Bristol Type 105 Bulldog
Нуждаясь в новом истребителе для RAF, боевые самолеты которых уже не могли перехватить такие бомбардировщики как Fairey Fox, Министерство авиации выпустило спецификацию F.9/26. Требовалось создать одноместный истребитель с мотором воздушного охлаждения, вооруженный
двумя пулеметами Vickers. Английские фирмы представили свои машины, но, в конечном счете, победителем стал Bristol Type 105 Bulldog, который немного обошел Hawker Hawfinch. Прототип Bulldog Mk I впервые поднялся в воздух 17 мая 1927 года и в дальнейшем был оснащен крылом увеличенного размаха для установления рекордов высоты и скороподъемности. На испытаниях на смену Bulldog Mk I пришел прототип Bulldog Mk II, отличавшийся удлиненным фюзеляжем и имевший фирменное обозначение Type 105A, который и был запущен в серийное производство. Первой в июне 1929 года новые самолеты получила 3-я эскадрилья в Апэйвоне, графство Уилтшир. Bulldog Mk II представлял собой одностоечный биплан с металлическим каркасом, обшивка которого была выполнена в основном из полотна. Лишь в носовой части фюзеляжа использовались панели из легких сплавов. На этой модификации был установлен двигатель Bristol Jupiter VII.
Bulldog широко использовался RAF - в общей сложности 312 машин всех модификаций состояли на вооружении не менее 10 эскадрилий вплоть до 1937 года. Помимо RAF, Bulldog также служили в ВВС Австралии, Дании, Эстонии, Финляндии, Латвии, Сиама и Швеции.
Bulldog Mk IIA: основной серийный вариант, аналогичный Mk II, но с двигателем Jupiter VIIF мощностью 490 л.с. (365 кВт), усиленной конструкцией и увеличенной колеей шасси; позднее на Mk IIA хвостовой костыль заменили колесом, а основные колеса снабдили тормозами
Bulldog Mk IIIA: два переходных самолета с мотором Mercury IVS.2 мощностью 560 л.с. (418 кВт)
Bulldog Mk IVA: последняя серийная модификация истребителя с элеронами усиленной конструкции и двигателем Mercury VIS.2 мощностью 640 л.с. (477 кВт)
Bulldog ТМ: учебная машина с отъемной хвостовой частью фюзеляжа со второй кабиной, сдвоенным управлением и без вооружения; хвостовую часть учебной машины можно было легко заменить на аналогичный элемент от истребителя, и после установки пулеметов ТМ превращался в полноценную боевую машину
Bristol Type 105 Bulldog Mk II
Тип: одноместный истребитель
Силовая установка: один радиальный двигатель Bristol Jupiter VII мощностью 440 л.с. (328 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 3050 м - 286 км/ч; время набора высоты 6095 м -14 мин 30 с; потолок 8230 м; дальность полета 563 км
Масса: пустого 1094 кг; максимальная взлетная 1601 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 10,31 м; длина 7,62 м; высота 3,00 м; площадь крыла 28,47 м2
Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers в носовой части фюзеляжа и четыре 9-кг бомбы под нижним крылом
Flight, July 1928
THE "BRISTOL" SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER
One Bristol "Jupiter" Engine
THE Bristol single-seater fighter exhibited at the Paris Aero Show was designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., of Filton, Bristol, and is an all-metal machine in which the material of construction is mainly steel, and more particularly sections formed from flat steel strip, the Bristol firm having done a great deal of research work on this type of construction during the last few years. The machine carries the usual single-seater fighter armament in the form of two machine guns firing "through" the propeller.
Fuselage. - Entirely of metal construction, with the exception of the fabric covering. The front portion is of circular section steel tube construction, but the rear portion, from the pilot's cockpit to the tail, has longerons and struts of strip steel, formed to somewhat unusual sections.
Wings. - Arranged in the form of an unequal span, unequal chord biplane, the wings are, with exception of the fabric covering, of all-steel construction. The spars are built up from steel strip, flanges and webs being joined by riveting. In a later type of Bristol spar only a very small number of rivets are used, the "curled" edge of the strip serving to bind the parts together. The wing ribs are of channel section, but a section which has ridges and "curls" to prevent buckling, thus making the use of very thin material possible. Both upper and lower wings have their trailing edges cut away in the centre to improve the view. Frise ailerons are fitted to the top plane only.
Tail. - Both vertical and horizontal tail surfaces are of cantilever type, with a rather unusual trimming gear for the tail plane. It is of steel construction and fabric covered.
Engine Installation. - The "Jupiter" engine is particularly neatly mounted in the nose, and the cylinders are carefully cowled for streamlining. The petrol tanks are in the top plane, and direct gravity feed to the engine is employed, avoiding the use of pumps.
Undercarriage. - Oleo-pneumatic, with long travel. The telescopic front legs are attached at their upper ends to the top longerons instead of to the bottom, and are neatly faired into the fuselage covering.
THE "BRISTOL" EXHIBITS
THE Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., is exceptionally well represented at this year's Paris Aero Show. Not only is a very full series of engines exhibited, but a complete "Bristol" aircraft as well. This is a single-seater fighter of very taking appearance and all-metal construction, and is obviously related to the Bristol "Bulldog" which made its appearance at the R.A.F. Display last week at Hendon, where it aroused very favourable comment. The manner of exhibiting the machine is one which was, we believe, "invented" by one Sergeant Turner at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, during the war, when captured enemy aircraft were so exhibited. It consists in "stripping" the machine to the centre line, so that when viewing it from one side one obtains an impression of the machine's lines and general appearance, and from the other all the constructional details can be examined with the greatest facility. It would be difficult to imagine a better way of showing an aircraft, provided one really wishes people to see it. There are, of course, cases where it is kinder to the constructor to cover up as much as possible!
In the Bristol single-seater fighter Great Britain has a worthy representative at the Paris Show. The machine incorporates some of the very latest forms of construction, making extensive use of corrugated sections formed from flat steel strip, a form of metal construction upon which a vast amount of work has been done in England, and in which Great Britain holds an unchallenged position. Other nations may have gone farther with welded construction, or have developed forms of duralumin construction that equal ours, but in the steel strip form of metal work we need fear comparison with no one. Consequently it is small wonder that from the moment the doors of the Grand Palais were opened, the Bristol stand was a centre of attraction for the more discerning visitors.
The "Bristol" single-seater fighter is a very fine example of modern British aircraft, and it is doubtful whether, at any Paris Aero Show held since the war, so up-to-date a British service machine has ever been exhibited. With a performance which is quite remarkable, the new machine represents the latest ideas in both aerodynamic and structural design, and thus the machine well merits the closest inspection. Not the least interesting feature is the way in which performance is maintained at altitude. For example, at 20,000 ft. (6,100 m.) the speed is 172 m.p.h. (277 km./h.), while that altitude is reached in the astonishingly short time of 12 mins. Obviously, we have here a machine which is a good deal out of the ordinary in the matter of performance.
Features in the design which make for aerodynamic efficiency are a carefully streamlined fuselage, with the engine neatly faired into it, a biplane wing arrangement in which the top plane is of greater span and chord than the lower: simple single-bay wing bracing, and generally a careful suppression of all causes of avoidable resistance.
In designing the machine a great deal of attention was paid to the subject of providing the pilot with a good view, as evidenced by the high position in relation to the top plane, whose trailing edge is cut away in the centre, and the centre-section itself made of thinner profile. The lower wing is of smaller chord, and in addition the trailing edge is cut away near the fuselage to give a downward view. Finally, the degree of stagger is such that the pilot can look over the lower leading edge at a very useful angle, and lastly, the fuselage deck slopes from the wind screen down to the engine, so that the view for landing is also very good.
Manoeuvrability is another essential quality in a fighter, and the "Bristol" single-seater fighter is reported to be extremely manoeuvrable without being at all unstable. The ailerons, fitted to the top plane only, are provided with the, by now, well-known Bristol-Frise type of balance, which does not impose a torque on the aileron as does a horn balance, while at the same time they introduce but small yawing moments. The rudder and elevator have a form of shielded balance which gives light control loads at all speeds. On the ground also the machine is very manoeuvrable, partly on account of the attachment of the oleo legs to the top instead of to the bottom longerons, thus preventing rolling. The tail skid swivels.
Accessibility of all equipment, engine accessories, etc., has been particularly studied, quickly-detachable doors being provided. The wireless apparatus is fitted complete in a crate which slides out through a door in the side.
The military load includes pilot, parachute, two Vickers guns and 1,200 rounds of ammunition, C.C. gear for the guns, gun sights, oxygen and electrical equipment, instruments and wireless apparatus. The average total weight of the military load is 528 lb. (240 kg.).
As already mentioned, the machine is built entirely of metal, and more specifically of steel, as regards the more highly-stressed members. Duralumin and aluminium are used for fairings, doors, etc.
Broadly speaking, two forms of construction are employed in the fuselage. The forward portion, which carries the engine, pilot and equipment, is built up of circular-section steel tubes forming longerons and struts. The joints between these are in the form of flitch plates with bolts passing through the tubes, the ends of which are provided with cylindrical sleeve pieces on to which are soldered flat-faced washers. The rear portion, from the cockpit back to the tail, is built in the form of a Warren girder, the longerons and struts being formed from fiat steel strip into circular sections with projecting flanges for external riveting. Outside the main structure are added light hoops and stringers which carry the fabric and bring the square section up to a rounded form.
The undercarriage is a plain Vee type, but is unusual in that the telescopic (front) legs are attached not to the lower longerons as is usually done, but to the top longerons. The rear struts are attached at their upper ends to the spar of the bottom centre-section. The shock-absorbing medium is oil, and compression rubbers, the first 2 1/2 in. of travel being taken on the oil only, the remaining 4 1/2 in. of travel on the rubbers contained in the top container.
Like the fuselage the wings are of all-metal construction, with the exception of the fabric covering. They are of normal two-spar type, the spars being made from flat steel strip, rolled and drawn to the final section, and the webs and flanges together forming a box-section whose separate members are joined by riveting. The drag bracing struts are circular-section steel tubes, and in the outer bays these pass through both spars, extending aft beyond the rear spar to form supports for the hinges of the Bristol-Frise ailerons. The wing ribs are high-tensile steel channels.
The controls are of normal type as regards their action and general disposition, but special provision has been made in the case of the foot bar for the rudder control for adjustment to suit various pilots. The seat has a neat adjustment for height, by means of which the pilot can raise and lower himself within fairly wide limits, according to whether he wishes to be well screened from the wind, such as for a prolonged flight, or to have an unobstructed view either for fighting or for landing, etc.
The petrol system of the "Bristol" single-seater fighter is that which is now almost universal in Great Britain, i.e. with two tanks in the top plane, giving direct gravity feed to the engine. On each side is a tank, built into the wing, of 35 gallons capacity, and gauges are provided which can be read from the cockpit. The oil tank is suspended from the lower longerons, just aft of the fireproof bulkhead, and is shaped to conform to the fairing lines. The tank incorporates a neat oil-cooling device.
The Bristol "Jupiter" engine is mounted on a rectangular plate of sheet steel with flanged-over edges. Steel channel pieces are riveted to the back of the engine plate in order to reinforce the corners. The plate is anchored to the fuselage by four steel tubes, whose forward ends are riveted to the corners of the engine plate, while the rear ends are bolted to the fuselage joints by tapered bolts.
The cowling of the engine has been well thought out, and there are front and rear fairings to each cylinder which, with the aluminium "helmets" fitted over the valve gear of each cylinder, reduce the drag of the projecting cylinder heads to a minimum consistent with sufficient cooling.
The main dimensions of the "Bristol" single-seater fighter are: Wing span, 33 ft. 10 in. (10 -32 m.); wing area, 307-15 sq. ft. (28-55 m2.); length o.a., 24 ft. 10 in. (7-6 m.). The weight, empty, is 1,990 lb. (905 kg.). Fuel and oil, 607 lb. (276 kg.); military load, 528 lb. (240 kg.). Total loaded weight, 3,125 lb. (1,421 kg.). Wing loading, 10-17 lb./sq. ft. (49-8 kg./m.2).
Flight, June 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
THE BRISTOL AEROPLANE CO., LTD.
Two complete aeroplanes will be exhibited on the stand of the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., one a single-engined four-seater passenger machine with Bristol "Neptune" engine, and the other a "Bulldog" single-seater fighter with Bristol "Jupiter."
The second machine to be exhibited on the "Bristol" stand will be one of the "Bulldog" single-seater fighters of which a few months ago several were ordered for use by Royal Air Force squadrons, after very exhaustive and searching tests. The machine has now also been ordered by other countries. The "Bulldog" can be fitted with the Bristol "Jupiter" series VII, supercharged engine, when high speed at great altitudes is desired, or with the series VIA "Jupiter" when the machine is not expected to operate much above some 15,000 ft. The pilot's view is good in all directions; this has been achieved by cutting away the trailing edges of upper and lower wings near the centre-section and body, respectively. The centre-section itself is of thin section, so as to interfere as little as possible with the view.
The "Bulldog" is an all-metal machine, built almost entirely of high-tensile strip steel. In the fuselage, two distinct forms of construction are to be found: tubular in front and the special "Bristol" strip steel construction at the back. As this has been very fully described and explained in FLIGHT, by Mr. Pollard, there is little need to go into great detail here.
The wings are also of steel strip construction, and details of spars, ribs, etc., have, in this case, also been given in FLIGHT, by Mr. Pollard. As our space is limited, it will be preferable to devote it to the general features of the "Bulldog."
The pilot's seat is of the bucket type, designed to accommodate a parachute. Its height is adjustable in flight over a range of 4 1/2 ins. The pilot's harness is so arranged that it can be locked in any desired fore and aft position over a range of 7 ins. The pilot's windscreen, it will be observed, is of unsymmetrical shape in order to give complete protection from slipstream draught.
The equipment includes two Vickers' machine guns, mounted one on each side, in gun tunnels and readily accessible from the seat, a wireless apparatus and an oxygen installation. The bottle of the latter is held in a quick-release cradle, and can be withdrawn through one of the side doors.
The gross weight of the "Bulldog" is 3,250 lbs., of which 1,153 lbs. is load, comprising pilot, military load, fuel and oil. The total fuel capacity (in tanks in the top planes) is 70 gallons, and the oil capacity, 3 gallons. The military load comprises two Vickers' guns, 1,200 rounds of ammunition, parachute, C.C. gear, gun sights, oxygen apparatus, electrical equipment, instruments, wireless, signal pistol, and fire extinguishers.
When fully loaded, the "Bulldog" climbs to 20,000 ft. in 13 mins., and the speed at that height is 165 m.p.h. A normal cruising speed of 130 m.p.h. can be maintained without in any way overrunning the engine. A well-known test pilot who has flown it, reports that the rigidity of the metal structure is such that when diving the "Bulldog” at a maximum speed of 270 m.p.h. the machine is just as steady as it is when cruising at 130 m.p.h., with no tendency to nutter.
Flight, November 1932
British Aircraft at the Paris Aero Show
The Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd.
NO British aircraft firm has been a more frequent and consistent exhibitor at Paris Aero Shows than the Bristol Company. Scarcely an aero exhibition has been held in the Grand Palais but what Bristol aircraft have been there to uphold British prestige. It is therefore gratifying to find that again this year we shall see the familiar name "Bristol" on the banners flying above the stands. The exhibit on the aircraft stand (Bristols are also showing engines on a separate stand) will include a 1933 model "Bulldog" (Bristol Mercury IV S.2 engine) and specimens of Bristol types of metal construction.
The 1933 model "Bulldog" is essentially a development of the "Bulldog IIA," which is the standard single-seater fighter of the British Royal Air Force. All the improvements which long experience of the earlier machine has suggested have been incorporated in next year's model.
The most notable improvement is that associated with performance. By installing the more powerful Mercury IV S.2 instead of the Jupiter VII F advantage is taken of the smaller diameter of engine, while the extra power plays its part also. Secondly, by cowling the engine with a "Townend" drag-reducing ring, the performance is still further improved. The shape of the engine has made possible the installation of a new type of exhaust collector ring, which not only gives lower drag but actually improves the cooling.
In place of double wing bracing wires the 1933 "Bulldog" has single wires of greater cross-sectional area, which again reduce drag and also vibration.
By choosing a thicker wing section (R.A.F. 34 to be more explicit) it has been possible to house the petrol tanks entirely within the wing contour, thus again reducing drag. Another result of using this wing section is that it has been possible to reduce the chord of the lower wing slightly, thereby improving the view.
Stiffer ailerons, mass-balanced, have been fitted on the new model, and each aileron hinge is self-aligning. The horn balance of the elevator has been increased in area, making the elevator lighter and smoother in operation.
All these improvements have been carried out without introducing departures from the features of design found successful in the older model.
Flight, June 1934
Bristol "Bulldog IV"
At last year's Display a Bristol "Bulldog IV" was shown. It appears again this year, but with a different engine: the Bristol "Perseus" sleeve valve engine. The Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., regards this type of engine as an important part of the firm's programme, and the performance of the machine should be watched with interest, although the cowling will prevent visitors to Hendon from seeing much of the engine itself. The "Bulldog IV" is a day and night fighter, and has a wing span of 33 ft. 8 in.
Прототип Bulldog, обозначавшийся как Mk I, сфотографирован в Филтоне в мае 1927 года. В кабине - Сирил Увинс. Самолет имеет небольшой руль направления, который вскоре заменили на руль большей площади, а также установили крылья большего размаха - для высотных испытаний в Фарнборо.
THE BRISTOL SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER, BRISTOL "JUPITER" ENGINE: Three-quarter rear view.
The prototype Bristol Bulldog II, J9480, first flown on January 21, 1928 from Filton by Cyril Uwins. The type was subsequently ordered into production to Spec. F.17/28 and the first production example was J9576.
After competitive tests this machine has been adopted as standard Fighter for the Royal Air Force. Every Bristol "Bulldog" is of course doped with Cellon. Ever since early flying days, when they were building Box Kites, the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., have used Cellon Dope.
AIRCRAFTMAN WORKING ON A JUPITER.
Spanish Visitors to Filton: The week before last Their Royal Highnesses the Archdukes Francisco and Antonio, cousins of the King of Spain, who are on a tour of Europe, arrived at Filton by "Moth," and inspected the Bristol works and machines. During the evening they were entertained at his home by Mr. H. J. Thomas, a director and works manager of the Bristol Co. The next day the visitors were given a civic luncheon by the Lord Mayor of Birmingham.
DISTINGUISHED VISITORS AT FILTON: On July 17 the Bristol Aeroplane and aero engine works were visited by the Infante of Spain and M. Robert Esnault Pelterie, one of the pioneers of French aviation. The Infante, who is one of the finest Spanish pilots, made a flight in a Bristol "Bulldog," and made a perfect three-point landing. In the photograph are seen, on the right, from left to right: Don Alfonso, Senor Carlos de Quiros, Mr. C. F. Uwins, and M. Robert Esnault Pelterie.
Bristol Bulldog (Bristol "Jupiter"). The Bristol Aeroplane Co., as producers of both aircraft and aero engines, has a splendid opportunity for close cooperation between the two branches, and perhaps in no other Bristol machine produced has this fact been made fuller use of than in the "Bulldog," a single-seater day and night fighter of all-metal construction. The manner in which the "Jupiter" engine has been streamlined should be particularly noted. Not only is the extreme "nose" very pointed, and fairings placed in front of as well as behind the cylinder heads, but the overhead rockers have been enclosed in casings. Similar care has been taken in the design of the rest of the machine.
The stop-butts were never neglected. A Bulldog is seen trying its Vickers guns at Hornchurch.
FILLING THE TANK OF A BULLDOG.
The end of the sprint - the pilots reaching their "Bulldogs," which are waiting with engines warmed ready to start.
Two Bristol Bulldog IIAs, with K1661 in the foreground carrying a Hythe camera gun on its top wing centre section. The aircraft in the background is K1689. Both aircraft are in the colours of No 17 Squadron, and are seen at Kenley. K1661 was struck off RAF charge in July 1938, K1689 having already been struck off charge in May 1935.
The Bristol Bulldog IIA equipped six squadrons, mostly in succession to the Gamecock, but remained firmly cast in the mould of the British fighters of the ’twenties.
Built in 1929, Bulldog J9576 was delivered to 3 Sqn in July 1929. On November 7, 1930, the aircraft crashed and overturned at Chipping Norton but was reconditioned. In this photograph the aircraft appears to be in 3 Sqn markings.
Bulldog IIA K1088 in 17 Sqn markings. Delivered to the RAF early in 1930, this aircraft served with 17 Sqn at RAF Upavon until struck off charge in February 1933.
Another view of Bulldog IIA K2142 of 17 Sqn, probably taken at RAF Upavon.
The photograph of the Bristol Bulldog IIA was taken at RAF Kenley. K2173 was on the strength of No 17 Squadron until struck off charge in June 1937. The Mk IIA Bulldog differed from the standard Bulldog by way of its strengthened airframe, wider track undercarriage with larger tyres and tailwheel instead of tail skid. At the time when the pictures on this page were taken Nos 3 and 17 Squadrons were based at Kenley. Earlier, from 1932 until 1934, the aerodrome had been closed for operational use during reconstruction, the squadrons being dispersed to nearby Biggin Hill, Kenley was to remain a grass aerodrome until further modernisation in 1939 included the laying of two hard runways and a perimeter track.
Bristol Bulldog IIA K2166 was first delivered to 19 Sqn towards the end of 1931. After a period with the RAE it arrived at the Royal Air Force College, where it remained until October 21, 1935, when it was destroyed after failing to recover from a spin.
"A RAID IN OUR SECTOR": Pilots of No. 23 (F.) Squadron mount, on receipt of orders from Fighting Area Headquarters.
A 23 Sqn pilot leaps into a Bulldog to take part in air exercises at RAF Kenley on July 21-22, 1931.
OUR VISITOR FROM NEPAL: Gen. Bahadur Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana, of Nepal, inspects a Bristol "Bulldog" at Croydon.
19 Sqn Bulldog IIA K2161.
READY FOR THE FRAY: A "Bulldog" of No. 17 (Fighter) Squadron waiting at Kenley to go up on night patrol.
Old faithful: The Bristol Bulldog IIa day-and-night fighter with 490 h.p. Jupiter VIIF engine is scheduled for replacement
Bulldog IIA K1626 of 17 Sqn was initially delivered to 111 Sqn. It ended its days with 3 Sqn when it crashed on landing at RAF Kenley on March 31, 1937.
Bulldog IIA K2142 of 17 Sqn was delivered during the second half of 1931 and remained with the squadron until it was struck off RAF charge in June 1934.
Trying out the smoke-producing apparatus on a "Bulldog" of No. 3 (F) Squadron at Kenley. Five of these machines did aerobatics with smoke on Empire Air Day
Away within two minutes of the alarm. This last photograph, actually, is of "Bulldogs" of No. 17 (F) Squadron, Kenley, which also demonstrated this evolution on Empire Air Day.
AIRCRAFT IN THE KING'S CUP: Bristol "Bulldog" (490-h.p. Bristol "Jupiter VIa ").
IN A HURRY: Two views of the new Bristol "Bulldog," with Bristol "Jupiter" engine. The lower photograph shows the neat engine cowling. The machine was piloted by Mr. C. F. Uwins.
THE BRISTOL "BULLDOG": Fitted with a Bristol "Jupiter" engine, this machine is of all-metal (steel) construction, and is one of the types chosen for re-equipping the R.A.F.
The prototype Bulldog I photographed during a demonstration during the latter half of 1927. It first went to Martlesham in June of that year and made its public debut at the RAF display at Hendon the following month.
NEW ALL-BRISTOL COMBINATION. Three views of the "Bulldog" with "Jupiter" engine, a single-seater fighter of recent production. Rounding the sheds unexpectedly is one of Mr. Uwins' tricks, and is illustrated here.
Mr. C. F. Uwins, of the Bristol Aeroplane Co., gives the crowd a thrill during a demonstration of high-speed flying in a Bristol "Bulldog" Fighter.
AT THE BRISTOL CLUB MEETING: Mr. Cyril Uwins shows off to good advantage the Bristol "Bulldog" ("Jupiter") single-seater fighter.
BRISTOL "BULLDOG": Single-seater Fighter, with Bristol "Jupiter" Engine.
"LET ME GET AT THEM": A "Bulldog" of No. 23 (F.) Squadron off on receipt of a raid warning.
A lovely shot of Bristol Bulldog IIA, G-ABBB, Bristol’s demonstrator in 1931. It was presented to the Science Museum in 1939 and restored to flying condition in 1961. After surviving one crash in 1962 it was finally wrecked at the 1964 SBAC show at Farnborough.
AN UNUSUAL VIEW OF THE BRISTOL "BULLDOG": Mr. C. F. Uwins doing a vertical bank. The picture should be held overhead to give an idea of how the machine appeared to the onlookers.
Bristol Bulldog IIA K1085, photographed by CHARLES SIMS of The Aeroplane. K1085 flew with Nos 17 and 19 Sqns before being struck off RAF charge on October 20, 1930.
Bristol Bulldog IIA K1085 of 17 Sqn up from RAF Upavon in June 1930. After a very brief stay with this squadron, K1085 spent a short spell with 29 Sqn and was struck off RAF charge in October 1930.
A Bulldog IIa K2159 single-seater fighter (Bristol Jupiter) with the typical service markings of 19 Sqn and equipment of its time.
Bulldog составлял основу истребительной авиации британских ВВС в начале 1930-х годов. Этот самолет принадлежал звену "А" из 56-й эскадрильи.
В 2012 году в мире не имелось ни одного пригодного к полетам самолета Bulldog; последним экземпляром стал K2227 (бывший G-ABBB), переданный в коллекцию Шаттлуорт Траст и разбившийся в Фарнборо в сентябре 1964 года. В 1990-е годы самолет восстановили, и теперь он экспонируется в музее ВВС Великобритании в Лондоне. Еще один Bulldog, BU-59, находится в музее ВВС Финляндии.
8 мая 1929г.: истребители Bristol Bulldog поступили на вооружение 3-й эскадрильи британских ВВС. Они сфотографированы над Суданом во время абиссинского кризиса в 1935-1936 годах.
"Bulldogs" ("Jupiter") of No. 19 (Fighter) Squadron
NO. 17 (FIGHTER) SQUADRON! FLYING IN "SQUADRON FORMATION." THIS UNIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS DETAILS OF THE BULLDOG AEROPLANE. AS WELL AS A GENERAL VIEW OF PERFECT FORMATION FLYING.
Хотя 17-я эскадрилья британских ВВС получила свои первые Bulldog Mk II в октябре 1928 года, но полностью эскадрилью перевооружили на новые самолеты позже, чем 3-ю эскадрилью, тоже дислоцированную в Апэвоне. Самолет на переднем плане имеет маркировку 3-й эскадрильи, а другие машины несут зигзагообразную маркировку 17-й эскадрильи.
17 Sqn Bulldog Ils up from RAF Upavon in June 1930.
Bristol Bulldog IIAs in 1932
The backbone of our day-and-night fighter equipment - the well-tried Bristol "Bulldogs," which have been used by the majority of fighter squadrons during the past few years.
A formation of Bristol Bulldogs.
NO. 17 (FIGHTER) SQUADRON FLYING IN "SQUADRON V" FORMATION.
THE "BULLDOGS" SHOW THEIR TEETH. ONE SQUADRON IN A V.
THE "BULLDOGS" SHOW THEIR TEETH. A WING OF NOS. 3, 17, AND 54 (FIGHTER) SQUADRONS. THE LEADING SQUADRON IS CHANGING FORMATION.
EVENT 9. LOW ATTACKS: A demonstration of low attacks was given by Day Bomber and Fighter Squadrons. Here are seen three Bristol Bulldogs of No. 3 Fighter Squadron
Smoke evolutions by Bulldogs at Hornchurch.
A trio of 41 Sqn Bulldogs up from RAF Northolt. The squadron leader’s aircraft, nearest the camera, carries drogue pennants.
A trio of 23 Sqn Bulldogs, with K2151 in the foreground, K1678 in the centre and K1687 in the background. The squadron's Bulldogs were based first at RAF Kenley and later at Biggin Hill.
A trio of Bulldogs on a low-level bombing exercise at RAF Eastchurch, Kent, on May 11, 1936. They were preparing for Empire Air Day, when RAF stations throughout the UK opened their gates to the public.
3-я эскадрилья стала первой, в которую поступали Bulldog Mk II, заменив Gloster Gamecock. Ранее эскадрилья летала на Sopwith Snipe, а затем на Hawker Woodcock. Личный состав 3-й эскадрильи принимал участие в подготовке правил летной эксплуатации Bulldog, эта же эскадрилья дольше всех летала на этих истребителях.
MORE SMOKE: Here all five of the "Skywriters" are seen designing beautiful coloured patterns on their blue "canvas."
SMOKE: Three of the "Bulldogs" from No. 19 (Fighter) Squadron about to weave a spiral of orange, green and white smoke trails.
STILL SMOKING: The three "Bulldogs" in Formation.
"WEAVING": The three Bulldogs," piloted by Martlesham pilots, intertwining their smoke trails.
"ICH DIEN": "Prince of Wales' Feathers" formed with smoke.
"GENTLEMEN, YOU MAY SMOKE": Martlesham pilots on "Bulldogs" writing the letters "R.A.F." with coloured smoke.
Weaving a plait in smoke - the Bulldogs of No. 54 (F) Squadron.
Giving them the low-down: This is what the "savages " in the low attack event see during the initial dive of No. 32 (F.) Squadron. But this is nothing compared with what they are shown after the machines break formation and approach the question from every angle.
THE FLEET FIGHTERS BREAK FORMATION.
AIR COMBAT: "Sidestrand" v. "Bulldogs."
LORD LONDONDERRY, Secretary of State for Air, opened Liverpool Airport officially on Saturday, July 1. He flew to the aerodrome in a Hawker "Hart" (R.R. "Kestrel") escorted by nine Bristol "Bulldogs" (Bristol "Jupiters") of No. 29 (Fighter) Squadron. On his arrival he was welcomed by the Lord Mayor (Councillor A. Gates), Group Capt. H. J. Hunter (Officer Commanding the R.A.F. Display), and Mr. F. G. Bertram (Deputy Director of Civil Aviation, representing the Director, Col. F. C. Shelmerdine).
No. 54 (Fighter) Squadron, flying Bristol "Bulldogs" ("Jupiter" engines), rallying after an attack on the "Southamptons" (Napier "Lion" engines) of No. 204 (Flying-Boat) Squadron. One fin and rudder of a flying boat appears to the left of the picture.
A. "Southampton" attacked from the rear by a "Bulldog," as seen from another boat of No. 204 (Flying-Boat) Squadron.
"Bulldogs" of No. 54 (Fighter) Squadron attacking a "Southampton." This photograph shows the view from the front cockpit of the flying-boat. Above the tail plane is one "Bulldog" turning to break away after attacking, while another can be seen below diving out of range.
A FORMATION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES USED FOR INSTRUCTION AT THE CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL: From left to right, Gamecock, Atlas, Moth, III.F, Avro-Lynx, Siskin and Bulldog.
A MIXED GRILL: A formation of seven different types over Wittering, viz., "Gamecock," "Atlas," "Moth," "Fairey III F," "Avro-Lynx," "Siskin," and "Bulldog."
INSTRUCTIONAL AIRCRAFT: This picture shows five types used at Cranwell for teaching cadets to fly. The leading machine is an Avro "Tutor," followed by a two-seater "Bulldog" and a single-seater "Bulldog," with an instructional "Hart" and a two-seater "Siskin" in the rear.
PERFORMING MICE: An amusing snapshot from behind a Zwicky refuelling unit at Biggin Hill, with Bulldogs of No. 32 Squadron which took part in the Exercises.
No.32 Squadron Bulldog IIA K1657 with cowling ring
Bulldogs K2227 and K2206 fitted with short-chord polygonal cowling rings. This modification was never standardised.
FOR GUNNERY TRAINING: Three Bristol "Bulldog II.A" ("Jupiter VII.F.P.") of No.29 (Fighter Squadron) and a Fairey "Gordon" ("Panther II.A") start off to give a demonstration aerial target practice. The target is towed by the "Gordon," and the "Bulldogs" swoop down on the former and fire at it with their machine guns.
THE DEFENDERS: No. 54 (Fighter) Squadron Bristol "Bulldog II.A" ("Jupiter VII.FP."), well disguised, take off to defend the Magazine against attack.
"STRAINING AT THE LEASH": The "Bulldogs" and fighter "Harts" of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron waiting at Kenley for orders to go up and:attack raiders.
THE BULLDOGS OF NO. 17 (FIGHTER) SQUADRON.
Bristol Bulldogs of Nos. 56 and 3 Squadrons (in centre) returning after the main fly-past practice Aircraft are not in their Review order here
OLD AND NEW: A 1914 R.A.F. Farman, and a 1931 R.A.A.F. Bristol "Bulldog." The Farman is owned by Mr. R. Graham Carey, of the Victorian Aero Club, who has had it re-conditioned for passenger carrying, etc. It is fitted with a 90 h.p. R.A.F. engine.
В 1931 году "Bristol" переоборудовала Bulldog IIA в усовершенствованный учебный двухместный самолет (инструктор и курсант). Были построены не менее 59 двухместных учебных Bulldog TM (Type 124), которые эксплуатировались в Центральной летной школе, а также в училище ВВС в Кранвелле.
FOR ADVANCED TRAINING: The Bristol two-seater "Bulldog" ("Jupiter") was one of the new types demonstrated at the S.B.A.C. Display at Hendon on Monday last.
Two further views of the two-seat Bulldog T.M.. K2188. Subsequently this aircraft flew as a testbed for the Cheetah engine and was later relegated to become an instructional airframe in 1940.
Bulldog IIA K2188, part of a batch of 100 IIAs delivered to the RAF between June 31 and February 1932, was converted to become the prototype two-seater Training Machine (T.M.) towards the end of 1931.
The Bulldog trainer featured sweepback on both upper and lower mainplanes, and a modified empennage. A total of 59 trainers was built.
THE C.-IN-C.: Air Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, K.C.B., etc., flew round the Blue aerodromes in a two-seater "Bulldog."
Gloster "Gauntlets" of No. 19 (Fighter) Squadron - the latest and fastest type of fighter in service in the world. Its top speed at 15,800 feet is 230 m.p.h. These remarkable Flight photographs were taken from a two-seater "Bulldog" which flew as a member of the single-seater formation.
"BRISTOL" AEROPLANES IN LATVIA: Officers and non-commissioned officers of a "Bulldog" Squadron.
To round off the session, let's close with a real eye-catcher. In 1930 two Bristol Bulldog fighters were purchased by the U.S. Navy for evaluation at the same time as one was supplied to the Imperial Japanese Navy. Both U.S.N. Bulldog Mk. IIAs (Bristol Jupiter VIIF radial) were shipped to Anacostia, D.C., in crates from Filton via Avonmouth Docks. The U.S. Navy markings were applied on reassembly, the Bulldogs being supplied direct from the production line. The first, which left England on 10th October 1929 (c/n. 7358), developed aileron flutter and consequent wing rib failure during the prescribed terminal velocity diving sequence. The second (c/n. 7398). which left England on 24th February 1930, had revised aileron mass balance and strengthened wing ribs. This is the one shown in the photograph with the U.S.N, serial on the fin, A.8607. The flight report on the Bulldog by Navy pilots was favourable. The photograph was taken at Anacostia on 3rd June 1930.
A few Bristol installations (reading from top): Bulldog (Jupiter VI with cylinder "tails" and exhaust collector blending into spinner); Bulldog IV (Mercury IV with separate exhaust collector and Townend ring); Bulldog IV (Mercury VI S with combined exhaust collector and Townend ring);
BRISTOL "BULLDOG," MARK IV 600 h.p. "Mercury" V1.S.2
THE BRISTOL "BULLDOG," 1933 MODEL: This is the aircraft which will be exhibited on the Bristol stand in Paris.
THE 1933 "BULLDOG": Behind it on the Bristol stand is a skeleton wing in stainless steel.
BRISTOL "BULLDOG III A" ("Mercury").
Bristol "Perseus" engine installed in a Bristol "Bulldog."
Bristol "Bulldog IV" (Bristol "Perseus" sleeve valve engine).
Bulldog IV (showing Perseus sleeve-valve engine uncowled)
Bulldog IV: the complete scalloped cowling
WITH SLEEVE VALVES: The Bristol "Perseus" engine in the Bristol "Bulldog IV." The exhaust collector ring is faired into the engine cowl.
A Hamilton Standard controllable-pitch airscrew on a British engine. The Bristol "Mercury VI" has been officially approved for use with this airscrew, following 50 hours bench tests and 50 hours flying tests. It is here seen on a "Bulldog.''
The new Bristol controllable cowling closed and open. The installation illustrated is on the Mercury engine of a Bulldog IV single-seater fighter used for experimental work.
Alvis Leonides flight-tested in a Bulldog
THE CHAIRMAN: Mr. H. J. Thomas, of the Bristol Aeroplane Co., welcomed the guests at the official luncheon, first in English and then in French. He is seen here interrupted in the task of explaining to his young son some of the mysteries of the "Bulldog IV."
Ready for test: A Bristol "Bulldog" with Napier "Rapier" engine on the balance of the 24ft. wind tunnel. Control of the exit of the cooling air reduced the cost of cooling to 1 per cent. of the power of the engine.
The Bulldog, G-ABBB, which was built as a demonstrator and is now being restored to flying condition at Filton. This picture shows it in its final form as a test-bed for the Aquila engine.
FOR SHORT-WAVE WIRELESS TESTS: Marconi Type A.D. 43A transmitter installed in a Bristol "Bulldog" single-seater fighter for recent short-wave tests between the Marconi experimental station at Croydon and the aeroplane in flight over the Bristol district. The corresponding receiver, Type A.D. 44A, is mounted at the back of the transmitter. This photograph shows the method of installation, the aerial system, and the Marconi-Stanley one-horse-power engine and flexible drive used for running up the generator on the ground for testing and adjusting purposes.
A12-1 in flight circa 1939. By this time the aircraft had been fitted with navigation lights and underwing flares for night landings. Note also the underwing bomb racks.
In 1939 there were only three Bulldogs surviving in RAAF service and photographer Kip Porteous wanted to preserve the breed on film. A fine study of A12-1.
Bulldog magic. A12-1 tail chases the photo-ship, 1939.
The RAAF used the Jupiter VI radial in its Bulldogs as it was faster below 8,000ft (2,440m) than the VII as fitted to RAF examples.
Note coloured wheel covers and spinners in this line-up. A12-2 in centre.
The aerobatic qualities of the Bulldog were well appreciated by the lucky pilots who got to fly the type. A12-6 carries a streamer on its rudder.
В числе первых покупателей Bulldog были ВВС Австралии - они закупили восемь самолетов (7389-7396, местное обозначение A12-1 - A12-8), которые были поставлены в конце января 1930 года. Австралийские самолеты комплектовались моторами Jupiter VIF, но в остальном были полностью идентичны своим британским собратьям. В 1936 году Австралия запросила еще 45 Bulldog, но Британия в поставке отказала, так как производство самолетов уже было прекращено.
Brian Walker in full period flying gear plays the intrepid airman for his sister. A12-7 has navigation lights, flare brackets and wireless aerial fitted.
Sequence showing the recovery of A12-7 following its forced landing on the Nullarbor Plain. Rolling up on to railway bogies...
A precarious way to travel...
Successful team, three section cars, the crew and the Bulldog.
Австралия купила 8 Bulldog Mk II, доставленных в разобранном виде на борту судна "Форсдейл" в марте 1930 года. К 1940 году остались лишь три машины - в апреле их переклассифицировали в учебные.
The Bulldog was a favourite at air displays, travelling all over Australia to show the taxpayers that they had an airforce. It was not considered unusual for RAAF aircraft to enter air races. A DH Moth comes into land over the Bulldog in which F/O C Henry achieved 185mph to win the 1931 Aerial Derby.
With painted spinner and wheel discs, this Bulldog also shows the unauthorised eagle badge of the un-numbered Fighter Flight at Point Cook on the forward cowl.
Camera gun mounted above the centre section is obvious in this illustration. Bulldogs were purchased to keep the combat capabilities of the RAAF intact. They were the only single-seat fighters in service in the RAAF when Australia declared war on Germany in 1939.
Inspection of RAAF aircraft was a weekly affair. If the machines were not up to scratch, weekend leave would be cancelled.
Formation take-off. Note the rudder streamer on the lead aircraft.
Laverton aerodrome circa 1939. Behind the Avro Ansons can be seen Supermarine Seagull V amphibians, the sole Miles Magister purchased for the RAAF, Bulldogs, a Moth and Demon.
Paddy Heffernan in the cockpit of a Bulldog.
Следом за "французской эрой" в авиации Эстонии наступила "английская". На снимке "Бристоль-Бульдог"
Первый воздушный бой между советскими самолетами (два звена И-16) и финскими Bulldog (два самолета) состоялся 1 декабря 1939 года - один Bulldog был сбит, второй уклонился от боя. По утверждениям финской стороны был сбит и один И-16 - это была первая воздушная победа финских летчиков.
Характеристики Bulldog произвели впечатление на военных многих стран, и в апреле 1934 года Финляндия заказала 17 истребителей Bulldog IVA, это был первый экспортный заказ. На последнем Bulldog британской постройки в левой законцовке нижнего крыла была установлена управляемая вручную посадочная фара, совершенно необходимая для эксплуатации самолета в суровых условиях Арктики, как электрообогрев кабины и наличие пулеметов. Истребитель применялся в боях с советской авиацией в ходе Зимней войны 1939-1940 годов. Хотя самолет к этому времени устарел, финские летчики одержали на нем несколько побед в воздушных боях.
Истребители "Бристоль Бульдог Mk.IV" к началу войны уже безнадежно устарели, и даже в руках хороших пилотов не представляли серьезной опасности ни для бомбардировщиков, ни, тем более, для истребителей ВВС РККА. Зимой лыжи заметно ухудшали и без того не блестящие летные данные этих машин. На снимке: "Бульдоги" из состава LLv 26, Сортавала, март 1939г.
Наглядное доказательство того, что атакованный капитаном Дервяновым финский истребитель сбит не был. Это фото "Бульдога" (борт. BU-73), который 25 декабря 1939 г. пилотировал лейтенант П.Берг, сделано осенью 1940 г.
Третий самолет из второй партии Bulldog для Швеции. Этот Mk IIA сфотографирован в Филтоне незадолго до поставки в шведский Мальмслетт в мае 1931 года. Все самолеты ВВС Швеции время от времени летали с лыжным шасси. Позже их передали Финляндии.
Britain First: Three Bristol Bulldogs and six Swedish Jaktfalks show that Swedish pilots are no mean performers of two very difficult formations, "Echelon stepped up" and "Line astern.'' The Bulldogs are nearest the camera.
Britain First: Three Bristol Bulldogs and six Swedish Jaktfalks show that Swedish pilots are no mean performers of two very difficult formations, "Echelon stepped up" and "Line astern.'' The Bulldogs are nearest the camera.
A composite squadron - seen in "line astern" - of three Bristol Bulldogs and six Jaktfalk machines from the Swedish First Air Corps at Vasteras.
HOSTS, PERFORMERS, AND VISITORS: 3, a somewhat futuristic Portrait of Mr. Cyril Uwins in the cockpit of the Bristol "Bulldog."
The Bristol "Bulldog" is exhibited with panels removed to show the structure and equipment.
The Bulldog was built of ribbon steels worked into suitable corrugated sections. One RAAF aircraftsman recalled that they had been reconditioned so many times that hardly any of the original structure remained.
"THE CAMEO OF THE SHOW": This was the expression used by a French engineer in reference to the Bristol Single-seater Fighter. The machine is exhibited stripped to the centre-line.
METAL CONSTRUCTION: The photo shows the erection of Bristol "Bulldog" all-steel single-seater Fighters at the Filton works of the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd. An order for a number of these machines has just been obtained from Latvia.
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC AT THE GRAND PALAIS: Admiring the Bristol Single-seater Fighter.
AIRCRAFT WIRELESS: The Marconi installation in the Bristol Single-seater Fighter.
The Bristol Stands: On the aircraft stand in the foreground may be seen the 110A passenger machine, and behind that the "Bulldog" single-seater fighter. In the background the engine stand.