "Wallace" and Hawker "Hart" during the refuelling demonstration. The pipe is just being drawn on board the "Hart."
TURNING HER BACK ON HOME: A HAWKER "HART" (ROLLS ROYCE) "KESTREL" DOING INVERTED FLYING (PILOT MR. SAYER) NEAR BROOKLANDS. THE WHOLE OF THE "BOWL" CAN BE SEEN IN THE PICTURE, WITH THE HANGARS, CLUB HOUSE, MEMBERS' ENCLOSURE, TEST HILL, ETC. ON THE EXTREME RIGHT, AT THE "FORK," MAY BE SEEN THE HOME OF VICKERS, LTD. IT IS RARELY THAT ENGLISH WEATHER PERMITS OF TAKING PICTURES FROM SUCH A HEIGHT.
Low bombing by Harts of No. 18 (B) Sqdn., Bircham Newton.
"Snap-shooting": camera-gun practice with a Hawker Hart as target. Flying kit helps to simulate air conditions.
No.33 (Bomber) Squadron at Eastchurch aerodrome. This unique photograph shows the squadron drawn up by flights with its full establishment of 12 machines. The type of aeroplane is the Hawker "Hart" with Rolls-Royce "F" type engine, and this is the first squadron to be equipped with this type. "B" Flight is in front, "C" Flight in the centre and "A" Flight in the rear. The officer in white overalls in front of the nearest "Hart" of "A" Flight is Sqdn.-Ldr. J.J.Breen.
IN INDIA: A line-up of the "Harts" ("Kestrel") of No. 11 (Bomber) Squadron at Risalpur for inspection by Air Marshal Sir John Steel.
THE HENDON "AT HOME": Hawker "Harts" ("Kestrel") of No. 601 (County of London) (Bomber) Squadron, A.A.F., lined up at Hendon for the "At Home" held there last Sunday.
SERVICE MODES. A group of pilots caught by a Flight camera during a rehearsal at Upper Heyford last Friday for the special formation-flying item at the forthcoming Hendon Display. The squadrons concerned are Nos. 15, 18 and 57, and the machines are "Harts." Service flying kit of to-day makes an interesting contrast to the well-remembered fashions of 1916-18.
RE-EQUIPPING THE R.A.F.: Seven Hawker "Harts" with Rolls-Royce engines ready for delivery to No. 12 (Bomber) Squadron, Andover.
Harts of No 601 (County of London) Squadron. Note 'Flying Sword" tin badge
"SOMEWHERE IN BLUELAND": No. 12 (Bomber) Squadron in readiness at Andover before setting off to raid Redland.
AT THE CRACK OF DAWN: Haar, or sea mist, enveloped Turnhouse Aerodrome on Saturday morning when the "Harts" of No. 33 (Bomber) Squadron took off to bomb the attacking Fleet.
LULL IN THE STORM: Varied fauna at the Bristol club's garden party last Saturday, which suffered severely from the weather. Seen here are one of the Club Swallows, the Bristol 143, an Autogiro, a Drone, and three Harts of No. 501 (City of Bristol) Squadron. The human element is mainly seeking solace in the clubhouse, which, with the Airwork hangar, can be seen in the background.
THE DAY BOMBERS: Nos. 18, 57 and 33 Squadrons (Kestrel-Hart) getting ready for their takeoff. The Auxiliary Wing is just behind them (Jupiter-Wapiti).
"STRAINING AT THE LEASH": The "Bulldogs" and fighter "Harts" of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron waiting at Kenley for orders to go up and attack raiders.
SOME OF THE PERFORMERS AT HANWORTH: A large variety of aircraft types was demonstrated, ranging from the Comper "Swift" (Pobjoy) to the Hawker "Hart" (Kestrel) and Fairey "Firefly III" (Kestrel).
AT ANDOVER: In the foreground stands a "Hyderabad" of No. 503 (County of Lincoln) (Bomber) Squadron, which acted as "Friendly Bombers." In front of it is a reserve machine of No. 33 (Bomber) Squadron; and in the background are the "Harts" of No. 12 (Bomber) Squadron.
The photograph shows a line-up at Brooklands of Hawker "Furies" and (behind) "Harts."
A line-up of 601 Squadron Hawker Harts in front of their hangar at RAF Hendon in 1935. They are seen in their new markings, alternate scarlet and red triangles, adopted when the squadron changed from a bombing to a fighter unit.
BOMBERS INTO FIGHTERS: The "Harts" (525 h.p. "Kestrel" I.B.) of No. 601 (County ot London) Fighter Squadron display their new markings - alternate triangles of scarlet and black. These were adopted when the unit undertook fighter duties; formerly, of course, it was a bomber squadron. "Demons" are soon expected.
Framed between the port wings of a Tiger Moth are these three Hawker Harts of 610 Squadron. Note the squadron badge on the fin of the nearest aircraft, K3881. This Hart was built by Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Ltd in 1933-4, and at one time served with No 8 E&RFTS. The centre aircraft is Hart Trainer K5895. Note the variety of colour schemes, the nearest Hart being devoid of rudder stripes, the centre aircraft doped in yellow, and the other having an all silver finish.
Hawker Hart K3897 was built by Armstrong Whitworth and was first issued to 602 Squadron in mid-1934. It then passed to the Royal Air Force College at Cranwell; but on December 5, 1936 it lost out in an argument with a wall during an approach to Barkston and its flying career came to an end. Though superseded by the Hawker Hind and other types at home the Hart light bomber lingered on at the North-west Frontier of India until the outbreak of war in 1939.
The hybrid Hart, K4432, with Hind exhausts, tailwheel and ballast weights
The installation of a naturally aspirated Kestrel in a Hawker Hart.
Британские Хоукер «Харт» в Судане, 1940 г. Именно такие самолеты были на вооружении воевавшей тогда на этом участке фронта против итальянцев 1-й родезийской эскадрильи
AFTER THE FIGHT: Refilling the tanks of the fighter "Harts" of No. 23 (F.) Squadron after a 15 minutes combat with No. 33 (B.) Squadron.
"AS PANTS THE HART FOR COOLING STREAMS": The machines of No. 33 (Bomber) Squadron just in from a raid gather round the petrol tank at Turnhouse Aerodrome.
FACING THE STARTER: The three Hawker machines "Fury," "Hart" and "Pegasus-Hart" about to take off.
Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister removes his helmet after arriving on Saturday in a Hawker Hart of the Communications Squadron. He is chatting with Lord Gorell, chairman of the Royal Aero Club.
LORD LONDONDERRY, Secretary of State for Air, opened Liverpool Airport officially on Saturday, July 1. He flew to the aerodrome in a Hawker "Hart" (R.R. "Kestrel") escorted by nine Bristol "Bulldogs" (Bristol "Jupiters") of No. 29 (Fighter) Squadron. On his arrival he was welcomed by the Lord Mayor (Councillor A. Gates), Group Capt. H. J. Hunter (Officer Commanding the R.A.F. Display), and Mr. F. G. Bertram (Deputy Director of Civil Aviation, representing the Director, Col. F. C. Shelmerdine).
A Hart testing its Vickers gun at the stop-butts
The Hawker Stand has the distinction of exhibiting three machines never hitherto seen in public: The "Tomtit" training machine, the "Hart" day bomber recently ordered in quantities for the R.A.F., and the "Hornet," believed to be the world's fastest single-seater fighter.
THE HAWKER STAND: On the right the "Hart" ("Kestrel") of No. 57 Squadron, which has done 740 hours' flying. In the foreground the stainless steel fuselage for the "Osprey," which is one of the greatest attractions of the Show.
Hawker Hart K2468 was used in de-icing trials at Farnborough. Points Ia, Ib and Ic were susceptible to ice build-up; points A and B particularly needed to be kept ice-free.
ICE BOUND: In the upper left-hand picture is the petrol vent pipe, and on, the right the pitot head. The broken steadying tube is shown in the lower left-hand photograph, while on the right is the ice coated centre-section and its struts and wires.
Upper left: This remarkable picture was secured by Flight's chief photographer, who went "ice-hunting" in a Hawker Hart piloted by Fit. Lt. Bulman. It shows ice that has formed on the fuel tank vent pipe
Lower left: The ice-collecting expedition was continued until the steadying tube between two of the wires fractured, due to vibration caused by the heavy accretion on the wires.
The prototype Hart Trainer, K1996, which first flow on 29th April 1932. It was actually the second production Audax modified
Among the Hawker biplanes included in the Camm Memorial Hall at Hendon will be the Hart Trainer K4972 discovered in a barn in Cumberland in 1962.
Hawker Hart IIA Trainer K6421, built by Armstrong Whitworth, was one of a dozen which were tropicalised from a batch of 140, the tropical radiator being visible between the undercarriage legs. A generously large windscreen has been fitted to the rear cockpit. Built in the mid-1950s, this aircraft had a Rolls-Royce Kestrel X engine.
HAWKER HART TRAINER. Painted bright orange overall, this Hawker Hart Trainer K6448 was an R.A.F.V.R. visitor at the 1937 Biggin Hill display in connection with the Air League - sponsored Empire Air Day celebrations. Identification of "legitimate" Hart Trainers is not simple, for a number of earlier Hart variants was modified to Hart Trainer standard - to Air Ministry Specifications T.8/32 and T.8/35. In the Hart Trainer the rear cockpit has an unbroken line, whereas the military variants had provision for a gun mounting. The tail skid was replaced by a tailwheel, and the exhaust pipes on the 550-h.p. Rolls-Royce Kestrel X (or 515-h.p. Kestrel Ib) were angled down under the lower mainplanes in the manner of the Fleet Air Arm's Osprey carrier-borne, two-seat fighter.
Yellow-painted Hart Trainer K5892 of No. 10 F.T.S. in 1939
В 1933-м году появился Hart Trainer (на фото) с двойным управлением, эти самолеты поступили в училище ВВС в Крэнуэлле и в две истребительные эскадрильи.
LEAVING LYMPNE: Sir Philip Sassoon in the "Hart" ("Kestrel"), by which he flew back to London from Lympne, bidding goodbye to Com. C. T. Deacon, the officer in charge of Lympne aerodrome.
YELLOW PERIL: A Hawker "Hart Trainer" (525 h.p. "Kestrel I.B.") painted yellow, in accordance with the new regulations applying to Service trainers, disports itself over Brooklands.
The Hart Trainer (525 h.p. Kestrel IB) is generally similar to the light bomber Hart, but has dual controls and no military equipment.
Sir Philip Sassoon flying Hawker Hart Trainer K3154 in 1933. Sir Philip was CO of the squadron tin tit he became Under-Secretary of State for Air.
A NEW TWO-SEATER FIGHTER: The Hawker "Hart" has now been produced as a two-seater fighter, fitted with Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" super-charged engine, and is taking part in the Air Exercises.
DE LUXE TRAINING: The Hawker "Hart Trainer" (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engine) is the most recent addition to the series of training aircraft.
INSTRUCTIONAL AIRCRAFT: This picture shows five types used at Cranwell for teaching cadets to fly. The leading machine is an Avro "Tutor," followed by a two-seater "Bulldog" and a single-seater "Bulldog," with an instructional "Hart" and a two-seater "Siskin" in the rear.
A formation flypast by Hawker’s Tomtit, Hart and Hurricane was a regular sight at British displays of the early 1950s, the Hawker test pilots frequently winning best-formation accolades and trophies. The speed ranges of the aircraft were quite different and a generous helping of flap was necessary to keep the Hurricane in tight formation. This flyby was captured at White Waltham on August 31, 1952.
A regular sight at 1950s British airshows was Hawker’s fleet of Sydney Camm-designed aircraft, which comprised, from nearest to furthest, Hart G-ABMR (currently on display at RAF Museum Hendon), Tomtit G-AFTA (still airworthy with the Shuttleworth Collection), Cygnet G-EBMB (now at RAF Museum Cosford) and G-AMAU.
Royal Air Force Units at Kohat, India. The machines on the left are Hawker "Harts" and those on the right are Westland "Wapitis."
No 6 Squadron, RAF., on parade at Ramleh, Palestine, for the presentation of the squadron crest by the Governor General, Sir John Dill, in 1938 Note the Hart (K4474, left) and Hardy as the squadron was in the process of converting at that time. Navigation lights are visible on the Hardy; there were no electrics on the Hart
The Southern Rhodesia Air Unit at Salisbury. The machines are Hawker "Harts" (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel"). The top picture shows the N.C.O's. and ground staff after a "round-up" of stock, and, below, the first machine being moved from the temporary stores to the new aerodrome.
"It was rightly felt that the aircraft firms could deal with the large orders required." Hart Trainers under construction.
В полете Хоукер «Харт» с опознавательными знаками ВВС Эстонии
First export customer for the Hart was the Estonian A.F. which ordered eight, serialled 146-153, with interchangeable wheel and float landing gear. National marking was pale blue, black and white
A Hawker "Hart" Float-plane of the Estonian Air Defence Force.
Следом за "французской эрой" в авиации Эстонии наступила "английская". На снимке поплавковый "Хаукер Харт"
Поплавковый вариант биплана Хоукер «Харт»
Hawker "Hart" (Napier "Dagger" engine).
"Dagger III" engines destined to equip one squadron of Hawker "Audax" Army co-operation machines are being built at the Napier works. Here a "Dagger" is shown installed in a "Hart." The "Audax" installation will be slightly different.
Hart K2434 was used as a testbed for the Napier Dagger engine which was later to power the Hector
THE HEART OF THE "HART": The two views show a Hawker "Hart" fitted with a Napier experimental engine. The shape of the nose may give an indication of the engine inside.
FOR HIGH ALTITUDES: The Hawker "Hart" fitted with the fully supercharged 9-cyl. Bristol "Pegasus" IV, rated at 660 h.p. at 11,500 ft.
Hawker "Hart" (Bristol "Pegasus" engine).
HAWKER PEGASUS HART. One of the radial-motor versions of the famous Hawker Hart family of the 1930s was the Pegasus Hart sometimes referred to as the "Swedish Hart" because it was licence-built in Sweden for Flygvapnet - the Royal Swedish Air Force.
G-ABTN (constructor's number H.H.3) was used both as a demonstrator and an engine test-bed. First with a Bristol Jupiter and later with the 625-h.p. Bristol Pegasus I.M.2 which gave a maximum speed of 177 m.p.h. and a service ceiling of 22,500 ft. for a loaded weight of 4,852 lb. (empty weight, 2,937 lb.). This photograph was taken at Brooklands in 1932. Later G-ABTN left Heston on 27th November 1932 for the Paris Aero Show. Returning three days later 'BTN met a watery end in the English Channel.
Pegasus-powered Hart K3012 with canopy was tested in Canada on skis as well as wheels
OUT IN THE COLD, COLD SNOW - : A Special Hart with Perseus sleeve-valve engine, skis and cockpit enclosure on test with the Royal Canadian Air Force. In the foreground is a wing of a recently acquired Northrop Delta.
The first of four Pegasus-engined Harts built by Hawker's for the Swedish A.F. The type was later built under licence in Sweden, forty-two further aircraft being completed
FOREIGN APPRECIATION: One of the Hawker types supplied to foreign air forces. A "Hart" ( "Pegasus") bearing the three crowns of Sweden.
As used by the Swedes and (incidentally) Persians: The Pegasus Hart which, with the Osprey, is in production under licence for the Royal Swedish Air Force.
Going Down: A Pegasus-Hart for Sweden demonstrate how dive bombers enter their dives. Sweden, incidentally is employing her Harts very extensively for dive bombing.
ONE GOOD TURN... A "Hart," with the chief photographer of "Flight" as passenger, keeps hard on the tail of a similar machine with "Pegasus" engine, built for Sweden and flown by Fit. Lt. P. W. S. Bulman.
ABOVE THE CLOUDS. - One of the Pegasus-engined Hawker Harts for the Swedish Government, now manufactured under licence in Sweden.
A REHEARSAL: Messrs. Bulman and Sayer, Hawker's test pilots, putting two of the "Harts" (Bristol "Pegasus") ordered by Sweden through their paces. In the lower picture the two machines were climbing very steeply, the horizon being far above the upper edge of the photograph.
Легкий бомбардировщик "Харт Mk.II" из состава шведской флотилии F19. По окончании боевых действий свастики на самолете закрашены черной краской.
Hawker Hart ‘Black M’ of ‘Flygflottilj’ 19 during the return flight to Sweden on March 30,1940. Over the rear fuselage is the inscription HAMNAREN (Avenger). It was the second Hart to be given the Finnish serial R-22, the first, Blue X, having been destroyed in a mid-air collision with another Hart on January 12, 1940. Sent as an attrition replacement, Black M reached F 19 in Finland on February 16.
Swedish-built Hawker "Harts" of the Royal Swedish Air Force.
Hawker "Hart" Light Bombers of the Swedish Air Force.
King Gustav and General Friis, chief of the Swedish Air Force, discuss the Pegasus-Hart.
The Rotol v.p. airscrew installed on a Mercury-engined Hart.