De Havilland D.H.18
Варианты:
De Havilland - D.H.18 - 1920 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1920


Легкий пассажирский самолет с одним пилотом
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Описание:
de Havilland DH.18
Flight, March 1921
THE D.H. 18 LIMOUSINE
Фотографии

de Havilland DH.18

Обозначение DH.18 присвоили большому одномоторному биплану, вмещавшему восемь пассажиров в закрытом салоне. Пилот размещался в открытой кабине за бипланной коробкой. Построенный в Хендоне DH.18 впервые взлетел в феврале 1920 года и был продан авиакомпании "Aircraft Transport & Travel Ltd." для полетов на линии Кройдон - Париж. Однако прослужил он недолго и разбился при вынужденной посадке у Кройдона в августе того же года.
  В 1920 году компания "Airco", строившая самолеты де Хэвилленда, сменила название на "de Havilland Aircraft Co. Ltd.". Новая фирма построила два модифицированных самолета DH.18А для компании "Instone Air Line", которая позже приобрела третий самолет того же типа. Все они летали на континентальных авиалиниях. Первый аэроплан был списан в сентябре 1921 года; другой разбился всего через два месяца после поставки. Третий экземпляр, поставленный в июне 1921 года, в апреле 1922-го перепродали компании "Daimler Hire Ltd.". Несколько дней спустя он разбился, столкнувшись в небе над Францией с бомбардировщиком "Farman Goliath".
  Последние два самолета обозначили DH.18B. Они имели фюзеляжи с фанерной обшивкой вместо полотна. Их масса возросла до 1955 кг, а максимальная взлетная - до 3228 кг. Эти машины недолго прослужили в компании "Instone". Второй аэроплан разобрали в 1923 году. Первый использовался в испытаниях Министерства авиации на плавучесть с преднамеренной посадкой в Северном море у Феликстоу, Саффолк, в мае 1924 года. Странно, но последним уцелевшим самолетом DH.18 стал первый серийный самолет, поставленный в центр RAE для испытаний после списания из компании "Instone" в 1921 году. Его сдали на слом в 1927 году.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  de Havilland DH.18A

  Тип: легкий пассажирский самолет с одним пилотом
  Силовая установка: W-образный поршневой мотор Napier Lion мощностью 450 л. с. (336 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 206 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; крейсерская скорость 161 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; начальная скороподъемность 201 м/мин; практический потолок 4875 м; дальность полета 644 км
  Масса: пустого самолета 1833 кг; максимальная взлетная 2956 кг
  Размеры: размах крыльев 15,62 м; длина 11,89 м; высота 3,96 м; площадь крыльев 57,71 м2
  Полезная нагрузка: до восьми пассажиров либо груз

Flight, March 1921

THE D.H. 18 LIMOUSINE
450 H.P. Napier Lion Engine

  IN many respects one of the most remarkable machines designed by Capt. de Havilland, the D.H.18 Limousine, of which we publish illustrations this week, is the first really commercial aeroplane produced by that famous designer. The majority of the machines in use by Aircraft Transport and Travel on the London-Continent routes, until the unfortunate demise of that firm some months ago, were converted war machines, and although they did excellent work, they could not compare for suitability and economy with the "18," specially designed for the work. Thus it may be remembered that in the paper read by Mr. H. White Smith before the Air Conference at the Guildhall last year, figures were given of the cost of operating a service with six machines, each flying 1.000 hours per annum, and the honour of showing the lowest figure per passenger mile, per passenger journey of 240 miles, per ton mile, and per ton per journey of 240 miles, fell to the D.H. 18. These figures, it may be remembered, were respectively as follows :- 4 3/4d., ?7 4s. (on 75 per cent. load factor), 3s. 7d., and ?42 18s.
  These figures, it should be kept in mind, were not based upon theoretical estimates, but were the result of actual experience in running, the D.H.18 type having been in use by the A.T. and T. for several months, when it gave extraordinarily good results. These machines were built by the Aircraft Manufacturing Co., before that firm ceased to exist as an aircraft firm, and thus the machine, as a type, is not new. A modernised version is, however, nearing completion at the Stag Lane works of the De Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., and it is therefore thought that a few notes dealing with this machine may be of interest. It should be pointed out that the machine now being constructed is similar in all main characteristics to the earlier machines, but minor alterations and improvements which experience has suggested are being incorporated in the latest specimen. The accompanying photographs show one of the earlier models, but the detail sketches are taken from the latest machine. Reference will be made later to points in which the new machine differs from the earlier ones.

General Arrangement

  Briefly, the D.H. 18 is a vertical biplane, of the tractor type, with the passengers accommodated in an enclosed cabin approximately level with the wings, and the pilot seated well aft, about half-way between the nose and tail of the body. The engine is mounted in the nose, rather higher than is usual practice, giving a high centre of thrust, and, incidentally, ample ground clearance. As the accompanying illustrations will show, the machine is of very clean design, and the performance, as indicated by the figures at the end of these notes, is uncommonly good, the maximum speed being as high as 128 m.p.h., and the cruising speed in the neighbourhood of 100 m.p.h.
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Specification

  The main data relating to the D.H. 18 are as follows :-
  Span, 51 ft. 3 ins., length o.a. 39 ft., height 13 ft., chord, 6 ft. 6 ins. Gap 6 ft. 10 ins., area 620 sq. ft., weight empty with water 4,040 lbs., pilot 180 lbs. Petrol 761 lbs, oil 95 lbs., useful load 1,440 lbs., total weight fully loaded 6,516 lbs., load per sq. ft. 10.5 lbs., load per h.p. 12.3 lbs., maximum speed at 1,000 ft. 128 m.p.h., at 5,000 ft. 125 m.p.h., climb to 10,000 ft. 20 minutes, ceiling 16,000 it., range at 5,000 ft. and full speed 400 miles. These figures apply to the machine as fitted up for carrying eight passengers. If desired the seats can be removed and the cabin used for cargo space. The cubic capacity of the cabin is then 256 cu. ft., and by loading the machine up to a total weight of 7,116 lbs. the useful load that can be carried is 2,200 lbs. The extra load has but small effect on the performance, reducing the maximum speed to about 124 m.p.h. and the ceiling to 15,000 ft. The landing speed is, of course, also slightly increased by the extra loading.
8 апреля 1920г.: первый построенный в начале года в Хендоне самолет de Havilland DH.18 (рег. G-EARI) британская авиакомпания "Air Transport & Travel" начала эксплуатировать на линии Кройдон - Париж. Самолет разбился 16 августа 1920г. в районе аэропорта Кройдон.
На фото: G-EARO - первый серийный DH.18, использовавшийся авиакомпаниями AT&T и "Instone" и закончивший свои дни в испытательном центре RAE в фарнборо.
THE D.H.18: Side view.
THE OPENING OF WADDON AIR PORT: The new Airco 18, 450 h.p. Napier Lion engine, ready to commence work on the London-Paris air service. This machine has a different seating accommodation from previous types, the pilot being placed far back in the fuselage, behind the cabin, which seats eight passengers. A three-bladed propeller is fitted.
AIR CONFERENCE VISIT TO WADDON: Airco 18, Instone Vickers Vimy-Commercial, Westland Limousine, Avro triplane, and Bristol Coupe
AIR CONFERENCE VISIT TO WADDON: Our group shows: Mr. Bonar Law, Lord Weir, General Sykes, Sir James Stevenson, and General Ellington, with one of the Airco machines as a "background"
Lord Leverhulme Uses London-Paris Air Route: Our picture shows Lord Leverhulme descending from the Instone D.H.18 (Napier "Lion"), which is doing such good service on the London-Paris Air route. Lord Leverhulme constantly travels to and from the Continent by air.
ARRIVED FROM PARIS: Passengers alighting from the "D.H.18 G-EAUF" of the Instone Air Line at the Croydon terminal.
OFF TO PARIS: One of the Napier-engined Airco 18 machines recently flew from London to Paris in 1 hour 47 minutes, with seven passengers on board. The machines are designed to carry eight passengers in addition to the pilot. Fitted with a Napier Lion, one of these machines is capable of climbing to 10,000 ft. in 20 minutes with its full complement of passengers. As the cabin is entirely closed in, it is possible to fly in absolute comfort, even at the great speed reached by the Airco 18, and it is therefore only natural that this machine is getting very popular on the Continental Air Express Service
View inside the cabin of the D.H.18.
Pictorial diagram of passenger accommodation, etc., in the D.H.18.
THE D.H.18: The engine unit is detached by undoing a few bolts in the four corners. The lower sketch shows the fitting in the lower starboard corner.
THE D.H.18: From left to right the sketches show: Ball-and-socket joint attachment of telescopic undercarriage strut to lower longeron. Detail of the rubber shock-absorber arrangement. Attachment of struts to wheel axle.
D.H.18 450hp Napier 'Lion' engine