Miles M.1 Satyr и M.2 Hawk
В 1932 году Ф. Г. Майлз поднял в воздух небольшой одноместный биплан Miles M.1 Satyr. Был построен всего один такой самолет, летал хорошо, но был списан в 1936 году. Ранее Фредерик Майлз принимал участие в проектировании британских бипланов Southern Martlet
и Metal Martlet, поэтому решил разработать двухместный самолет, рассчитанный на массовый спрос. M.2 Hawk выполнил первый полет в марте 1933 года, самолет стал предшественником последующей серии великолепных монопланов марки Miles. Изначально на Hawk стоял 95-сильный мотор Cirrus IIIA. Поздние самолеты варианта M.2c оснащались мотором de Havilland Gipsy III мощностью 120 л.с. К другим вариантам относятся M.2a с закрытой кабиной, одноместный M.2b большой дальности с мотором Hermes IV мощностью 120 л.с., трехместный M.2d. Всего построено 55 самолетов Hawk.
Дальнейшие работы привели к созданию серии Hawk Major с мотором de Havilland Gipsy Major мощностью 130 л. с., как у первого варианта M.2F. Строились и другие варианты, обозначавшиеся от M.2G до M.2T. Всего построили 64 самолета серии Hawk Major.
Первые одноместные гоночные модели известны как Hawk Speed Six, построили три самолета с мотором Gipsy Six мощностью 200 л. с. Другим гоночным вариантом несколько меньших размеров стал M.5 Sparrowhawk; построено пять машин. Их прототип пережил войну и в 1953 году прошел модернизацию с установкой двух ТРД Turbomeca Palas тягой по 150 кг. После чего самолет стал именоваться M.77 Sparrowjet, его максимальная скорость составляла 370 км/ч. Финальным вариантом всего семейства стал учебно-тренировочный M.2X Hawk Trainer; построено 25 машин. На основе M.2X разработали Miles M.14 Magister.
Flight, February 1934
A THREE-SEATER "HAWK"
BUILT at Reading by Phillips & Powis, Ltd., the three-seater version of their Miles "Hawk" ("Cirrus III") has a performance as suitable for joyriding as the old and well tried "Avro 504." Mr. Miles has re-designed the standard "Hawk" fuselage to carry two passengers seated comfortably one behind the other in the rear cockpit, access to which can be obtained from deep and wide doors either side of the fuselage. The outer portions of the wing of this machine remain exactly the same as the standard "Hawk," but the centre section has been increased in span by 2 feet, thus providing something in the region of an extra 12 square feet of wing area and putting up the aspect ratio to about 7 to 1. The result has been that although only powered with a Cirrus III engine, the "Hawk" three-seater, carrying an all-up weight of 1,800 lb., has the most remarkable take-off of anything we have seen for a very long time. Not only can it be pulled off the ground after a very short run indeed, but both the angle and rate of climb are large. This "Hawk" can also be dropped on to the ground from a very coarse glide and, even without the use of brakes, the resulting landing run is very short. Characteristics like these, coupled with the fact that it is exceedingly easy to get in and out of the passenger cockpit, and that the construction of the machine is such as to preclude the possibility of the need for repairs due to ordinary wear and tear, make it a proposition of outstanding merit for joyriding. When in the hands of an expert like Mr. Miles himself, this "Hawk" can be pulled off the ground very much more quickly than the figures shown in the table, and, moreover, can thereafter be held at a steep angle of climb which, although it looks exaggerated, is perfectly safe, and in that position the machine is still fully controllable. The machine is being supplied fully equipped with instruments, including compass, the new special down-turned exhaust manifold system making it quiet and pleasant to fly in, Bendix wheel brakes having differential movement controlled by the rudder bar and a hand lever for pulling up and parking, and, of course, it is built, as is the custom with all "Hawks," to factors considerably in excess to those required by the Air Ministry. Although Phillips & Powis are one of the youngest aircraft manufacturing firms a visit to their factory is exceedingly educative. They have studied the matter of economical production very carefully indeed, and for this reason they are able to turn out machines at the price they do. We have already described the neat manner in which the plywood covering of the wing, and for that matter the fuselage etc., is held to the spars, ribs, longerons and struts by an ordinary office stapling machine during glueing. These staples squeeze together the parts to be glued, more efficiently than do screws or tacks, and when the glue is dry they are quickly removed, leaving the surface absolutely clear and free for finishing. The finish is yet another point about the "Hawk." Phillips & Powis have realised that machines for private use sell as much on finish and comfort as they do on performance, and the new hand finish, which is standard on the "Hawk," is certainly as good as that of the average motor car. The Titanine dope with which this is attained has been particularly developed for the purpose, and the glass-like surface is achieved with only a very few coats, thereby saving the great weight of the 17 to 23 coats which it is understood is required by some of the American machines, about the finish of which a great deal has been advertised. This finish also has the advantage that it decreases the skin friction appreciably and adds to the performance of the machine. An Indication of the strength of the "Hawk" is gained from the knowledge that, in its standard form, it is strong enough to be fitted with any engine up to 200 h.p. The firm has recently received recognition of its capabilities, by being approved for design by the Air Ministry.
Flight, July 1934
NEW AEROPLANES IN KING'S CUP RACE
In last year's race Wing Com. Probyn started as one of the strongest favourites in a very attractive-looking Miles "Hawk," a machine which had at that time just started in production in the works of Phillips & Powis, Ltd., at Reading, whom Mr. Miles had joined as designer. Unfortunately, Wing Com. Probyn, when doing extremely well, lost a push-rod from his engine and had to retire.
D.H. "GIPSY III,” 120 II.P. ENGINE.
Span 33 ft. (10,1m)
Aspect ratio 6.6 to 1
Wing area 169 sq. ft. (15,7 m1)
Gross weight 1.800 lb. (816,5 kg)
Tare weight 1,085 lb. (492,1 kg)
Wing loading 10.6 lb./sq. ft. (51,7 kg/m')
Power loading 15.0 lb./h.p. (6,8 kg/hp)
This year there are three versions of the "Hawk" in the race. One flown by Mrs. Patterson is a standard machine with a "Cirrus III" engine; the second is fitted with a "Gipsy III" engine, and has a full cantilever, single-strut undercarriage. For the race it is, of course, a single-seater, but with the front cockpit "opened up" it is the forerunner of the "Hawk Major," a drawing of which appears in this issue, and which is about to be launched on the market by this firm. In the race this "Gipsy III" engined model has been entered by Capt. G. R. D. Shaw, and will be flown by Mr. Tom Rose, the instructor of the Northamptonshire Aero Club, at Sywell. The third machine is a "Hawk," similar in most respects to the "Gipsy III" model, but having instead a "Gipsy Six" engine of 200 h.p. It has been built as a high-speed machine, having a particular appeal for racing. The entrant, Sir Charles Rose, will fly it himself. The loading with this engine, remains just about as in the standard "Hawk" when carrying a pilot and passenger, so the landing speed should still be very low, but naturally with the increased power a high top-speed performance is expected. It is a tribute to the robustness of the "Hawk" that very few modifications in the way of strengthening have been found necessary for it to get its Certificate of Airworthiness.
D.H. "GIPSY Six," 200 H.P. ENGINE.
Span 33 ft. (10,1 m)
Aspect ratio 6.6 to 1
Wing area 169 sq. ft. (15,7 m')
Gross weight 1,900 lb. (861,8 kg)
Tare weight 1,355 lb. (614,6 kg)
Wing loading 11.3 lb.Mq. ft. (55,2 kg/m*)
Power loading 9.25 lb./h.p. (4,2 kg /hp)
Flight, July 1934
A "HAWK MAJOR"
High Top Speed, Low Landing Speed and Small Cost Are the Chief Points of This New Machine for Private Owners
THE Miles ''Hawk'' has become very widely known during the last year as one of the most economical aeroplanes for the private owner, and certainly as one which involves the purchaser in only a small capital outlay. Scenting a demand for a machine with an even better performance, Mr. Miles has now produced the "Hawk Major." This will have the "Gipsy Major" engine and, although the use of this engine and a cantilever undercarriage has raised the top speed to 150 m.p.h., the landing speed will still remain at 42 m.p.h. The standard "Hawk" has an excellent take-off and short landing run, so this new model should be even more ideal for getting out of small fields of the kind many private owners wish to use when visiting people.
This new "Hawk" will have a range in still air of over 700 miles. As can be seen from our artist's impression, the undercarriage has been faired in very cleanly and the drag should be very low The Palmer wheels will be braked with Bendix brakes operated by differential rudder bar control and by a hand lever. A very high finish, comparable to that found on motor cars, in any single colour, is offered without extra charge.
THE PROTOTYPE: This picture of Mr. Miles flying the first "Hawk" was taken some time ago, and certain changes have been made in the Production Model, notably the fitting of an undercarriage incorporating Dowty shock-absorber legs.
CHEERIO!: Mrs. Patterson (in the cockpit of her "Hawk") receiving congratulations on gaining the "punctuality prize" at the Ladies' Meeting at Reading aerodrome last Saturday.
THE WINNER: Wing Com. H. M. Probyn won the Cinque Ports Wakefield Cup Race in this new Miles "Hawk" (Cirrus III) at Lympne on July 22.
Miles M.2 Hawk G-ACMH photographed at New Salts aerodrome in 1934, flown in by one of the Miles brothers from Woodley, Reading.
FROM THE DUTCH INDIES: The first Miles "Hawk" (extreme right) put into service at the Sourabaya Aero Qub, where it is giving great satisfaction.
Mr. Edwin Denis A. Bigg who, flying a Miles "Hawk" (Cirrus III), left for Nairobi, Kenya, last week. Mr. Bigg, who is an Ex-R.A.F. officer, is the first to fly one out to Africa, where he is going to start a Flying School and Air Taxi Company.
A "HAWK" FOR IRELAND: Phillips &. Powis have just delivered this "Hawk" to Lady Nelson, of Everson Flying Services, Finglas. With the machine are Mr. J. R. Currie, chief ground engineer of the company, and Capt. Hamilton, who learnt to fly at this school.
FOR LESS NOISE: This is the latest modification to the exhaust arrangements on the Miles "Hawk," as fitted to the machine of that make owned by Mrs. MacDonald.
ZONK! Ruddy Duck was the name given to the first Phillips & Powis School "Hawk" at Reading by Mrs. Miles last Saturday.
FOR BRITISH HOSPITALS: Mr. McEwan King and Mr. Leigh Mossley (dark suit) examining the latest three-seater "Hawk."
GLANZEND: Its low price as well as its remarkably fine finish and ruggedness of construction caused a stream of visitors to the "Hawk" Stand.
UN COIN ANGLAIS: In the foreground the de Havilland Aircraft Co. are together with their agent showing three types of aeroplane. On the left is the Miles "Hawk," and on the right can be seen Herr Schwabe's "Klemm" in which he has recently returned from a flight to Capetown.
STRAIGHT FROM THE NEST: A batch of Miles "Hawks" recently supplied by Phillips fit Powis Aircraft (Reading), Ltd., to Lord Clive, Messrs. Grover, E. D. Spratt, and H. Singh Uberoi.
VARIETY AT VINCENNES: G. L. Harrison (centre) and Stephen Cliff (right) who flew the Miles "Hawk" from Heston; with them is R. A. C. Brie, who came over on the Autogiro.
THE NEW UNDERCARRIAGE: This view shows that the radius rod is now directly behind the compression leg, decreasing drag considerably.
A CLEAN FRONT: Head-on the "Hawk" is very clean, a fact which no doubt largely accounts for its exceptional performance and acceleration on the ground.
The view gives a clear idea of the seating accommodation.
AN INDIAN VENTURE: Mr. Man Mohan Singh, chief pilot to the Maharajah of Patiala, and who flew from England to India in 1930, is making a flight from England to Cape Town in the Miles "Hawk" ("Hermes IV") shown in the accompanying illustration. This machine has been fitted with large tanks giving a range of about 1,800 miles. Mr. Singh, who has been provided with a Shell Carnet to enable him to obtain Shell aviation products wherever he goes, will follow the normal route through Italy and along Imperial Airways' route. From the Cape he will return to India via Egypt.
THE "HAWK SPECIAL": This is the latest machine turned out for Phillips & Powis, Ltd., of Reading, by Mr. G. H. Miles, and is called the "Hawk Special." Powered with a "Gipsy III" engine, the top speed is in the neighbourhood of 130 m.p.h. Both the climb and take off are exceptionally good, and the machine has a remarkably good outlook forward for the pilot, while the passenger can see the surrounding country unimpeded, by virtue of the low side-windows. This particular machine is being flown to Cairo by Mr. Stephen Cliff, and when out there he will compete in the competitions arranged during the Oases Meeting.
TWO BRITISH LOW-WING MONOPLANES: The "Hawk Special" on the left and the Percival "Gull" on the right.
Types of Machine in the King's Cup Race (2) Miles "Hawk," D.H. "Gipsy III" 120 h.p. engine
THE ONLY "THRILL": Mr. "Tommy" Rose overtakes Mr. Broadbent while rounding the Hatfield pylon.
Genesis: This photograph, taken by a Flight photographer from a standard "Hawk" (Cirrus III), shows the "Hawk Major" (Gipsy Major), the "Falcon" (Gipsy Major) and, at the top, the "Merlin" (Gipsy Six).
A Reading type well represented - the Hawk Major; seven of these machines - two of which, differing from the others in internal fittings, are more accurately described as Hawk Trainers - are taking part.
Mrs. Miles and Mr. F. G. Miles flying the new De Luxe "Hawk Major" near Reading.
The modern trend in open types is illustrated in this type, the Miles Hawk Major.
"HAWK MAXIMUS": Sqd. Ldr. Malcolm McGregor and Henry Walker reached Melbourne in their standard Miles "Hawk Major" 7 days 15 hours after leaving Mildenhall.
Cliff’s Hawk Major comes in after finishing third.
The limit man (Flt. Lt. Bonham-Carter, with Lady Hoare as passenger) shows deep interest in Mr. Reynold's flag at the start of Saturday's final. The machine is a standard Miles Hawk Major.
HAWK MAJOR (DE-LUXE) Gipsy Major Engine Price ?870 ex Works. Maximum Speed 150 m.p.h. Cruising Speed 130-135 m.p.h. Landing Speed 40-45 m.p.h. Landing run with brakes and flaps 70 yards. Rate of Climb 1,300 feet/min. Petrol consumption 6 1/2 galls./hr. Range 660 miles. Full set of Instruments in rear cockpit. Dual control. Bendix Brakes. Tail trim and rudder bias control. Cockpits upholstered in real leather.
Lord Londonderry tries out Flt. Lt. "Shell" Bentley's Hawk Major.
Еще двое "артистов цирка Кроне" - английские спортивные "Майлзы", использовавшиеся на Северном фронте в качестве легких многоцелевых боевых машин.
THIS MILES HAWK TRAINER, completed recently, is claimed to be the first aeroplane to be assembled and partly built in India. It was built by the Aeronautical Training Centre of India under licence granted by Phillips and Powis Aircraft through their agents for India, R. K. Dundas, Ltd., of New Delhi and Portsmouth
Жузе Адриану Пекиту Ребелу (справа) на фоне своей "Пассаролы"
Еще один снимок Жузе Адриану Пекиту Ребелу возле "Пассаролы"
Антониу де Суза Майа у самолета Майлз "Хок"
Mr. Charles Powis and Mr. F. G. Miles talk it over with Mr. F. N. St. Barbe, De Havilland business manager.
ON PARADE. - Miles Aeroplanes on Rongatal Aerodrome, Wellington, New Zealand.
Phillips and Fowis were represented by the Hawk Trainer, the Nighthawk, and the Miles Whitney Straight, all fitted with Gipsy engines.
Этот Майлз M-2F "Хоук Мэйджер" с новозеландским экипажем в составе МакГрегора и Уокера за 7 дней тоже ухитрился добраться до Мельбурна и даже занял пятое место в зачете по гандикапу
NON-TROUSERED MILES M.2F VH-ACC is an original 1934 Hawk Major, rebuilt from a wreck and now flown from Moorabbin. On current British Register - G-ADMW (M.2H; c/n. 177) and G-ADWT (M.2W; c/n . 215).
APPROVED: Three Miles Hawk Trainers, a type which has now been approved for Air Ministry training, standing in front oi the new Phillips and Powis Reserve School buildings at Reading. With the modern tendency towards monoplanes for Service use, the approval was only logical.
M.2X Hawk Trainer являлся самолетом первоначального обучения, после его освоения курсанты переходили на Miles M. 14 Magister. Hawk Trainer в больших количествах использовали британские ВВС. Самолет на фотографии был построен в 1936 году, а в 1940 году эти машины начали снимать с эксплуатации.
For modern instruction: The Miles Hawk Trainer, a machine which is designed primarily for the training of Service pilots in modern technique.
The Hawk Trainer, which differs only in detail from the standard Major.
LOW-WING TRAINER: An impressive "aerial" of one of the latest Miles Hawk Trainers to go into service with the Reserve school at Woodley. Its number may cause consternation when (and if) it is used for a first solo.
OUT AND UP: This Flight photograph, taken at Reading Aerodrome, shows Wing Comdr. F. W. Stent flying the Miles Hawk Trainer in its latest form. In the foreground are the Phillips and Powis experimental shops and in the distance are the New Reserve school and the service hangars.
MODERN TRAINING: These four Hawk Trainers, which have been specially designed for aerobatics and inverted flying, were delivered by air last week to the Roumanian Government. These are the first British low-wing trainers to be sold abroad.
A MAJOR IN UNIFORM: A Miles Hawk Major (130 h.p. Gipsy Major) has been delivered to the Service and is the first of its type to bear the familiar targets.
Miles M.2 Hawk HK863 somewhere in the Middle East during the early part of the Second World War.
Part of the school's Hawk Trainer fleet at Woodley, with the school building.
The newly-completed Baynes Bee at Heston on March 23, 1937, with a more conventional two-seater - a Miles Hawk Major behind. A few days later, on April 3, Hubert Broad took the Bee off from Heston on its maiden flight. Although it was registered G-AEWC, it is almost certain that the Bee never wore these marks.
Several slower machines had already taken off when Mr. E. F. Walter was snapped with his Miles Hawk. Tommy Rose may be seen chatting near the B. A. Eagle.
M.t. G W.. Wilson, deputy general manager of Shell-Mex, receiving the log-books of the "Hawk Major" from Mr. Powis and Mr. Miles at Reading last week.
The unlucky ones: Mr. J. M. Bickerton and Mr. E. F. Walter who finished first and second in the race, but were disqualified on a technical point at the Yeadon control.
L. H. T. Cliff (Miles Hawk Major), third at 146.25 m.p.h. His passenger is Mrs. Cliff.
Winner, second and co-third in the competition : In the cockpit of the Hawk Major is Miss Moore, while below can be seen Mrs. Fisher and Miss Hughes, who tied with Mrs. Macdonald for third place.
Major Thornton is a keen private owner who uses his machine for touring at home and abroad. A Liverpool ship-owner by profession, he has no patience with narrow-minded nationalism, especially where it affects air travel. In the snapshot here, he is seen with Mrs. Thornton at last year's Magyar Pilota Picnic, to which he flew in his Hawk Major.
F. D. Bradbrooke, pilot of Miles M.2T Hawk Major G-ADNK. Bradbrooke was a staff member of The Aeroplane. He was killed in August 1941 whilst flying in a Liberator on the BOAC Atlantic Ferry Service.
THE ONLY LADY COMPETITOR: Mrs. G. Patterson was forced down near Peterborough by Friday's bad weather.
IN "APPROACH" POSITION: The split flaps on the "Hawk Major"; notice how the central flap opens in the reverse direction.
NOT A SILENCER, but the smoke-box under one of the two Hawk Majors which Major J. C. Savage added to his sky-writing fleet a year ago, and which have given good service. The smoke-producing chemical is fed to the box from a supply tank, and the engine exhaust gases cause the necessary reaction.
Hawk Speed Six
Interest at Ronaldsway after the finish of the London - I.O.M. Race. In the foreground are F/O. Hughesdon's Wolseley-engined Hawker Tomtit (2nd), Mr. Humble's single-seater Gipsy Six Hawk (3rd) and the D.H.86 flown by Mr. Higgins (4th).
Up and down: In the air, the B.A. Eagle being demonstrated by Mr. Bay; on the ground, the Hawk Speed Six and the new Wicko.
The Hatfield sheds filled with competitors’ aircraft, mostly Miles Hawks and Falcons.
Toeing the line on Friday. In the foreground, on the left, is Diana Mary Williams' Percival Gull, piloted by T. W. Morton; on the right is A. C. W. Norman's Miles Hawk.
This line-up of Miles aircraft entered for the 1935 King's Cup race includes Sparrowhawk G-ADNL, Hawk Speed Six G-ADOD, Hawk Trainers G-ADLB and G-ADLN, Hawk de Luxe G-ADNK and Falcon G-ADLC.
The Miles contingent starting up for the first day’s racing.
The ultimate winner is flagged off: Mr. George Reynolds and the Hawk Speed Six, flown by Mr. Humble.
The Miles Hawk Speed Six G-ACTE photographed at the opening of the new Shoreham Airport on June 13, 1936. First registered in July 1934, the Hawk was first owned by Sir Charles Rose. Following a period with Bill Humble, ’TE was sold abroad in September 1937.
Miles M.2H Hawk Major G-ADLB, entered by Maj G. W. G. Allen and flown by Owen Cathcart-Jones.
Third component of the Reading hat-trick Major Allen's Hawk Trainer (Gipsy Major), piloted by Owen Cathcart Jones.
Miles M.2R Hawk Major G-ADLN was the mount of Fg Off H. R. A. Edwards, brother of E. C. T. Edwards and pilot of Gull G-ADOE. Both men had a deep-rooted dislike of publicity.
The Miles Hawk Speed Six flown by Miss "R. Slow", alias Ruth Fontes. The Miles M.2U was powered by a 200 h.p. de Havilland Gipsy Six R engine. Ruth Fontes was the sister of Luis Fontes, pilot of Hawk Speed Six G-ADGP.
Delightful view of Hawk Major G-ADLB, powered by a 130 h.p. de Havilland Gipsy Major engine. This aircraft was sold abroad in July 1936.
Another Selection of King's Cup Machines (5) Miles "Hawk" D.H. "Gipsy Six" 200 h.p. engine.
The modified Hawk Speed Six (220 h.p. Gipsy Six R) to be flown by F/O. Clouston. Its maximum speed is about 200 m.p.h.
The Miles Hawk Speed Six (Gipsy Six) which will be flown by W. Humble
A FAST "HAWK": Built for Sir Charles Rose, this "Hawk," with a "Gipsy Six" 200 h.p. engine, has a top speed of about 180 m.p.h.
The Miles Hawk Six, flown by Mr. Humble, rounds the airport turn in the South Coast Air Trophy race. This machine eventually won at an average speed of 174 m.p.h.
Fft. Lt. Tommy Rose in his Hawk Speed Six, with Gipsy Six R engine, puts in at Shoreham during the eliminating contest on Friday.
W. Humble (Hawk Speed Six) taxies in at Shoreham on Friday behind Waight's fascinating little T.K.2.
An air-to-air photograph taken near Old Sarum on July 17, 1989.
The same aircraft at Hatfield in September 1937 on the occasion of that year’s King's Cup race.
Top, 'GP in its original form, with typical Miles windscreen, taking part in the 1938 King’s Cup race at Hatfield. Fontes came 13th with an average speed of 184-5 m.p.h.
Bottom, ’GP in the post-war configuration in which it was raced with considerable success in the hands of Ron Paine.
Ron Paine airborne in his Miles Hawk Speed Six over Baginton. He averaged 189 m.p.h. in the King’s Cup race and was placed second. Today this aircraft resides at Old Warden and has been restored to its original open/sliding hood configuration by American owner Tom Buffaloe.
FOR THE KING'S CUP. In the maker's works at Reading this racing "Hawk Major" two-seater is nearing completion. Fitted with a boosted "Gipsy Major" giving 146 h.p., it will be flown by Mr. Cook, who competed in last year's event on a "Gipsy Swift." The new machine has a coupe top which gives it exceptionally good lines, and it should do well.
A typical example of split flap as fitted, in fact, to the unlucky Houston's Speed Six Hawk.
The fuselage of G-ADGP was stripped down and rebuilt with new top decking in 1988.
Ron Paine standing with the Speed Six at Baginton. A former MD of British Midland Airways, Paine was instrumental in getting the D.H. Comet racer G-ACSS back into the air in May 1989.
NON-STOP TO BUCHAREST is the aim of Mlle. Braescu, who is to leave Croydon in the near future in a special Miles "Hawk Major" ("Gipsy Major"). The machine, which is named Aurd Vlaicu after the first Rumanian pilot, is a single-seater with coupe top, and is equipped to carry 100 gallons of fuel, giving a range of 1,500 miles.
F/O Cloustori (Hawk Speed Six) who got nearer the goal than did any of the other non-finishers.