M.Simons The World's Vintage Sailplanes 1908-45
There was much official encouragement for the early gliding movement in the USSR.
At the 1929 competitions a primary trainer, the YS-4, designed by O.A. Antonov, appeared. From this, Antonov developed the Upar series,
beginning with the PS-1. This had greater span and a planform of semi-elliptical type. The pilot’s nacelle was improved. The result was a lightweight soarer comparable with the German Hangwind and Hols der Teufel types. Later in the 'thirties, Antonov improved the design further and the PS-2 appeared. It fulfilled a role similar to that of the Polish Salamandra, but retained the low-mounted tail boom, with very tall rudder surface. Antonov published a small booklet giving detailed descriptions of his training gliders, with considerable information about workshop methods and materials. Presumably the plans for his aircraft were made available to gliding clubs and there may also have been some factory production of the types. Evidently a good many were produced and flown.
Like the primary trainer, the PS-2 was strutted, the front strut raking forward to its attachment point ahead of the pilot's seat. The wing had two spars, with extensive diagonal bracing between them to give torsional stiffness. Wire bracing was required to keep the tail unit aligned. The nacelle was well shaped, built from wood and fabric covered.
PS-2: Span, 13.70 m. Wing area. 17.04 sq m. Aspect ratio, 11.0. Empty weight, 106 kg. Flying weight, 186 kg. Wing loading. 10.9 kg/ sq m.