Avro серии 504
Конструкция самолета серии 504 во многом скопирована с аппарата серии 500. Первый полет биплан с неубираемым шасси, снабженным центральной противокапотажной лыжей, выполнил в Бруклендсе в июле 1913 года. Самолет был оснащен 80-сильным мотором Gnome. Летом
1913 года Королевский авиационный корпус заказал партию из 12 машин, еще несколько Avro серии 504 купили частные лица, причем часть из этих самолетов была построена в варианте с поплавковым шасси.
Самолет серии 504 стал первым сбитым противником британским аэропланом: машину из 5-й эскадрильи сбила над Бельгией 22 августа 1914 года своим огнем германская пехота.
Заказ на серию 504 поступил также от Адмиралтейства. Первые четыре заказанных флотом самолета приняли 21 ноября 1914 года участие в знаменитом рейде на базу германских "цеппелинов" (дирижаблей жесткой конструкции производства одноименной фирмы) в Фридрихсхафене. Один самолет с боевого задания не вернулся. На фронте аэропланы серии 504 широкого распространения не получили, но показали себя с наилучшей стороны в качестве основного учебного самолета.
Первым модернизированным вариантом базовой модели стал Avro серии 504A с элеронами меньшей площади и стойками бипланной коробки с увеличенной хордой. За 63 самолетами модели Avro серии 504 последовали 50 аэропланов Avro серии 504A. До окончания войны в 1918 году производство аэропланов серии 504 достигло 8000 единиц.
На первых серийных самолетах стояли 80-сильные ротативные моторы Gnome Monosoupape, в то время как прототип был оснащен двигателем Gnome. За серией 504A последовала серия 504B, предназначенная для морской авиации и отличавшаяся килем большей площади. Одноместная серия 504C строилась для ВМС и предназначалась для борьбы с германскими дирижаблями. Аналогичная одноместная машина для авиационного корпуса получила обозначение серия 504D. Но всем этим вариантам явно не хватало мощности установленного на них 80-сильного мотора Gnome.
Усиленная и несколько доработанная серия 504C использовалась для катапультных испытаний под обозначением "серия 504H", а немногим ранее модель серии 504B была задействована в испытаниях на посадку с использованием тормозного гака.
Затем для морской авиации была разработана улучшенная серия 504E, оснащенная мотором Gnome Monosoupape мощностью 100 л. с. Помимо замены мотора, в конструкцию самолетов внесли ряд изменений. Всего было собрано десять машин серии 504E.
Использование самолетов серии 504 в качестве учебных началось в 1916 году с появлением модификации серии 504J, силовая установка которой была аналогична модели серии 504E. Поставки машин серии 504J начались в 1917 году.
Производство двигателей не поспевало за постройкой планеров, поэтому появились альтернативные варианты силовой установки. Так, самолеты серии 504J оснащались моторами Clerget мощностью 130 л. с. и Le Rhone мощностью 80 или 110 л. с. Замена мотора вызывала необходимость внесения изменений в конструкцию планера самолета, что привело к появлению модели серии 504K, причем данное обозначение использовалось вне зависимости от марки установленного мотора.
После окончания войны Avro серии 504 оставались основными самолетами первоначального обучения в британских ВВС, но машины времен войны постепенно заменялись новой серией 504N.
После окончания Первой мировой войны потребность в самолетах значительно снизилась - военные "излишки" продали частным лицам и гражданским организациям. В 1919-1930 годах в Великобритании было зарегистрировано более 300 гражданских самолетов серии 504. Большое количество машин серии 504K продали в третьи страны, лицензионный выпуск был налажен в Австралии, Бельгии и Канаде. В СССР самолет стал основной учебной машиной и получил прозвище "Аврушка". В 1921 году около 30 самолетов серии 504K было продано в Японию, после чего местная фирма "Nakajima" построила 280 машин в сухопутном и морском вариантах (соответственно серия 504L и серия 504S), а компания "Yokosuka" разработала свой вариант - К1Y (всего различными японскими фирмами было собрано 104 самолета).
Первым послевоенным британским вариантом стала серия 504L. Было построено шесть таких трехместных гидропланов с моторами Bentley В. R.1 мощностью 150 л. с. Некоторое количество машин серии 504K переоснастили 130-сильными двигателями Clerget и установили облегченное поплавковое шасси.
Вся серия 540M представляла собой единственный экземпляр двухместного биплана с закрытой кабиной, спроектированный на основе стандартного самолета серии 504K.
Flight, April 1926
THE AVRO "GOSPORT”
A New Training Machine of "504" Type
PERHAPS one of the most remarkable features in the development of aeroplane design is centred around the world-famous Avro "504" biplane - which is a sort of "Peter Pan" of the aeroplane world. After Mr. A. V. Roe had produced his triplanes, during 1909-1910, he designed in 1911 a tractor fuselage biplane - one of the first aeroplanes of this type in the world to be produced - which was developed into the original "504" in 1913. Since that time this type has been multiplied to the umpteenth power, yet, although vastly improved aerodynamically, outwardly this aerial Peter has not appreciably grown up! This may be appreciated by comparing the accompanying illustration of the original "504" - which startled the aviation world in the summer of 1913 at Brooklands and Hendon - with the companion picture of the latest development of this type (the 504 R. "Gosport"), which we are able to describe this week.
It is the opinion of the house of Avro that the "light aeroplane" is unsuitable for the serious training of pilots. They have, therefore, designed this new type 504G., which, while being lighter in construction than other Avro training machines, is yet sufficiently strong to withstand the rough handling to which a training machine is subject. This machine is the outcome of their long and unparalleled experience in the production of training aircraft, and every quality essential for training purposes is incorporated in the design.
The fuselage is similar in construction to that of all Avro training machines, and is in the form of a wire-braced girder. This method has been proved in practice to be very strong, and at the same time to provide the best facilities for repairs in case of damage.
The instructor and pupil (or pilot and passenger) occupy two cockpits, which are arranged in tandem, and all machine and engine controls are duplicated in each cockpit. A particular feature, and one which is essential in a practical training machine, is that the machine can be flown equally well, and landed with equal safety, from either cockpit. If desired, special seats can be fitted in order that the Irving seat-type parchute may be used.
The main planes are built up on two spars of solid silver spruce spindled to a suitable "I" section. The ribs are of the same material, and the whole structure is cross-braced with high-tensile steel wire.
The top main planes differ slightly from the bottom planes in that the inner portion is tapered to suit the centre-section plane, which has been cut away at both leading and trailing edges as far as the main spars. As a result of this alteration both instructor and pupil have a much better overhead view - a distinct advantage in a training school, where often several machines are in the air at the same time.
The contour of the ailerons has been altered in such a way that they now harmonise perfectly with the elevators. All controls are particularly light, and very sensitive, and the machine responds immediately to the slightest touch.
The fixed tail plane is in two sections, and an elevator is hinged to the trailing edge of each tail plane. Both tail-planes and elevators are interchangeable port or starboard. The rudder is of the balanced type.
The interplane struts are of solid silver spruce carefully streamlined, with bracing ties of flexible steel cable, and the lift cables are in duplicate.
The undercarriage is similar to that fitted to the famous Avro 504K training machine, and has been specially designed for training purposes. The shock absorbers consist of rubber cord in tension and are built to withstand very heavy landing shocks. The most important feature of this undercarriage, however, is the long main skid, which not only protects the tip of the propeller in the case of a faulty landing by a pupil, but in a similar occurrence often prevents the machine turning over on its back, with serious consequences. The tail skid is sprung by rubber pads in compression.
The petrol and oil tanks are fitted inside the fuselage above and forward of the front seat. Petrol is pumped to the engine by means of a hand-pressure pump, which may be operated from either cockpit.
The engine fitted is the new model 100 h.p. Monosoupape with "Y" metal pistons, which obviate the necessity for obturator rings.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that every part of this machine is absolutely standardised in order to ensure complete interchangeability.
Its performance as a training machine is beyond comparison, and because robustness of construction has not been sacrificed for the sake of lightness, it is economical in operation.
The name "Avro" has always been the hall-mark of the best training aeroplanes; the word "Gosport" at once brings to mind the most thorough and scientific system of training that has ever been devised, and which was, from the outset, operated by the earlier 504 type of Avro aeroplane. For these reasons, this, the latest training aeroplane, has been rightly named the Avro "Gosport."
The principal characteristics of the "Gosport" are as follows
Span 36 ft 0 in.
Chord 4 ft 9-75 in.
Gap 5 ft 5 in.
Overall Length 28 ft 11 in.
Overall Height 10 ft. 4 in.
Area of main planes 320 sq. ft.
,, ailerons 40 ,,
tail plane 26 ,,
,, elevators 10 ,,
„ rudder 9 ,,
Dihedral angle 2-5°
Angle of incidence 4°
Weight empty 1,107 lbs.
Useful load 569 lbs.
Weight laden 1,676 lbs.
Weight per square foot 5-24 lbs.
Weight per horse-power 15-52 lbs.
Speed range 35-87 m.p.h.
Climb to 10,000 ft. 24 mins.
Service ceiling 13,000 ft.
Duration (cruising) 2 hours.
THE ORIGINAL AVRO 504: This three-quarter front view of the machine produced in 1913 shows how this famous type has retained its main external characteristics right up to the present day.
First produced in 1913, the Avro 504 became and remained the standard training machine of thr R.A.F. until a few years ago. The engine of the original machine was an 80 h.p. Gnome rotary.
"BORN 1913 AND STILL GOING STRONG": THE AVRO 504, WHICH BEGAN ITS CAREER AS AN OFFENSIVE AIRCRAFT EARLY IN THE WAR, LATER BECAME THE STANDARD TRAINING MACHINE. AMONG ITS EXPLOITS WAS THE BOMBING OF THE ZEPPELIN SHEDS AT FRIEDRICHSHAFEN.
F. P. Raynham with the prototype Avro 504 in its original form, with square cut engine cowlings and warping “ailerons”, at Hendon for the Aerial Derby, September 20, 1913.
With all aboard in both aircraft, the Avro 504 prototype and Blackburn Type I prepare to join battle during the “War of the Roses” Air Race over Yorkshire on October 2, 1913. In charge of the Avro was F.P. Raynham while the Blackburn monoplane was piloted by Harold Blackburn - no relation to the company’s founder Robert Blackburn.
A contemporary postcard showing the two contenders on the day of the race round Yorkshire on October 2, 1913. According to Flight, some 60,000 spectators turned up at Moortown to see the competitors off, despite the weather being less than ideal, with frequent bouts of mist causing problems throughout the day.
The Blackburn monoplane and Avro 504 prototype side by side, probably at Moortown before the start of the race. In July the following year Harold Blackburn used the same two-seater to open the first scheduled service in Britain, when he flew the first of his half-hourly single-passenger-carrying flights between Leeds and Bradford.
In 1913 the first Avro 504 appeared, the forebear of a classic design destined to become one of the world’s greatest training aeroplanes. During the inter-war years many Britons had their first experiences of flying in one of the numerous 504s that toured the UK.
The first Avro 504 made its public appearance at Hendon in 1914, and won instant admiration. We recollect that on the day of its visit it was flown in turn by a number of pilots, and they all expressed themselves delighted with it. Among those who flew it was the late Mr. Gordon Bell.
The Avro 504 prototype in its original configuration (in which it raced in October 1913) with a square cowling bulged to accommodate the 80 h.p. Gnome rotary engine. By the time the aircraft was the subject of a technical assessment in Flight that December a more streamlined cowling had been fitted.
Despite having beaten the Avro 504 prototype in the War of the Roses air race in a Blackburn monoplane, Harold Blackburn purchased one of the first production 504s, which is seen here on The Stray in Harrogate, with a view to establishing a “flying circus”. The plan came to nothing, however, owing to the outbreak of the Great War.
21 ноября 1914г.: Avro 504 (№378) пилота уинг-коммандера И. Ф. Бриггса был одним из трех самолетов британского ВМФ, посланным для бомбежки эллингов Zeppelin во Фридрисхафене.
Один из трех Avro 504 авиации британских ВМС, совершивших 21 ноября 1914 года из Белфорта рейд на Фридрихсхафен. Под фюзеляжем подвешены четыре 20-фунтовые бомбы.
789, one of a batch of 44 Avro 504s (80 h.p. Gnome), photographed at Farnborough on July 30, 1915.
Avro 504A 4034, fitted with an 80 h.p. Gnome rotary engine, prepares to have its propeller swung outside the Bleriot works, Brooklands, Circa 1915. It is not certain whether this machine was built as new at the Bleriot factory or if it was a rebuild.
The Avro 504C was the most important single-seat fighter variant of the basic Avro 504 and was employed in some numbers by the RNAS.
Avro 504A A487 was a product of the Bleriot & SPAD works, also based at Brooklands. One of a batch of 50 (A462-511), it is here seen being refuelled. Powered by the 80 h.p. Gnome rotary, the 504A was built in large numbers.
Avro 504J B3165 is seen here with a very unconventional modification to its cowling, which bulges out all round the engine. The reason for this is not known, but problems with the exhausting of the Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine may provide an explanation. B3165 is recorded as having served with "A" Flight of Maj R. R. Smith-Barry's School of Special Flying at Gosport at some stage of its life, so it may well have been paying a visit to Kinson when our pictures were taken.
Avro 504J B3168 at CFS Upavon in 1917. The 504J was fully aerobatic, light and positive on the controls and showed up faults in a pupil's flying. HRH Prince Albert, later King George VI, learned to fly on a 504J at Croydon in 1919. The first 504Js went to the School of Special Flying at Gosport.
An Avro 504K operated by Navarro for joy-riding in the summer of 1919. Although allocated the civil registration G-EAEA, it was allowed to operate in its original drab green with the RAF serial on the rudder.
504K E3269 equipped with interconnected Handley Page slots and Frise ailerons for low speed trials at Farnborough in 1925.
His Majesty as a Squadron Leader, seen near two famous war-time types, the Bristol Fighter and the Avro 504.
Menzies (right) and Flt Lt Greenslade stand beside Parnall-built Avro 504K F8709 after the former’s first solo flight, at Abu Sueir in February 1928. The “E" in the aircraft’s serial is erroneous, E8709 being an Airco D.H.9A.
Avro 504 K (Siddeley "Lynx" and various Rotary Engines). "Old Avros never die, but always fly away" should become the popular "flying" song of the R.A.F. First designed in 1912, the Avro type 504 is still largely used in the Service - of course, considerably modified, but fundamentally the same. Various types of rotary engines are installed, and recently the Siddeley "Lynx" has been fitted with successful results. The squadrons equipped with Avro 504K's are :- Nos. 24 (Communications), 502 (S.R. Ulster), 503 (S.R. Waddington), 600, 601(A.A.F. Northolt), 602 (A.A.F. Renfrew), 603 (A.A.F. Turnhouse), 605 (A.A.F. Castle Bromwich).
Line-up at Andover, circa 1926-1927 with Avro 504K H2311 stage centre. What can readers tell us?
Avro 504K G-ABAA marked as ‘H2311’ at Henlow, 1968. The large dot behind the fuselage roundel was red - what was this all about?
Although the original caption to this picture of Avro 504K H2367 states that it was serving with 216 Sqn's Communication Flight, it bears the fuselage markings of aircraft No 5 of D Flight, 4 FTS at Abu Sueir.
The post-war Avro 504, which was for years a familiar sight and which is only now being superseded as a training machine.
Monosoupape applications: The Avro 504K.
Produced in 1918 and used post-war, this Avro 504K was one of two kept at Farnborough for experiment
Despite Buss’s dislike of it, the Avro 504 quickly proved to be one of the most ubiquitous aircraft in RNAS service. The 504C, as seen here, was a single-seat version created specifically for anti-Zeppelin patrols and used extensively by the RNAS.
This unidentified Avro 504K was also operated for a while by the Southern Aero Club at New Salts aerodrome, at the western end of the present Shoreham Airport. This card too has been signed by Fred Miles. Lancing College may be seen in the background.
A Parnall-built Avro 504K takes advantage of the Hucks.
Rare photograph showing an Avro 504 of the Finnish Air Force.
Production 504Ks outside A. V. Roe's Hamble works in 1917. Total wartime production of the type exceeded that of all other British aircraft.
A batch of Avros recently delivered to the Belgian Government by air.
Between-the-wars line-up of Avro 504K trainers in peacetime colours at CFS, Upavon, in 1924.
Avros for Spain: A batch of Avro 504K machines ready for delivery to the Spanish Royal Naval Air Service. They are being supplied by the Aircraft Disposal Co., Ltd., and Capt. Cortijo, of the Spanish Royal Naval Commission, and Maj. J. Stewart, sales manager of the "A.D.C.," will be seen standing by the machines.
War surplus 504Ks and Martinsyde F.4s stacked in the Aircraft Disposal Company works at Croydon in 1920. E449, now in the RAF Museum, is visible as the 5th complete serial from the right Airdisco, as it was known, was a subsidiary of Handley Page Ltd.
At Mascot, NSW, on August 7, 1965, before modification
A3-4 in storage at Duntroon Military College, 1965
Today, G-EBIA flies as F904. It is seen here on the flight line at Duxford, along with the Shuttle worth Collection’s Avro 504K ‘H1599’ (G-ADEV).
One of Suffolk-based AJD Engineering’s latest creations is this superb Avro 504J replica, unveiled at the Southampton Hall of Aviation on November 14, 1991 as the centrepiece of a Roe/Chadwick/Hinkler memorial. AJD is currently restoring an original 504 from Sweden.
Avro 504J replica ‘C4451’, an example of AJD’s superb workmanship, is displayed inside the Hall of Aviation at Southampton.
Most early aero-engines were air cooled; to increase the flow of air past the cylinders, some, such as the Clerget in this Avro 504K, were designed to rotate, with the propeller, round a stationary crankshaft.
OUR KING AS PILOT: A photograph taken at Croydon soon after the War of a 504K Avro, at the controls of which was Prince Albert. Incidentally, London's airport was known in those days as "The Government Aerodrome, Waddon."
Prince Albert received flying tuition in this Avro 504J, C4451. It is seen at Waddon, later Croydon, with the Prince of Wales at the controls.
Leonard Snaith flying the Avro 504K - his first experience of the old trainer since 1926.
How the Black Baron is vanquished - a rocket fired from the struts of the Avro 504K.
Le Rhone-engined Avro 504K replica E2939, built in England by Vivian Bellamy for an abandoned film and snatched up by Palen;
The “blip ping” of the rotary engine and the tell-tale whiff of burned castor oil can be experienced all over again when the Shuttleworth Trust flies E3404 at Old Warden.
Seen at the Shuttleworth display on 31st October 1976 - Avro 504K E3404 in the air again after considerable work on its 110-h.p. Le Rhone engine
Avro 504B, serial 9826, showing the dorsal fin, modified rudder and cutaway cockpit.
Flt Lt Noakes in his 504K, 1921.
EVENT AT THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: Halton and Digby Avros leading in the first lap of the Relay Race.
Two Avro 504Ks fly in a relay race at the 1924 pageant.
An Avro 504K loops in formation with another 504 over the Firth of Forth.
An atmospheric aerial view of Hendon in May 1919, from an Avro 504K.
BY EXPERTS: Mr. Fred Holmes' Avros ("Mongoose" engines) do some very polished formation flying.
Four of Cornwall Aviation Co’s red Avro 504Ks over Whitchurch, June 4, 1932. These were used primarily for joy-riding.
Northern Air Transport Avro 504K G-ABAV with wing walker doing his stuff in 1930.
A wing-walker does his stuff atop Northern Air Transport’s Avro 504K G-ABAV in 1930.
Martin Hearn doing his stuff on Avro 504K G-EBYW.
The AEROFILMS picture provides an intimate view of wing-walker Martin Hearn on Aviation Tour's blue and silver Avro 504K G-EBYW in 1930.
Cobham circus pilot Martin Hearn on the top wing of Avro 504K G-ABHI. A piece of wire from the leading edge to his tightly-clenched right hand was all that stopped him being blown away.
Martin Hearne wing-walking on one of Berkshire Aviation Tours’ Avro 504Ks over Dundee in 1931. G-ABHJ crashed at Hooton in 1933.
Martin Hearn atop Avro 504N G-ABVH.
Heading picture shows the author sitting atop of his own Avro 504K, G-AAEZ, during the brief period that he traded as Aeroplane Services Ltd in 1929.
Martin Hearn takes it easy on the top wing of an Avro 504N.
A. J. Adams going for a walk on Avro 504K GEBNR.
G-EAKX at Barnstaple in 1922 with John Holmes (right) and Joe Taylor wing-walking
The same unidentified Avro 504K, with parachutist Pat O’Hara climbing into the rear cockpit. He lost his life soon afterwards, aged only 24.
"JUNE FALLS IN AUGUST": On both Saturday and Sunday at the Bournemouth Aviation Meeting Miss June executed a graceful parachute (Calthrop) descent from an Avro piloted by Lieut.-Col. G. P. Henderson. She is seen on the left preparing to ascend, and, centre, just leaving the Avro, and finally, right, about to land.
Close view of Miss June leaving the Avro on her record low jump with a "Guardian Angel" parachute from 150 ft. She landed near the crowd, who were delighted to meet her.
PARACHUTING FOR A LARK: Miss June invented a new sport at the Midland Pageant. In descending from an Avro with her "Guardian Angel" parachute, as shown above, she caught a lark in the "cup" of the parachute.
This classic National Aviation Day display formation was probably taken in 1933, the year that Cobham purchased Handley Page W.10 G-EBMR, seen here leading Tiger Moth G-ABUL, Southern Martlet G-ABBN, D.H.60G Gipsy Moth G-ABJC and an anonymous Avro 504K. Cobham's two Handley Page W.10s were joined by Handley Page Clive G-ABYX Astra in April 1933. In two years YX carried 120,000 passengers; it was scrapped in 1935.
Sir Alan Cobham's National Aviation Day display fleet delighted airshow crowds all over the country in the early Thirties. In 1934 audience participation, in the form of a flip in a Mongoose-engined Avro 504, cost 3s 6d (17 1/2 p).
Alan Cobham's National Aviation Day display team hits town, led by an Airspeed Ferry flanked by Tiger Moths, Desoutters, a Gipsy Moth and an Avro 504K.
Sir Alan Cobham's National Aviation Day display fleet delighted airshow crowds all over the country in the early Thirties. In 1934 audience participation, in the form of a flip in a Mongoose-engined Avro 504, cost 3s 6d (17 1/2 p).
SCHNEIDER WELCOME: Col. Henderson, on an Avro, provided some excitement by taking off and flying around over the aerodrome (sometimes driven backward by the strong wind) trailing a huge "Daily News" banner with the words "Bravo Webster" on it.
AN EXHORTATION: Mr. Ledlie shows the Cleansing Committee how to get to work.
Stalled flight:Bulman on the Avro, flying stalled above the Fokker monoplane.
Flight-Lieut. Bulman on the slot-wing Avro doing a stalled turn without going into a spin. This performance is, of course, one which, in a "normal" machine would almost inevitably provoke a spin, but the Avro fitted with the slot-aileron combination showed no tendency to "autorotate." We understand that some time previously Flight-Lieut. Bulman put the machine into a stalled turn, and then stopped his engine "just to see what would happen." Nothing did happen, the machine remaining under perfect control.
AT THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: Flight-Lieut. W. H. Longton, in partnership with his Avro, defies Newton, Einstein and Co. with his crazy and (inset, centre) inverted flying.
THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: Sideslipping into the "closed field."
Crazy flying by Flt.-Lieut. W. H. Longton at the R.A.F. Pageant on an Avro 504k.
A WAY THEY HAVE IN MEXICO: A test for sound judgment and nicety of control employed at the Valbuena Military Flying School. The pilot has to fly close to a man on the ground, who holds up a pole with a hat on the top, and knock the hat off with the wing tip!
The author covered many miles running across fields clutching hold of Avro 504 wingtips. Without brakes the Avros had to be manhandled in this way.
SOME DERBY MACHINES: 504 K.
Aviation in China: The first Avro supplied to the Chinese, Government by Messrs. Vickers, Ltd. In the front seat of the machine is Major C. Patteson, and in front are Chinese pupils forming the first flying instruction class at Nanyuan Aerodrome, Peking.
Учебный класс 37-го отделения у самолета "Авро-504K". В первом ряду (слева направо): староста Недосекин, четвертый - Турган, инструктор Юржа, курсант Ефим Пылин. Во втором ряду (слева направо): курсанты Н.Озеров, Я.Саленек, В.Тарасюк, П.Борисов, А.Кувшинников, В.Лошкарев.
In June 1915 No 2 Sqn RNAS was reformed as No 2 Wing, which was deployed to the Dardanelles two months later. This group photograph of No 2 Wing’s C Flight, with Buss seated third from right, was taken at Imbros in 1916, with an Avro 504B as a backdrop, although the unit used a wide variety of types while in Turkey.
The Second Gosport Reunion at Brooklands: Standing in front of the Avro 504 are Col. Smith-Barry and Capt. Balfour. Between them is Col. George Philippi, and standing on the skid of the Avro is Wing Cdr. Hammersley, now chief instructor of the London University Air Squadron. On the extreme left is Group Captain Robb, Commandant of the C.F.S.
"Павший товарищ отправляется к месту последнего покоя на поле" - так, в духе времени, подписал эту фотографию А.Нильсон. Гроб авиатора везут на украшенном цветами фюзеляже самолета. Справа - Avro 504.
Подобно другим странам Европы, в Эстонии основу парка учебной авиации составили заслуженные "Авро-504K"
Pilot Officer Duncan Menzies in the cockpit of Avro 504K F8709 after his first solo flight on February 9, 1928. After an eventful RAF career, mainly in the Middle East, Menzies would go on to become well-known as a test pilot for Fairey Aviation, which he joined in 1935.
JOY-RIDING AT GREAT YARMOUTH: Messrs. Summerfield, Bolland and Neale doing a good business; "flippers" waiting their turn in queues. On the right a couple of lady-patrons with joy-anticipatory smiles.
Reader Tim Walker wondered if anyone can add any details to this view, taken at Blackpool in the 1930s, which shows a joyriding Avro with his great-grandmother in the rear seat.
Tollerfield ready to pilot a couple of Australian passengers over the area. Note the RAF roundel which has not been painted out.
The circus comes to town. The author is at extreme left.
The start of the Relay Race. Each team flew an Avro 504K, a Bristol Fighter and a Sopwith Snipe.
AT THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: A batch of Avros.
FROM THE AERIAL PAGEANT IN EGYPT: A line of Avros used for passenger "flips".
Grahame-White's London Flying Club Avro 504Ks in September 1919, photographed in front of the clubhouse on land adjacent to the aerodrome proper. The entire area is now covered by buildings.
Тренировочный самолет Avro 504K поставлялся из Великобритании вместе с DH-9. Эти аппараты были позднее скопированы и выпускались, соответственно, как У-1 и Р-1.
With its Clerget rotary engine chucking out liberal doses of Castrol, this unidentified Avro 504K is pictured at Port Meadow, Oxford, circa May 1930.
(I. to r.) : Alan Cobham, John and Fred Holmes, with their first Avro 504K at the start of the first joyriding tour, May 1919
The two men who created the Cornwall Aviation Company. On the left is Capt Percival Phillips the much loved Cornishman who personally gave more than 90,000 people their first taste of flying. On the right is the author who left the company in 1931.
VETERANS BOTH! Mr, C. L. Pashley and one of the Southern Aero Club's lately discarded 504 Ks. Many pilots must regret the passing of the "blip" switch and the "fine adjustment."
Ground engineers tinkering with an Avro 504K, in this case G-ABAA. It is chocked up ready for starting - the prop-swinger is standing on the wheel and telling the front cockpit occupant where the taps are.
The Grosvenor Cup. In Birmingham Control. F. P. Raynham (on right), who secured second place, with his mechanic busy running over the engine
Tollerfield in front of an Avro at Moordown.
Apprentice and master. The author, left, with Dusty Miller, both suitably attired for aviating in the 504 behind them.
Evocative photograph of Southern Counties Aviation Company’s Avro 504K G-EBKS taken as an engineer “sucks in” before a joy flight from Boston during the summer of 1926. Named Attaboy, this 504K was normally based down south at Brooklands. It was withdrawn from use the following year.
A Leitner-Watts Metal Propeller fitted to an Avro
Slots and ailerons: Mr. A .V. Roe explains to his youngest son the action of the Handley Page slots on the Avro 504.
Первым самолетом авиакомпании QANTAS стал 504K. Купленный за 1500 фунтов стерлингов аэроплан собрали в Маскоте местные представители "Avro". Самолет мог перевозить двух пассажиров и в 1921-1922 годах использовался как воздушное такси.
THE GROSVENOR CHALLENGE CUP: An Avro starting from Lympne. Sir William Letts's "504K" (100 h.p. aircooled Bristol "Lucifer"), with Capt. H. A. Hamersley up.
Avro 504K G-EADA, ex E4221, was converted to a 504N by the fitment of a Lucifer engine and, later, an N-type undercarriage for prototype trials at Farnborough and Martlesham Heath in 1923.
THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT CO.'S FLYING SCHOOL AT NORTHOLT: Two of the School's Avros;
This previously unseen pair of photographs shows Avro 504K G-EAJO on its port wingtip after a bad landing at Honiton in Devon in September 1920; the close-up shows the Hansford Aeroflights logo. Although the aircraft appears not to have suffered too much damage, it was withdrawn from use and written off after barely more than a month in use as a pleasure-flying machine. Presumably Hansford lost heart in the venture after the accident.
The Gnat Aero Company's Avro 504K G-EAJU at Shoreham.
“The man who had never flown before" (in bowler hat flying Moth G-EBZU and landing at Wythenshawe, Manchester in July 1929).
G-EAKX in full Berkshire Aviation Co. colours with standard cowling, after repair at at Alexandra Park - (right to left): Joe Taylor, A. L. Robinson, John Holmes and mechanic
Winter operations with 504K G-EAKX at Whitchurch, Shropshire, in 1921; runway has been dug through the snow. The aircraft is shown with its original cowling
Avro 504K G-EASF began life as RAF machine D5858 and in 1920 was sold to Cobham & Holmes Aviation Company. From July 1933 this veteran was owned by Messrs Rimmer and Mackay and operated from Hooton Park until it was dismantled there in 1936.
WITH FRASER'S FLYING SCHOOL AT KINGSBURY: 1. View of the late Airco Works, taken from one of the school Avros. 2. Leaving the aerodrome. 3. Getting ready for a "flip" in an Avro. 4. A. Fraser J. P. C. Phillips and W. Mitchell pose for the camera beside one of the school Avros. 5, Just landing on Kingsbury Aerodrome.
JOY FLIPS IN THE COUNTRY: For some time past the Surrey Flying Services have been giving exhibition and passenger flights near various provincial towns. Above we show three views taken at Grove Park, Kent, where Capt. Muir recently had a couple of Avro 504K's hard at work. Besides "stunt" flying, including parachute jumps and "wing walking," many passengers were taken up for 3-minute flights at 5s. a head. Capt. Muir can be seen standing in front of the machine in the lower photograph.
В межвоенный период для развлекательных полетов использовались списанные учебные самолеты, такие как этот Avro 504K, использовавшийся с 1929 года компанией "North British Aviation Co.".
Avro 504Ks on tour. Avros G-EBHE and G-EBGZ were operated by the North British Aviation Co Ltd. On the right can be seen G-EBIS of the same company. In 1933 the surviving operators of Avro 504 joyriding fleets joined forces with Cobham’s National Aviation Day Displays.
Jock McKay, inset, with Avro 504K G-EBIS, which was destroyed in a crash on April 22, 1935.
The two insets show “Jock” McKay, a brilliant pilot and one of life’s characters, who was much feared by the author. He regarded apprentices as the lowest form of life and took sadistic pleasure in putting the author through the mill.
The Cornwall Aviation Company’s first aircraft was this red and white Avro 504K, purchased in May 1924.
Avro 504K G-EBJE, now preserved as E449 at the RAF Museum, Hendon.
Avro 504K G-EBJE was one of several used by the Shoreham-based Southern Aero Club for club and pleasure flying. This postcard was purchased by Hugh Scrope in the clubhouse; it is signed on the back by Fred Miles and dated August 27, 1929 - the date he and brother John had their first flights. G-EBJE is now exhibited in the RAF Museum at Hendon.
The author flew in this Avro 504K, when it flew at Shoreham in 1926.
Line-up of Avro 504Ks at Maidstone with the Berkshire Aviation Tours titling used in 1925. Aircraft are (I. to r ) G-EBKR, G-EAKX, G-EBKX and G-EBKB
THE AVRO 504 R "GOSPORT": Side view of the new Avro training machine.
THE AVRO 504 R "GOSPORT." - Three quarter front view of the new training machine produced by A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd.
THE AVRO 504R "GOSPORT": A close-up showing the familiar Avro hanging gear and the 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape.
"SIDE AND UP-SIDE" LINES AT THE BOURNEMOUTH AVIATION MEETING: Bert Hinkler takes a good look at the ground from the Avro "Gosport" before landing after an exhibition flight.
L.A.C.'s NEW MOUNT: Bert Hinkler flying the Avro "Gosport," which was presented to the L.A.C. by A. V. Roe and Co., at Woodford.
THE BOURNEMOUTH AVIATION MEETING: General view of a corner of Ensbury Park Racecourse which was used as a machine park. Behind will be seen the portion reserved for motor cars.
FOREIGN AIR ATTACHES AT CROYDON: This group, standing in front of the Avro "Gosport,'' includes, from left to right: Mr. John Lord (Avros), Sqdn.-Ldr. Kenny, Mr. Vladimirov, a representative of Brazil, Comdr. Floriose, Maj. Kennedy, Maj. Scott, Mr. Headley Thompson, Mr. Toll, Mr. Segrave, and Engineer Kunugi. In the cockpit, Mr. Bert Hinkler.
L.A.C.'s NEW MOUNT: The Avro "Gosport," presented to the L.A.C. by A. V. Roe and Co., with Bert Hinkler in the pilot's seat and Mr. Leeming (L.A.C. Chairman) as the "victim." Inset, the Chairman holding on to his seat.
THE LATEST VERSION: These two views show the Avro "Gosport" in flight, piloted by Mr. Bert Hinkler. This training machine was demonstrated, on July 14, before a number of foreign Air Attaches at Croydon Aerodrome, and created a very favourable impression. Like the standard 504, the "Gosport" is very easy to fly, and at the same time it is very manoeuvrable.
HINKLER'S BANK: The Avro "Gosport" was demonstrated at Croydon on Wednesday of last week before a number of foreign air attaches.
During 1928 this Avro 504K towed a newspaper banner over the South Wales valley.
Typical of the hundreds of Avro 504Ks disposed of for civil use was G-EBQR of Western Aviation Ltd., Cheltenham
The Avro 504K owned by L. E. R. Bellairs during the first half of 1928. It later passed into the hands of Southern Aircraft Ltd, also at Shoreham.
Avro 504K G-EBZB being flown over Wilmington, Sussex, by J. Sale in May 1933, with Mrs W. M. Allenby waving from the passenger's seat. This aircraft was withdrawn from use in October 1933.
Avro 504K G-AAAF was bought in September 1928 and remained with the company until August 1933. After numerous subsequent owners the aircraft was burnt at Gatwick in 1939.
Surrey Flying Services Avro 504K G-AAGB at Croydon. It was destroyed in a crash in December 1934.
Avro 504K G-ABAA being cleaned after three months in the open. This Nash Collection aircraft is currently stored at Cos ford as H2311.
Avro 504K G-ABAA in her joyriding days. Fully restored, the Avro is displayed at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester in these markings once again.
Silver and red NAT Avro 504K at Barton in 1932.
Avro 504K G-ABHI flew with Cornwall Aviation from April 1932 until January 1934, when it was withdrawn from use.
Southern Martlet G-ABBN flew with National Aviation Day Displays for the 1932 season and is seen here in company with Avro 504K G-ABHI and Tiger Moth G-ABUL. G-ABBN was scrapped in 1935.
Flt Lt Turner Hughes eyes the crowd from Tiger Moth G-ABUL as he flies inverted over Avro 504K G-ABHI and Cierva C.19 G-ABGB.
Northern Air Transport's Barton-based Avro 504K G-ABLL flying over Liverpool in 1933. The aircraft was lost in a crash at Lowton Moor in August the following year.
Silver and blue NAT Avro 504K G-ABLL at Barton in 1932.
On the move. Cobham's National Aviation Day display team in close formation, led by the Handley Page W.10 G-EBMR, probably in 1933. Nearest the camera is Avro 504N G-ABVH, powered by a Mongoose IIIA. The author knew this aeroplane inside out during the time it was based at Penshurst with F. J. V. Holmes and later Air Travel Ltd.
Another view of Avro 504N G-ABVH. This aircraft was built for the RAF as J8372 and in 1932 was converted for civil use. Its registration was cancelled in December 1946.
This is almost certainly Avro 504K G-ABYW on tour with Aviation Tours Ltd. The Clerget rotary engine has been removed and is literally undergoing overhaul in the field. G-ABYW was withdrawn from use in March 1938.
A pioneer forestry patrol aircraft was the ubiquitous Avro 504K. This example was restored at Trenton, Ontario, in 1967, for Canada’s centennial celebrations.
An unidentified Avro 504K barnstorming at Kingsdown, Kent.
Rustic scene, showing the Avro on wheeled undercarriage and wearing the registration S-AAP. Einar Danielsson is standing on the wheel.
Home. It was in this Barton hangar that the author served his apprenticeship. On the right is cricketer Peter Eckersley’s Avro Avian. Other aircraft include Avro 504Ks, a D.H.53 and a D.H.9.
THE GROSVENOR CHALLENGE CUP: Preparing some of the machines before the start at Lympne. From left to right may be seen the Sopwith "Gnu" (Longton), the Bristol monoplane (Foot), and a 504K Avro (Hamersley).
A marvellous panoramic view of the Montrose hangars, circa 1917/18. The two machines in the foreground are an Avro 504J, on the left, with a lot of indecipherable writing on its propeller blades, and a Sopwith F.1 Camel; and behind the Avro is a Sopwith Pup with banded interplane struts. Worthy of note in the distance, right of centre, is an extremely long striped windsock, and near its base stands the station ambulance.
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: Event No. 1, the Landing Competition for a cup presented by the Duke of York. Above, six of the Avros from the various training schools lined up for the start. Inset No. 1, Flying Training School Avro landing in the "field."
COMMERCIAL AVIATION IN AUSTRALIA: The Western Australian Airways, Ltd., Depot at Perth, and some of the machines - Bristol Tourers and Avro.
The line-up for the cross-country race at Bournemouth on Easter Monday. From left to right the machines are Caudron G.3 (70 h.p. Renault), F.E.2b (160 h.p. Beardmore), De H.6 (80 h.p. Renault), Avro (110 h.p. Le Rhone), Avro (110 h.p. Le Rhone), Avro (110 h.p. Le Rhone). The course was a double-circuit from the Bournemouth Aerodrome, round Christchurch Priory, a distance of 20 miles.
The Cambridge University Club’s Cambridge I in tow behind an Air Publicity Avro 504, flown by Mrs. Crossley. This machine, with an Airwork Gipsy-Cadet, made some scores of tows during the week, operating from Mr. Alan Butler’s private aerodrome near-by.
THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: The Standard Avro Race; some of the 18 Avro 504 's taking off.
Homing at Dusk. - the last flight of the day, on an Avro waterplane off Brighton
A BREEZY LANDING: An Eastbourne Aviation Co.'s Avro waterplane making for the shore off Brighton.
In August 1919 the Avro Transport Company started pleasure flights from Cockshott with Howard Pixton in charge of operations. His aircraft were these two Avro 504L seaplanes. H2582 (left, which became G-EADK) and H2581 (G-EADJ)
With a south coast pier in the background and ladder awaiting, Eastbourne Aviation personnel tempt the next ‘punters’ to a joyflight in G-EASD during the summer of 1920.
The Avro 504L G-EAJH owned by the Eastbourne Aviation Company. Note the four-bladed propeller, additional curved fin and the tail float.
George Spaak poses with his Avro 504L seaplane, S-AHAA.
F8940 as modified for low speed control tests at the RAE, Farnborough, in 1922.
"VENI, VIDI, VICI": On its first appearance in public the new Avro "Alpha" engine in the Avro "Gosport" won the Open Handicap, piloted by Flying Officer Waghorn. The lower photograph gives a good idea of the clean lines of the nose with this engine, while the inset shows the machine in flight.
REPRESENTATIVE TYPES OF BRITISH AIRCRAFT: 2. The Avro-Alpha training machine.
The new Avro "Alpha" engine.
AN AVRO GROUP AT THE LANCASHIRE AIR PAGEANT: Left to right - Mr. Bert Hinkler, Mr. A. W. Hubble, Mr. R. J . Parrott, FIying Officer H. R. D. Waghorn (winner of the open handicap), Mr. R. H. Dobson, and Mr. John Lord.
At the Lancashire Air Pageant: Flying Officer Waghorn winning the Open Handicap on the Avro "Alpha-Gosport."
An Avro 504R Gosport trainer serving with the Argentine Army Aviation Corps about 1927/28. This example is powered by a 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine. The ultimate 504 variant, the 504R was completely reworked to produce a lighter machine with the fine handling characteristics of the 504). Avro delivered ten to the Argentine Military Air Service in June 1927, and 100 were built under licence by the Military Aviation Factory (Fabrica Militar de Aviones).
AVROS FOR THE ARGENTINE: Ten Avro "Gosport" Training machines have just been completed for the Argentine Military Air Service, one of which is shown in our illustration, together with the Argentine representatives who are taking delivery of the machines.
Another Argentine Army Aviation Corps Avro 504R Gosport. This time, however, the engine is a radial (possibly an Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose or Lynx) fitted with a Townend ring. This was apparently one of the 100 Argentine-built machines.
VARIETY : "Something for every taste" is a saying that seems to apply particularly to the Avro "Gosport" training machine. Our photograph shows three of these, of which the one in the foreground is fitted with the new Avro "Alpha" engine. The next has an Armstrong-Siddeley "Mongoose," and the last a Gnome Monosoupape.
AVRO "GOSPORTS" FOR ESTHONIA: A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd., of Manchester, have received an order from the Esthonian Government for a number of "Gosport" training machines, fitted with Armstrong-Siddeley "Mongoose" engines. Three of these machines are shown herewith.
An Avro Biplane fitted with Armstrong-Siddeley radial engine.
The Avro 504K is fitted with a 175 h.p. Siddeley "Lynx" Engine.
Lynx-engined trials aircraft F2575, with streamlined front fuselage and external elevator controls, was Avro’s exhibit at the Prague Aero Show, May-June 1924.
A Standard Avro Biplane fitted with a 100 h.p. Cosmos “Lucifer” engine.
ALL BRITISH FOR ARGENTINA: A group of Avro type 504K biplanes, fitted with 100 h.p. Bristol "Lucifer" engines, which have been supplied, through the agency of Vickers, Ltd., by A.D.C. Aircraft, Ltd., to the Argentine Government.
THE RACE FOR THE KING'S CUP: Photographs of the competing machines. Avro Lucifer.
First of the Sunbeam-built Dyak 100 h.p. engine conversions at Wolverhampton in 1919.
Arthur Butler's Sunbeam Dyak-engined Avro 504K, which he bought as a wreck and rebuilt in his spare time. Butler claimed that this was the safest aeroplane he had ever flown.
At Mascot on November 20, 1965
Sir Hudson Fysh taxies in front of Boeing 707 VH-EBL, December 10, 1965
A close-up view of the 100 h.p. Sunbeam “Dyak” engine installed in a standard Avro biplane
R.A.F. PAGEANT: The Heath Robinson-Avro biplane, funnel, anchor, jazz struts and all, which was such a taxying feature for the crowd. The "Skipper" is just changing into top gear
FROM THE AERIAL PAGEANT IN EGYPT: A "Jazz" Avro which caused much merriment by going up with smoke pouring out of the funnel aft of the cockpit and with an officer hanging on to the flagstaff attached to the top centre-section.
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: The latest Hush-hush machine, the Orva "May-fly," leaving the Amusement Park at the 1925 RAF Pageant at Hendon. Note the 6-in. gun, Carrot accelerator, and wireless clothes-line. Afternoon tea is provided by the kettle seen on the exhaust manifold from the "A.B.C. Lion."
Avro 504 fuselages awaiting assembly.
A result of the Armistice. Typical of the scene at many home aerodromes late in 1918, stored late production Avro 504Ks
AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION IN BELGIUM: View in the S.A.B.C.A. works at Haren-Evere. A batch of Avro 504K fuselages
THE AVRO 504 R "GOSPORT": Some constructional details of the fuselage.
A set of original 504 skis found in Sweden, resting on a section of the fuselage.
An Avro 504 fuselage converted into an engine handling/starting trainer on Imbros, the island 20 miles west of the Dardanelles which was the main Aegean base of Nos 2 and 3 Wings, RNAS.
Capt. Lawson, Chief Pilot of Berkshire Aviation Tours, Ltd., receiving the approval of his pet after giving a display of stunting for the Manchester people.
Sinclair (Christopher Plummer) struggles with his camera amidst shot and shell.