Viscount prototype G-AHRF on July 16 at Wisley just before the first flight. George Edwards is in the centre in front of No.3 engine, right hand to his ear!
Although the deliberations and actions undertaken by the Brabazon Committee - and, importantly, the government - are often regarded as representing a loss of precious time and initiative, there was an undoubted success in Vickers’ development of the Viscount turboprop, the prototype of which, G-AHRF, is seen here in 1948.
By some margin the most successful of the designs that could trace their heritage back to the Brabazon Committee, the Vickers Viscount turboprop was the result of a mating of state-of-the-art aircraft design and cutting-edge powerplant technology for the Committee’s Type IIB (i) category. The prototype, G-AHRF, made its first flight on July 16, 1948.
Prototype Vickers Viscount (16 July 1948).
“Mutt” Summers lands G-AHRF, the prototype Viscount.
16 июля 1948г.: прототип пассажирского самолета Vickers-630 Viscount выполнил первый 10-минутный полет с аэродрома Уисли, Суррей. Самолетом управляли летчики Дж. Саммерс и Г. Брайс.
Прототип V.630 успел побывать в нескольких вариантах окраски, но после первого полета под обозначением VX211 он все еще нес цвета компании "Vickers". Затем самолет получил эмблему BEA, а к началу 1950 года - полностью окрашен в цвета BEA.
Funded by the Ministry of Supply, the prototype Viscount 630 wore RAF roundels, and the military serial VX211 for some time beyond the first flight.
29 июля 1950: капитан Ричард Раймер из BEA на прототипе V.630 Viscount выполнил перелет из Нортхольта (Великобритания) в Ле-Бурже (Франция), первый в истории пассажирский перелет на турбовинтовом лайнере. Эксплуатационные испытания продолжались две недели.
Vickers Viscount V.701 G-AMOA George Vancouver at Luqa in 1959. Delivered to BEA in 1953, this Viscount was damaged beyond repair in January 1970.
Early days with BEA as Sir John Franklin.
Revised B.E.A. tail markings on Viscount G-AMOH.
Первый V.700 (G-AMAV), 1950 год. Он никогда не принадлежал компании BEA, хотя в 1953 году получил имя "Endeavour" - по традиции семейства "Discovery". Неся на хвосте номер "23", самолет принял участие в гонках из Англии в Новую Зеландию.
The new Vickers Viscount 800
The new Viscount 806-810 demonstrator, G-AOYF, has the airframe of the B.E.A.C. 806 series and the more powerful Dart R.Da 7/1 Mk. 525 engines of the 810 series. It made its first flight at Weybridge on 9/8/57.
Well satisfied with the Series 700s, BEA became a major operator of the enlarged 800. Illustrated is Series 802 G-AOJA ‘RMA Sir Samuel White Baker’. Delivered in February 1957, G-AOJA had a short life, crashing at Belfast’s Nutts Corner airport the following October.
VICKERS VISCOUNT SERIES 800. The Vickers Viscount 800 series was developed as a bigger, more economical development of the famous V-700 series, for operation over relatively short, high-density inter-city routes. The prototype, a V-802 registered G-AOJA, made its first flight at Weybridge on 27th July 1956, and appeared at Farnborough in B.E.A. colours, named R.M .A. Sir Samuel White Baker. Twenty-four 65-seater V-802s have been ordered by B.E.A. and a further fourteen of a later type. The first four, after AOJA, are already on the production line. Other 800 series aircraft have been ordered by Aer Lingus, K.L.M., New Zealand National Airways and Transair. The series will be developed, during 1958 and 1959, into the V-810/840, externally similar, but powered with the R.Da. 7/1 and 8 respectively.
Salient features : The V-800 is complementary to, rather than a replacement for the V-700 series, and differs from the latter in several respects. The fuselage has been increased in length by 3 ft . 10 in., and this, together with a backward movement of the aft pressure bulkhead, has resulted in a cabin 9 ft. 3 in . longer, enabling a maximum of seventy passengers to be accommodated over the fifty-three of the V-700. The doors have been redesigned and are rectangular, rather than oval. The Rolls-Royce R.Da .6 Type 510, which powers the V-800, is a turbo-prop with two-stage turbine and centrifugal compressor, and has been developed from the Dart.
B.E.A.'s first Viscount 802 (G-AOJA) made Its first flight at Hurn on 27th July last.
The last Viscount 802 for B.E.A., G-AORD, has an experimental pale blue finish on the underside of the fuselage.
Aer Lingus was an early customer of the Viscount and showed further faith in the turboprop era by being the launch customer for the Fokker F.27 Friendship, taking its first example of that type in 1958. Their first Viscount, Series 707 EI-AFV ‘St Patrick/St Padraig’ was delivered in March 1954.
В 1954 году "Aer Lingus" заказала Viscount 707 для замены флота устаревших DC-3 и Wayfarer. Авиалайнер стал первым турбовинтовым самолетом компании, а в 1960 году был размещен заказ еще на пять машин - улучшенных Viscount 808.
Aer Lingus have introduced a distinctive new colour scheme on their Viscounts (and Dakotas), with a green top and fin, and white flash and rudder.
Построенный как Series 808 для авиакомпании "Aer Lingus", этот самолет, позднее получивший регистрационный номер G-BBDK, затем был переделан в вариант Series 808C "Freightmaster" с грузовым люком по левому борту для британской компании "Air Bridge Carriers".
Formerly VP-YNA of Central African Airways, Viscount 7Q-YDK became the backbone of Air Malawi's fleet from 1967 to 1980.
Несколько Viscount, ранее принадлежавших "Capital Airways", в 1963 году были куплены базировавшейся на Гавайях компанией "Aloha Airlines". Эти машины использовались как на местных авиалиниях, так и для полетов на материк вплоть до 1971 года.
In Spotter's Notebook for July our colleague 'Aeroscribe' published a photograph of an All Nippon Airways Viscount K800 still carrying its original U.K. registration. We publish here a photograph of the second A.N.A. Viscount with its correct Japanese registration - JA8202 - on the fin.
Bearing the badge of The Malta Airlines (with Maltese cross) aft of its open forward door, Viscount 802 G-AOHR (c/n 166) is seen here at Rome-Fiumicino in January 1967. BEA was a shareholder in The Malta Airlines and provided Viscounts for its services from the late 1950s until the island country became a Republic in 1974.
Viscount 802 G-AOHK (c/n 160) in the airline’s distinctive "Speedjack" scheme at Manchester in the summer of 1970. In April the following year it was allocated to BEA Channel Island Airways, part of BEA’s Regional Division.
Transportes Aereos Portugueses (TAP) L-1049H-03 Super Constellation CS-TLD seen at Heathrow around 1958/9 whilst on lease to the airline from Seaboard & Western Airlines. Visible in the background is one of BEA’s first Viscounts, Srs 701 G-ALWF, which is the oldest survivor of the type and is now preserved at the IWM Duxford.
Saturday, 4 January 1992 marked the final Highland Division HS748 flight from Sumburgh. All 'OE' services to and from Aberdeen are now operated by BATPS. Kim Benson's picture shows a sight no longer to be seen. From left to right: G-BCOF HS748 BAW/BP charter; G-CSZB VC8 BAF/Shell charter; G-AOYN VC8 BAF/Shell charter; and G-BCOE HS748 BAW mainline scheduled flight to Aberdeen. G-BCOE is special as she operated the first HS748 flight of BAW into Shetland on 4 August 1975 and the last "budgie" flight to Aberdeen on 4 January 1992.
As a tribute to Flight photographer and propliner historian Stephen Piercey, whose death in a flying accident was reported in July's Aeroplane, Southend-based British Air Ferries have named Vickers Viscount G-APIM after him. Pictured right at the naming ceremony on August 25, 1984 are his parents Ray and Patsy, his girlfriend Alison Chambers and his brothers Timothy and Hector.
Displaying early Cambrian Airways markings.
Being dismantled at Speke, November 1975, for the move to Duxford.
In early 1960 Capital unveiled a new colour scheme, replacing the elegant "hawk" theme with a more austere scheme incorporating a white fuselage top with a broadening red line aft to a white and red fin carrying a simplified oval logo with upper case Bold Gothic letters; it had been noted that the old identity was not in capitals!
The first of the initial three Viscounts to be delivered to Capital was V.744 N7402 (c/n 88), Fleet No 321, named Capitaliner Viscount Washington, which was handed over to Capital on May 17, 1955. The three V.744s were leased to Capital while its V.745Ds were still under construction. Of the three V.744s, N7402 and N7403 had returned to the UK by February 1958, N7404 having been written off in a landing accident at Chicago-Midway on February 20, 1956.
Компания "Capital Airlines" стала крупнейшим зарубежным покупателем Viscount, заказав 60 машин на сумму 67 млн долларов. Никогда ранее зарубежный производитель авиатехники не получал столь крупного заказа от американской авиакомпании. Однако "Capital Airlines" столкнулась с финансовыми проблемами и в 1961 году была поглощена компанией "United".
First of the sixty Vickers Viscount turboprop airliners on order for Capital Airlines of the United States. The Viscount is the first British airliner ever to go into domestic scheduled airline service in the U.S.
Through the Viscount, great inroads were made into export markets, with the US being the most notable. Capital Airlines Viscount 744 N7402, fleet number ‘321’ was delivered in June 1955.
In the summer of 1954 the prototype Viscount V.700, G-AMAV, which had participated in the London to New Zealand Air Race the previous October, was painted in a Capital scheme to enable the airline to make the promotional film A New Concept in Flight. The scheme ultimately adopted for Capital’s Viscounts had the hawk motif further forward on the fuselage.
Capital Viscount V.745Ds in the factory at Hurn, where an additional Viscount production line was set up in 1953. Leading the line here is N7411, Fleet No 330, which made its first flight on January 20, 1956, and was delivered to Capital on March 8 the same year. Some 279 of the 444 Viscounts built were produced at Hurn.
Viscount V.812 G-ATUE in Channel Airways livery, photographed at Southend on September 22, 1967. First registered to the American airline Continental Airlines as N244V, 'UE passed from Channel Airways to Alidair Cargo Ltd, based at Baginton, before being broken up in 1977.
In service with Channel Airways, at Newcastle on June 21, 1964.
Самолет G-AOYV служил прототипом для последней модификации V.810 и был окрашен в цвета первого покупателя, компании "Continental Airlines". Последняя приобрела 14 машин, эксплуатация которых велась в 1958-1967 годах. Прототип остался в собственности фирмы-изготовителя и был оснащен системой разбрызгивания жидкости и хвостовым оперением лайнера Vanguard для сертификации противообледенительной защиты.
Arguably one of the most attractive Viscount colour schemes, Continental’s three-colour (plus bare-metal) palette complemented the type’s graceful lines, a rather raffish touch being added with the incorporation of a dark blue band around the cockpit, lending the impression the aircraft was wearing a pair of elegant sunglasses! Continental Viscount II N248V is seen here up from Farnborough during the 1958 SBAC show.
A pair of Continental V.812s beside the hangar at Wisley, where they were tested.
Jet power! Continental was keen to differentiate its V812s from Capital’s 700-series Viscounts, each bearing the legend “Viscount II” prominently on its fin.
Continental made sure its customers knew its V.812s were radar-equipped, with a stylish legend on the port door
The AVQ-10 weather radar dish was housed in a tidy fairing in the nosecone, designed for easy maintenance
All 15 of Continental’s V.812s were built on the production line at Weybridge, as seen here in the spring of 1958. The greater power of the Dart 525 fitted to the 810-series meant that the airframe had to be strengthened, with more structure in the wings and a beefing-up of the fuselage, tail and flying controls to absorb the extra power.
В начале 1975 года "Cyprus Airways" взяла в аренду несколько Viscount 813 компании "British Midland Airways", чтобы удовлетворить возросший спрос на Средиземноморском рынке летних перевозок. Осенью самолеты были возвращены владельцу.
Vickers Viscounts were leased from the UK to restart limited services following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in July 1974.
Viscount G-APDW, in its smart Eagle livery, is a welcome compensation for the loss of two familiar and well-liked old-timers.
Viscount 805 VR-BAX flew the first Eagle Airways service in these colours from Bermuda to New York on June 2, 1958. Named 'Enterprise', it also carried the titles 'The Bermuda Airline' on the port side
The Eagle Viscounts VR-BAX "Enterprise" (ex-G-APDW) and G-APDX photographed together at Blackbushe recently.
Одним из первых зарубежных операторов была компания "Misrair-Egyptian Airlines", получившая в декабре 1955 года три новых (на снимке) и два подержанных самолета Series 739. Одна из машин была уничтожена во время налета британских Королевских ВВС на каирский аэропорт Алмаза в 1956 году.
Компания "Egyptian Airlines" заказала Viscount одной из первых - в 1955 году. Карьера самолетов оказалась неудачной: один сгорел во время боевых действий за Суэцкий канал, второй - потерян в аварии, а третий - продан в 1965 году.
Viscount 832 B-2017, ex VH-RMJ, taxi-ing in at Taipeh
Три Viscount 838, приобретенных правительством Ганы, осенью 1961 года были переданы авиакомпании "Ghana Airways". Этот самолет, получивший регистрационный номер XT661, в 1965-1989 годах использовался британским Королевским авиационным исследовательским институтом (RAE).
Viscount G-BBVH, ex ZK-BRD is now owned by Gibraltar Airways.
Huns Air Viscount 779 VT-DOE. ex G-APZP, also at Sharjah 13/1/76
With sunlight glinting off its polished-metal upper surfaces, Viscount 833 G-APTB shows off its new Hunting-Clan colours in the summer of 1959. Three 833s, fitted with higher-powered Dart engines for hot and high conditions, were introduced on Safari services from July 1959.
Компания "Icelandair" купила два Viscount 759D у "Hunting Clan Air Transport" в 1957 году. Самолет на снимке в апреле 1963 года потерпел катастрофу над норвежским островом Несой на подходе к аэропорту Осло. Оставшийся Viscount продолжал исправно нести службу до мая 1970 года, когда он был списан и разделан на металл в Рейкьявике.
Enforced abandonment of the Hunting-Clan colonial services and an industrial dispute in France have provided London Airport with such unusual creatures as Icelandic Viscounts and Sud Est 2010 Armagnacs.
Inter-City Airline's Viscount 708 G-ARGR is pictured on the apron at Sumburgh Airport, Shetland, on a typical winter's day.
K.L.M. have designated Luton Airport as their No. 1 alternate to London, and Viscount PH-VIG was the first diversion there on 30th October
Никарагуа приобрела всего два новых Viscount. На снимке: вторая из этих машин, модификации 786D.
The first of Lufthansa’s nine Vickers Viscount 814s, D-ANUN. The airline was the first in Europe to operate the 810 series Viscount.
Разместив первый заказ в мае 1956 года, германская государственная авиакомпания "Lufthansa" получила с октября 1958 по апрель 1959 годов в общей сложности девять Viscount 814. Еще два самолета были поставлены в 1961 году. Самолет на снимке, первый из поставленных, прожил долгую жизнь в небе и использовался авиакомпаниями Великобритании, Швеции и Гамбии вплоть до снятия с эксплуатации в 1991 году.
Lufthansa’s Vickers Viscount, D-ANUN is the aircraft selected for Corgi’s latest 1:144th scale die-cast model. Delivered to the German airline in October 1958, the Series 814 moved to the UK register as G-BAPF in early 1972, when it was bought by British Midland. It later flew with Baltic Airlines until withdrawn from use in 1991, ending its days at Moreton-in-the-Marsh for fire training. The model should have enormous appeal depicting, as it does, one of the foremost airliners of the post-war years. It is also appearing in Parcel Force and BEA colours.
Компания "Middle East Airlines" взяла в аренду четыре Viscount 700 в 1955 году. Успешный опыт эксплуатации заставил оператора обзавестись еще шестью самолетами: три взяты в лизинг у дочерних компаний BOAC и еще три построены.
By the end of 1955 the turboprop-powered Vickers Viscounts supplied to MEA by MASCO were operating services from Beirut to Europe. Viscount 732 OD-ACF was originally G-ANRR in Hunting-Clan service and operated with MEA from September 1955 to September 1957, when it was returned to Hunting-Clan.
Another photograph of the ramp at Beirut International Airport in 1958, including a Bell OH-13 and Bird Dog of Unogil, which operated alongside airline “heavy metal”. Note the Jordan International Airlines Douglas DC-4 (JY-ABD), Iranair DC-4 and MEA Vickers Viscount in the background.
Этот самолет Series 807, получивший имя "City of Christchurch", был одним из пяти Viscount, принадлежавших "New Zealand National Airways Corporation". Компания эксплуатировала эти машины в 1959-1975 годах в основном на местных авиалиниях. Случай весьма необычный для истории Viscount, когда самолеты всю свою жизнь прослужили у одного оператора.
ZK-BRD "City of Wellington", first of three 807s, left London on 1st january, and was due in Auckland on the 10th, flown by Capts. Walker, Harvey and Register. Flying time on the scheduled Christchurch-Auckland run will be cut by nearly half to 1 hour 55 minutes. [New Zealand National Airways Corporation]
"Northeast Airlines" приобрела часть самолетов, не выкупленных "Capital Airlines", которые получили обозначения 798D. В 1958-1963 годах компания эксплуатировала в общей сложности 10 таких машин.
Hurn-built Viscount N6594C (c/n 284) was delivered to Northeast on September 22, 1958, and is seen here beside a Piedmont Fairchild F-27 Friendship. When Northeast ran into financial trouble, its nine remaining Viscounts were repossessed by Vickers and sold at auction, N6594C being acquired by Alitalia, with which it served as l-LIRG.
Newest airline livery seen on a Viscount is that of Philippine Air lines, where two Type 784s will be used on the "Route of the Orient Star".
Viscount HC-ATV owned by SAN of Ecuador
Roll-out of the first Series 813 for South African Airways, ZS-CDT ‘Blesbok ’ at Hurn. Delivered in October 1958 it gave loyal service until 1972 when it (and the rest of the fleet) were acquired by British Midland Airways.
"South African Airways" получила в 1958-1959 годах семь Viscount 813, приспособленных для перевозки 56 пассажиров. Представленный на снимке самолет ZS-CDT, названный "Blesbok", был первым в этой партии. Он снят во время испытательного перелета с завода "Vickers-Armstrong" в аэропорт Борнмута.
"Trans-Australia Airlines" была одним из первых операторов Viscount, заказав самолеты Type 720, оснащенные дополнительными топливными баками, установленными с внешней стороны гондол двигателей. Позднее эта компания приобрела машины Series 810.
Sixth Viscount for T.A.A., VH-TVF, has "slipper" tanks outboard of the engines. Each holds 145 gallons and together they increase range by 255 miles.
Close-up of the superbly neat cowling and installation of the Darts and of the optional slipper fuel tank on the leading edge. The aircraft is VH-TVF for Trans-Australian Airlines, a Series 720 delivered in January 1955. It served all of its life in Australia, being retired in 1967.
Данный V.794 (№431) был одним из последних построенных базовых Viscount с коротким фюзеляжем. В октябре 1958 года самолет был передан турецкой компании THY, а впоследствии передан турецким ВВС и использовался как штабной самолет.
Recent additions to the inventory of the Turkish Air Forces, the Turk Hava Kuvvetleri (THK), have included 10 Bell UH-1D Iroquois helicopters; sufficient Northrop RF-5A photographic aircraft to equip one squadron of the THK's 3rd Tactical Air Force, and three ex-THY Vickers Viscount 794s (shown) which are being used exclusively as VIP transports.
Turkish A.F. Viscount "430", ex TC-SEL, which arrived Stansted 26/7/76 for Aviation Traders overhaul with "246" and "431";
Following the purchase of Capital Airlines, Vickers Viscounts' donned UAL colours and became an important type with the airline.
Series 782D EP-AHA in United Iranian Airlines colours. One of three ordered, it was delivered in March 1958 and served the airline until 1966.
Viscount G-AOYP in full Virgin colours operated the Maastricht to Gatwick service until terminated in early 1989.
A Viscount Type 764D, and is one of three for the U.S. Steel Co. Note nose radar and slipper fuel tank on wing.
Elderly types still operated by the SAAF in the transport role and on general duties include a single Vickers Viscount 781.
Vickers Viscount 744 used by the Empire Test Pilots School, Farnborough, as a staff transport and to give students experience of performance measurement and handling assessment on a modern turboprop aircraft
One of the SOAF's three 800 series Viscounts that operate the Muscat-Salalah service. Note the auxillary wing tanks.
The 150th Vickers Viscount production model a Series 742 V.I.P. version, one of two (FAB-2100 and FAB-2101) destined for the Brazilian air force .
Revised colour scheme: Viscount 737 CF-GXK at Dorval, the temporary T.C.A. markings now replaced by those of the owners, the Canadian Department of Transport.
Viscount G-AMOG at Cosford.
Angela Waller (at left) awaits the next group of passengers with a colleague. When the Viscounts entered Hunting-Clan service in 1957 a second air hostess was added to the crew - although, being a veteran of the single-hostess Viking and York Safari Services, Angela was regarded as a senior air hostess.
Angela Waller is seen, smiling from the steps of British United Airways Vickers Viscount G-APTD at Entebbe in February 1961.
A shared interest: John and Patricia Stroud beside a Viscount at Wisley, circa 1955-56. Patricia filed numerous reports for Flight during her career.
Capital’s President, J.H. "Slim" Carmichael (right) discusses the merits of the Viscount and its Dart engines with Vickers-Armstrongs Aircraft Division’s Managing Director George Edwards at Weybridge during Carmichael’s fact-finding mission to the UK in 1953.
A Viscount used as a crew trainer by Cambrian Airways at Rhoose, with the spurious registration G-WHIZ.
The world’s oldest surviving Vickers Viscount arrives at Duxford on February 2, 1976 on a Crane Fruehauf telescopic trailer. The first production aircraft, Viscount 701 G-ALWF first flew in 1952 and made its last passenger flight on December 24, 1971 with Cambrian Airways. It was purchased by the Viscount Preservation Trust and exhibited at Speke until security precautions made this impossible. The Duxford Aviation Society then offered the aircraft a home at Duxford where it will be re-assembled for public exhibition.
Paul Howard sent this view of a propeller mounted at the entrance to the Real Aero Club le Gran Canaria. He believes it comes from a Viscount, possibly ex-G-AOYM or ’OYO, which languished at Tenerife for some years.
A view of the production line at Hurn, Bournemouth. In the foreground are two Series 749s for LAV of Venezuela, YV-C-AMV and ’X. Delivered in February and March 1956 respectively, they both served only LAV and both were written off, in January 1971 and August 1974 respectively.
All 800 Series Viscounts are now assembled at Weybridge and all 700 Series on the Hurn production line shown above. Second and fifth machines in the line are the 754s G-APCD and 'CE (c/n. 243 and 244) ordered by B.O.A.C. for Cyprus Airways.
Over 4,000,000 HOURS have been flown by ROLLS-ROYCE DART PROP-JETS powering Vickers Viscounts in regular service on the air routes of six continents
Ex-Air Canada Viscount testbed for the UACL PT6A-50 engine intended to power the de Havilland Canada DHC-7 "quiet STOL" transport
С февраля 1982 года фирма "Pratt & Whitney" использовала этот Viscount 757 для испытаний нового ТВД PW100. Двигатель разместили в носовой части самолета для обеспечения работы в невозмущенном потоке воздуха.
Flight testing has begun of the six-blade advanced technology propeller under development by British Aerospace and United Technologies’ Hamilton Standard Division for the BAe ATP (Advanced Turboprop) airliner. A PW124 engine of the type which will power the ATP has been installed in the nose of a Viscount used by Pratt & Whitney of Canada for engine development, and more than 35 hrs of operating time have been logged by this engine/propeller combination to date. A second propeller has completed 1,000 hrs of ground test running on a PW 124.
The prototype Series 810, G-AOYV, in the colours of Continental Airlines for promotional purposes was used for Vanguard development work. It is seen here in a low level ‘beat-up’ with a mock-up of its bigger brother’s tailfin fabricated over its own leading edge. The spray rig in front of the fin was used to test the Napier-developed Spraymat de-icing system. Note also the mast-mounted probes above the cockpit.
Послевоенные попытки британцев использовать турбореактивные двигатели Nene и Tay окончились неудачей. Последний установили только на втором прототипе Viscount (V.663). Как и оснащенный Nene авиалайнер Viking, он имел четыре тележки основной опоры шасси, размещенные по обеим сторонам гондол двигателей.
The Tay-powered Viscount, the world's first fly-by-wire aircraft at Seighford in 1957.
Series 663 Tay Viscount is put through its paces at the 1950 SBAC display at Farnborough. It the background is the unique shape of a spectacularly unsuccessful Brabazon committee airliner - the awesome Bristol Brabazon.
The Rolls-Royce Tay powered Vickers Viscount 663, VX217/G-AHRG being demonstrated at the 1950 SBAC show at Farnborough. Later it was used to develop the power controls for the Vickers Valiant.