Истребитель. Одномоторный биплан цельнометаллической конструкции с неубирающимся шасси. Спроектирован в КБ фирмы "Глостер эйркрафт" под руководством Г. Фолланда. Опытный самолет SS.18 впервые взлетел в январе 1929 г. За ним последовали SS.18A, SS.19, SS.19A
и SS.19B. Последний запустили в серийное производство как "Гонтлит" I.
Истребитель выпускался на заводе "Глостер" в Хэкклкоте с февраля 1934 г. В 1936 г. сборку из импортированных узлов наладили также в мастерских ВВС в Дании. Всего выпущено 245 экз., из них 228 экз. - в Англии.
Самолет состоял на вооружении в Великобритании с февраля 1934 г., в Дании - с 1936 г., в Финляндии - с 1940 г.
Экипаж - 1 чел. Двигатель "Меркьюри" VIS2. Вооружение 2x7,69, бомбы до 90 кг (как полевая переделка).
Серийно выпускались модификации:
- "Гонтлит" I с двухлопастным винтом;
- "Гонтлит" II с трехлопастным винтом.
Как истребитель эксплуатировался ВВС Великобритании в метрополии до октября 1939 г. В 1939-40 гг. использовался как легкий штурмовик против повстанцев в Палестине. С мая 1940 г. служил в ПВО Каира. С лета того же года "гонтлиты" воевали в пустыне на границе Судана как легкие штурмовики и пикирующие бомбардировщики против итальянских войск, в том числе и ночью. В августе - сентябре 1940 г. они там же ограниченно применялись и как истребители. Известен один воздушный бой, в котором английский биплан сбил итальянский бомбардировщик Ca 133. Как штурмовики "гонтлиты" воевали и в Ливии осенью 1940 г. С конца года они использовались только в учебных целях.
Датские истребители были либо уничтожены на земле, либо захвачены немцами в апреле 1940 г. и больше не эксплуатировались. Финны получили партию самолетов "Гонтлит" II и использовали их как учебно-тренировочные.
"Гонтлит" сняли с производства в 1937 г.
Самолет был снят с вооружения в Англии в 1944 г., в Финляндии - в конце 1945 г.
Моторы, количество х мощность:||1х620 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||1800 кг
Максимальная скорость:||370 кг
Практический потолок:||10210 м
Истребитель Gauntlet, в 1937 году состоявший на вооружении, по меньшей мере, 14 эскадрилий ПВО Истребительного командования британских ВВС, был создан по техническому заданию F.9/26 Министерства авиации. Первоначально "Gloster" представила на конкурс истребитель Goldfinch, но потерпела неудачу. Фирма приступила к созданию новой машины, полностью соответствующей всем требованиям задания, но прежде чем она была закончена, появились новые требования F.20/27 к одноместному высотному истребителю-перехватчику. "Gloster" предложила двухстоечный биплан SS.18 цельнометаллической конструкции с обшивкой из легких сплавов и полотна, неубирающимся шасси и двигателем Bristol Mercury IIA мощностью 450 л. с. (336 кВт), оказавшимся ненадежным. Несмотря на проблемы с силовой установкой, самолет неплохо показал себя в ходе испытаний.
Обнадеженная результатами прототипа, фирма "Gloster" продолжила разработку SS.18, оснастив его радиальным двигателем Bristol Jupiter VIIF в 480 л. с. (358 кВт) и присвоив обозначение SS.18A. Позднее на этот самолет установили двигатель Armstrong Siddeley Panther III мощностью 560 л. с. (418 кВт), снова изменив обозначение на SS.18B. Этот тяжелый двухрядный двигатель вызвал проблемы с управляемостью, и на биплане SS.19 "Gloster" вернулась к Jupiter. В 1931 году SS.19 получил обтекатели на колеса шасси, превратившись в SS.19A. Установка двигателя Mercury VIS в 536 л. с. (400 кВт) в октябре 1932 года привела к появлению варианта SS.19B, а в 1934 году, наконец, был выдан заказ на 24 серийных истребителя Gauntlet Mk I с двигателями Mercury VIS2.
Первые самолеты были поставлены 19-й эскадрилье ВВС 25 мая 1935 года. В 1934 году "Gloster" попала под контроль компании "Hawker Aircraft Ltd", в результате чего основной серийный вариант, Gauntlet Mk II, построенный в количестве 204 экземпляров, был изготовлен по технологиям "Hawker", в остальном мало отличаясь от Gauntlet Mk I. Помимо самолетов для ВВС, ставших последними британскими истребителями-бипланами с открытой кабиной, 17 самолетов построили по лицензии в Дании. Позднее старые британские Gauntlet Mk II были поставлены ВВС Австралии (шесть), Финляндии (25), Родезии (три) и Южной Африки (шесть).
Gloster Gauntlet Mk II
Тип: одноместный истребитель
Силовая установка: один радиальный двигатель Bristol Mercury VIS2 мощностью 640 л. с. (477 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 4815 м - 370 км/ч; время набора высоты 6095 м - 9 мин 30 с; потолок 10210 м; дальность полета 740 км
Масса: пустого 1256 кг; максимальная взлетная 1801 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 9,99 м; длина 8,05 м; высота 3,12 м; площадь крыла 29,26 м'
Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers MkV по бортам носовой части фюзеляжа
Flight, June 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
GLOSTER AIRCRAFT CO., LTD.
FOUR complete aircraft will be exhibited on this stand, and in addition, there will be on view a large series of metal wings showing the development of Gloster all-metal aircraft construction dating back to 1917, and illustrating in the most convincing manner possible, the progress made during a period of more than ten years.
The four complete aircraft to be exhibited are: A twin-engined air survey machine (to be shown in skeleton), a "Gnatsnapper" single-seater shipplane, another Gloster single-seater fighter, and the little "Gannet" single-seater light 'plane designed for the Lympne competition of 1923.
The other Gloster single-seater fighter has been designed for rapid climb to a great altitude, and for high speed at that altitude. It is a land machine of all-metal construction, fitted with Bristol "Mercury IIA" engine. In its construction this machine incorporates the latest developments of Gloster metal construction, and special care has been taken in the anti-corrosion treatment. The main dimensions of the Gloster single-seater fighter are: Length o.a., 25 ft. 9 in.; wing span, 32 ft. 9 in.; wing chord, 5 ft. 3 in.; wing area, 332 sq. ft. The total loaded weight is 3,270 lbs.
Flight, December 1929
THE GLOSTER S.S.8
An Interceptor Fighter fitted with "Jupiter" VII or "Jaguar" VIII
PROBABLY most of our readers will, by now, be aware of the fact that the type of single-seater fighter known as an "Interceptor" is a class of aircraft designed, as the title suggests, for intercepting hostile aircraft. The general equipment of this type of machine may not be gone into in detail, but it may be stated that the object of the class is to "get upstairs" as quickly as possible, there to locate and give battle to attacking aircraft. The class is intended to operate from bases not very far removed from the probable line of attack, and to some extent, therefore, fuel capacity is sacrificed for rapid rate of climb. Supercharged engines are the logical types for this class of aircraft, a high rate of climb at considerable altitudes, and a high service ceiling (altitude at which the rate of climb has dropped to 100 ft. per minute) being essential.
The Gloster Aircraft Co., Ltd., has recently produced a machine in this class, known as the "Gloster” S.S.8 Interceptor Fighter, of which it has now become possible to publish a brief description and some photographs.
The main dimensions of the "Gloster" S.S.8 are: Length overall, 27 ft. 4 in. (8-23 m.). Wing span, 26 ft. 4 in. (8-03 m.). Height, 10 ft. 6 in. (3-2 m). Wing area, 300 sq. ft. (27-9 m.2). Wing section R.A.F.28. Engine power more than 1,250 h.p. Total loaded weight, 3,800 lb. (1,725 kg.).
A landplane of all-metal construction, the "Gloster" S.S.8 incorporates the latest developments of Gloster metal construction, special care having been taken to treat the materials against corrosion. The fuselage is built in three sections, of which the front section forms the engine mounting, the middle portion containing the cockpit, fuel and oil tanks, etc., and the rear portion carrying the tail. The main fuselage structure is of rectangular section, and is faired off by metal panels from the engine back to the cockpit, while the rear portion is faired by a fabric covering supported on a light metal structure in the form of "T"-shaped hoops and stringers.
The biplane wings are arranged with two-bay bracing, thus producing a structure which is very strong in torsion. The wings have two main spars each, of high-tensile steel, and the ribs are also of steel. The fabric covering is attached to the wing ribs by the Gloster patented "wired on" method. The ailerons are of the "Frise" type, and are so arranged that their control levers do not project beyond the fabric surface. All bracing wire fork-ends, strut ends, etc., are similarly buried inside the covering.
The various surfaces of the tail unit are designed for easy removal from the fuselage, and a large door in the aft end of the fuselage gives easy access to all the gear in this vicinity. The tail plane is trimmed from the pilot's cockpit to meet various speeds and conditions of load.
The wide-track undercarriage has telescopic legs in which rubber compression blocks take the load, and bouncing is prevented by an oil dashpot. Metal plates are interposed between adjacent rubber blocks, and are also moulded into the rubbers. Wheel brakes are fitted, and can be operated either by pedals on the rudder bar or direct from the control stick itself.
The Gloster S.S.8 can be supplied either with Bristol "Jupiter" VII (direct drive) or Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" VIII (geared) engine. In the former case the tare weight is 3,240 lb. (1,470 kg), and the performance is as follows: Maximum speed at 3,000 ft., 169 m.p.h. (272 km./h.) Speed at 10,000 ft. (3,000 m.), 190 m.p.h. (306 km./h.) Speed at 19,700 ft. (6,000 m.), 177-5 m p.h. (286 km./h.). The climb to 1,000 m. occupies 2 minutes. To 3,000 m., 6 minutes. To 6,000 m. 14-4 minutes. The absolute ceiling is 29,000 ft. (8,840 m.), and the stalling speed near the ground is 58 m.p.h. (93 km./h.).
When the Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" VIII is fitted, the tare weight is 3,400 lb. (1,540 kg.), and the following performance is attained: Speed at 1,000 m., 157 m.p.h. (253 km./h.). At 3,000 m. 173 m.p.h. (278 km./h.). At 6,000 m. 187 m.p.h. (301 km./h.). The climb times are: To 1,000 m., 2-4 mins.; to 3,000 m., 7-2 mins. To 6,000 m., 15-6 mins. Absolute ceiling 31,600 ft. (9,630 m.). Stalling speed near ground, 62-5 m.p.h. (101 km./h.). The maximum speed attainable is 193 m.p.h. (310 km./h.) at 14,500 ft. (4,320 m.).
Flight, February 1931
THE GLOSTER S.S.19
A Multi-Gun Single-Seater Fighter
ONE of the most interesting single-seater fighters produced for some time is the Gloster S.S.19. It is a development of the Gloster S.S. 18 interceptor fighter, and differs from that machine mainly in its armament, which consists of no less than six machine guns, plus four bombs of 20 lb. each.
The Gloster S.S.19 has recently completed its tests at Martlesham, and the performance figures are as follows (the figures in parentheses indicating altitude) :- Speed in m.p.h.: 170 (ground level); 180 (5,000); 188 (10,000); 186 (15,000); 176 (20,000). The rates of climb are: At 1,000 ft., 1,800 ft./min.; at 5,000 ft., 1,720 ft./min.; at 10,000 ft., 1,600 ft./min.; at 15,000 ft., 1,125 ft./min.; at 20,000 ft., 660 ft./min. The service ceiling is 26,100 ft. Climb to various altitudes are accomplished in the following times: To 5,000 ft., in 2 min. 54 sec.; to 15,000 ft., in 9 min. 30 sec.; to 20,000 ft., in 15 min. 14 sec. The take-off run is 125 yards, and the landing run 170 yards. The landing speed is 57 m.p.h.
The Gloster S.S.19 is of all-metal construction, incorporating the usual Gloster forms of construction, i.e., steel tube fuselage and corrugated steel strip mam spars and wing ribs. Being of the two-bay biplane type, the wings are extremely strong both in bending and in torsion, and it is reported that the machine has repeatedly been dived at its terminal velocity of 320 m.p.h.
The armament consists, in addition to the usual two Vickers guns in blast tunnels in the sides of the fuselage, of four Lewis guns mounted in the wings. The muzzles of the wing guns can be seen in the FLIGHT photographs on this page. It will be noted that they have been neatly housed in the wing structure, so that the extra drag caused by these guns must be very small, as the performance figures indicate it to be. The wing guns are so mounted as to have their lines of fire converging on a point some distance ahead of the machine. The machine should thus be a formidable opponent, as a burst of fire can scarcely fail to hit some vital part of the target.
The engine fitted is a Bristol "Jupiter" type VII F, which develops 480 h.p. at 9,000 ft. The fitting of a Townend ring should be noted. Doubtless this contributes in no small measure to the high performance.
Flight, June 1931
SPECIAL TYPES AT THE DISPLAY
THE GLOSTER S.S.19
RESEMBLING in a general way its famous ancestors, such as the "Grebe" and "Gamecock," the Gloster S.S.19 differs from these in that it is designed to carry an unusually large armament, consisting of no less than six machine guns. Two of these are Vickers guns, mounted inboard in the ordinary way in the deck fairing of the fuselage. The other four are Lewis guns, and are mounted inside the wings, some little distance outboard, with their muzzles projecting. There is a gun in each wing, i.e., one in the top starboard plane, one in the bottom starboard, one in the top port, and one in the bottom port wing.
The Gloster S.S.19 is of all-metal construction, and is fitted with a 480-h.p. Bristol "Jupiter" VIII F. engine. The wing span is 32 ft. 10 in. (10 m.), and the total flying weight 3,468 lb. (1,575 kg.). The endurance is /2 hr. at ground level, plus 1 hr. at 15,000 ft. (4,600 m.). The landing speed is 60 m.p.h. (96 km./h.), and the top speed 188 m.p.h. (303 km. h).
Flight, November 1932
The Gloster Aircraft Co., Ltd.
PERHAPS the Gloster Aircraft Co., Ltd., has become best known throughout the world at large through its strong air racing policy, which began with the company designing and building the famous "Bamel" racer, and was continued through Schneider Trophy seaplanes, (biplanes and monoplanes) up till recent times. The firm has, however, designed and built a large number of types adopted at one time or another by the British R.A.F. Quite recently the firm showed that its experience of small high-performance single-seaters had not interfered with its ability to produce large aircraft, and the Gloster Troop Carrier biplane saw the light of day. This machine is of all-metal construction, and has a metal monocoque fuselage in which an excellent streamline shape is achieved with Duralumin plating. The fuselage is, in fact, built exactly like the hull of a flying-boat. Four Rolls-Royce Kestrel engines are placed in tandem pairs between the wings, and this engine arrangement helps to retain the clean lines and small frontal area of the machine. As the Troop Carrier is still undergoing tests nothing may be said of its performance.
Another interesting Gloster type is the S.S.19, which is a single-seater fighter carrying a formidable armament in the form of six machine guns. Probably this was the first aircraft in the world to be so equipped. Two guns are placed in the fuselage in the ordinary position, and the other four are placed in the wings, just outside the airscrew disc. The fuselage guns are Vickers and the wing guns Lewis. The guns are so mounted in the machine as to converge their fire at a point 150 yd. ahead of the aircraft, and thus provide a "cone of fire," thereby greatly increasing the chances of a hit.
The S.S.19 is a two-bay biplane, the two-bay arrangement having been chosen on account of the guns mounted in the wings in order to give greater wing rigidity. The engine is a Bristol Jupiter Series VII.F, giving 480 b.h.p. at 9,000 ft. (2 745 m.). The machine is of all-metal construction, with steel tubular fuselage and wings having spars formed from high-tensile steel strip. The covering is fabric.
The S.S.19 carries, in addition to its six machine guns, an armament of four 20-lb. bombs.
During tests at Martlesham Heath Experimental Establishment the S.S.19 was put through every conceivable manoeuvre and was repeatedly put into terminal velocity nose dives, when it attained speeds of 320 m.p.h. (515 km./h.).
Following are the performance figures for the Gloster S.S.19 when fitted with the Bristol Jupiter VII.F engine:
Ground level 175 m.p.h. (282 km./h.)
10,000 ft. (3 050 m.) 209 m.p.h. (337 km./h.)
15,000 ft. (4 570 m.) 207 m.p.h. (333 km./h.)
20,000 ft. (6 100 m.) 185 m.p.h. (238 km./h.)
5,000 ft. (1 525 m.) 3 min. 40 sec.
15,000 ft. (4 570 m.) 10 min. 0 sec.
20,000 ft. (6 100 m.) 13 min. 54 sec.
Service Ceiling 30,000 ft. (9 150 m.)
Flight, December 1933
THE GLOSTER. "GAUNTLET"
A Day and Night Fighter with Bristol Mercury IV S. 2. Engine recently Ordered in Quantity for the R.A.F.
TWO great air powers - America and France - have recently given orders for large numbers of single-seater fighter aircraft for re-equipment purposes. The machines, in both cases, are low-wing monoplanes. We in this country still prefer the biplane for military work, chiefly on the grounds of the manoeuvrability of the type. So deep rooted is our preference that not only have the Air Ministry adopted yet another biplane fighter, but the machine is a two-bay type. The last two-bay fighter used by the R.A.F. was of war-time design - the Sopwith "Snipe." It seems that the main reason for the adoption of monoplanes abroad is that, generally speaking, a monoplane will prove faster than a biplane. There is much loose talk about the speeds of fighters these days. A nation will say "We now possess the fastest single-seater fighter in the world," but it often shows reluctance in mentioning at what altitude that aircraft attains its top speed. It is our own policy to use fighters having high performance at great altitudes, and there can be little doubt that our machines in this class are matchless. Although new machines adopted by other powers may be fast "on the level" (we do not use this expression in the American sense), especially near the ground, our fighters would still be "top dogs" in an aerial combat owing to their retention of speed and powers of manoeuvre at the great heights at which future aerial battles will (or should we say "would") be fought.
Speed is but one desirable feature in fighting aircraft; there are many others. Great emphasis may be laid on one particular quality in a fighter - speed, climb, manoeuvrability or fighting view - which may entail the sacrifice of other desirable properties, but a machine which possesses each of these qualities to a very high degree and maintains them all at altitudes, which can be safely used for night flying, which carries a large fuel load for long patrols, and which is fitted with wireless - such a machine we standardise in the R.A.F,, and the latest machine in this class, the Gloster "Gauntlet," has just been adopted by that Service.
We congratulate the Gloster Aircraft Co. on their "come back." The last Gloster production type fighter was the "Gamecock," an aircraft well beloved of fighting pilots. There was a series of fighters all similar in general arrangement to the "Gamecock" - the "Grebe" (the forerunner of the "Gamecock"), the "Gorcock," the "Guan," and the "Goldfinch." Not long after the "Goldfinch" had been built, the company produced a new fighter design quite different from their squat single bay biplanes, with the type number of S S 18. This machine, a two-bay biplane with Bristol "Jupiter VII" or "Mercury" engine, was exhibited at the Aero Show, Olympia, in 1929. Later the type was modified, fitted with a "Jupiter VII F." engine and Townend ring, and used for experiments with outboard guns. Six guns were carried, two Vickers in the fuselage and four Lewis in the wings. This machine was known as the S.S.19 or "Multi-gun Fighter." Even with its formidable armament and very comprehensive military equipment it had a speed of roughly 190 m.p.h. at 15,000 ft., to which height it would climb in 9 min. 10 sec.
When the time came for "Bulldog" replacement types to be tried out, the S.S.19 was stripped of its four Lewis guns, fitted with Bristol "Mercury IV S.2" geared and supercharged engine cowled by a Townend ring, had its wheels faired by spats, was modified in a few other minor details and given the type number S.S.19B. We would recall here that the Gloster development machine has appeared at the Aero Show and in the New and Experimental Types Park at two R.A.F. Displays, each time as a different type - the S.S.18, S.S.19 and the S.S.19B ("Gauntlet"), and each time bearing its original number, J.9125. Thus are our fighters developed.
The Gloster Co. put "all they knew" into the design, construction and development of their machine, and many were those who expressed their delight when it was made known that several of the type had been ordered for the R.A.F. as day and night fighters. Soon after this announcement, the type was christened the "Gauntlet" despite the fact that the Air Ministry had previously issued an order that single-seater fighters were to be known by names beginning with F.
Although the "Gauntlet" is the first machine powered by the "Mercury" to be adopted, we do not doubt that this new Bristol engine will give service equally as fine as its larger brother (or is it sister?) the "Pegasus." The "Mercury" engine, which drives a wooden airscrew, is designed specially for installation in high-performance fighting aircraft and develops 570 h.p. at 14,000 ft. The bare weight is 945 lb. It now seems likely that a "Mercury" of later type than the IV.S.2 will be fitted to the production "Gauntlets," which will use a new type of engine cowling.
The "Gauntlet" is certainly one of the strongest fighters ever built. The two-bay wing cellule ensures rigidity for aerobatics and while diving at high speeds; terminal velocity dives have frequently been made. During these manoeuvres the deflection of the spars, which are of high-tensile steel strip, is very small indeed. It would seem that the Gloster Co. is finding the "two-bay" arrangement of great value in fighters - the "Gnatsnapper" Fleet fighter, originally a single-bay type, now employs a two-bay structure similar to that of the "Gauntlet." Frise ailerons on all four wings ensure excellent lateral control. The fuselage, a rectangular structure faired to an oval section, is built in three sections - the engine mounting, the centre portion (built up of square tubes with wire bracing almost eliminated) and the rear section, which is a braced structure of round tubes. The equipment specified for Day and Night fighters is all carefully stowed away. This includes two Vickers guns with their C.C. gear and 1,200 rounds of ammunition, wireless, oxygen and night-flying equipment. Tankage for 81 gallons of fuel and 6 gallons of oil is provided. Four 20-lb. bombs may be carried in a rack in the port bottom plane. Although a Hucks starter claw is fitted, an R.A.E. Mark IIA compressed-air starter will be generally used. The wing-tip navigation lights are carefully built into the leading edge, and even parts of the Holt flare brackets are faired.
Small "doors" in the sides of the cockpit facilitate entry and exit, for the modern fighting pilot with his parachute and other accoutrements is no fairy.
The machine is easy to maintain under adverse conditions, and the engine, guns, belt boxes, wireless, etc., are all easily accessible.
It is desirable for a machine which is used for night flying to have no tricks when landing. The new "Gauntlet" lands slowly, and by the use of brakes the landing run is kept short. The S.S.19 ran about 170 yd. on landing; it is unlikely that the run of the "Gauntlet" will differ to any great extent. Although a two-bay biplane, the "Gauntlet" provides a fine fighting view for the pilot; fine, that is, as the fighting views of conventional tractor biplanes go. The centre section of the top plane is narrowed in both thickness and chord - a feature to be found in Gloster fighters for many years back.
We think the R.A.F. will like the "Gauntlet."
Flight, June 1934
THE GLOSTER "GAUNTLET"
Performance of the Latest Version
WE are now able to publish "maker's" performance figures of the latest version of the Gloster "Gauntlet" single-seater fighter, fitted with the Bristol "Mercury VI.S" engine, which has been adopted as the standard Day and Night Fighter of the R.A.F. Both in top speed and rate of climb this aircraft is superior to the specialised interceptor fighters put into service only three or four years ago, and it carries night-flying gear, wireless reception and transmission equipment with which these machines were not hampered.
Much of the credit for the excellent performance of this machine must go to the Bristol "Mercury VI.S" engine, which uses the new fuel of 87 octane value and delivers a maximum of 605 h.p. at 2,400 r.p.m. This engine is similar in general arrangement to the "Pegasus," but is fully supercharged, runs at a higher speed and has a higher compression ratio and shorter stroke. It is fitted with a combined Townend ring and exhaust collecter.
Bristol Mercury VIS Engine
Speed at 15,800 ft. (4 816 m) 228 m.p.h. (367 km/h)
Stalling speed 59 m.p.h. (95 km/h)
Climb to 15,000 ft. (4 572 m) 6-25 min.
Climb to 20,000 ft. (6 096 m) 9 min.
Service ceiling 35,500 ft. (10 820 m)
All-up weight 3,950 lb. (1 790 kg)
Petrol capacity 80 gall. (364 litres)
Oil capacity 5 gall. (22,7 litres)