Fairey Seafox
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1936


Двухместный поплавковый разведчик-корректировщик
Описание:
Seafox
Fairey Seafox
Flight, December 1937
FOR LIGHT RECONNAISSANCE
Фотографии

Seafox

Корабельный катапультный разведчик. Одномоторный цельнометаллический биплан, установленный на два поплавка. Создан в КБ фирмы "Фэйри авиэйшн" под руководством М. Лобеля. Предназначался для крейсеров.
Опытный образец биплана "Сифокс" впервые взлетел 27 мая 1936 г. Серийное производство началось в апреле 1937 г. на заводе "Фэйри" в Хэмбле. Всего построено 66 экз.
"Сифокс" состоял на вооружении британского флота с весны 1937 г.
Экипаж - 2 чел. Двигатель "Репьер" VI. Вооружение 1х7,69, бомбы до 200 кг.
В 1939 г. разведчики "Сифокс" стояли на ряде крейсеров флота Его величества. В декабре один из таких самолетов успешно корректировал огонь английских кораблей в бою у Рио-Плата, когда был серьезно поврежден немецкий "карманный линкор" "Адмирал граф Шпее". Это был первый случай корректировки огня флота во Второй мировой войне. Эти машины применялись и в Средиземноморье, в частности - при обороне Крита в мае 1941 г.
"Сифокс" сняли с производства в 1938 г., с вооружения их начали снимать в 1942 г., но некоторые самолеты эксплуатировались до начала 1943 г.


"Сифокс"||
Размах:||12,2 м
Длина:||10,8 м
Моторы, количество х мощность:||1х 395 л. с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||2464 кг
Максимальная скорость:||200 км/ч
Практический потолок:||3350 м
Дальность:||710 км

Fairey Seafox

В число задач, решаемых авиацией Королевских британских ВМС (FAA, Fleet Air Arm) в период между двумя мировыми войнами, входили корректировка артиллерийского огня и разведка, производившиеся самолетами, запускаемыми с корабельных катапульт. На конкурс по спецификации (техническому заданию) S.11/32, предусматривающей создание такой машины, фирма "Fairey" представила двухместный биплан с поплавковым шасси. К числу необычных деталей проекта относилось то, что пилот сидел в открытой кабине, в то время как задняя кабина наблюдателя/стрелка была закрыта фонарем. Такая компоновка обеспечивала пилоту хороший обзор при старте с катапульты. Конструкция самолета была смешанной: фюзеляж - металлический монокок и крыло с полотняной обшивкой. Предложение "Fairey" было принято, и контракт на 49 самолетов Seafox был выдан в январе 1936 года, а в сентябре последовал контракт еще на 15 машин.
  Проект предусматривал установку на Seafox радиального двигателя Bristol Aquila в 500 л.с. (373 кВт), но по неизвестным соображениям его заменили на 16-цилиндровый Н-образный двигатель воздушного охлаждения Napier Rapier в 395 л. с. (295 кВт), мощности которого было явно недостаточно. Первый прототип поднялся в воздух 27 мая 1936 года в Хамбле. Второй прототип, оснащенный колесным шасси, взлетел 5 ноября 1936 года; позднее его переделали в поплавковый вариант.
  Серийные Seafox начали сходить со сборочной линии в 1937 году, первый из них был поставлен 23 апреля. После катапультных испытаний в Королевском авиационном НИЦ в марте 1937 года за ними последовали испытания на борту корабля "Нептун", проводившиеся в районе Гибралтара. По мере поступления серийных машин из них стали формировать катапультные отряды. К началу Второй мировой войны Seafox использовались на ряде крейсеров, решая те же задачи, что и амфибии Supermarine Walrus и поплавковые варианты Fairey Swordfish. В декабре 1939 года эти машины принимали участие в действиях против германского "карманного линкора" "Адмирал Граф Шпее" у Ла-Платы. Один из двух Seafox с крейсера "Аякс" корректировал огонь, за что его пилот, лейтенант Е.Д. Левин, первым в FAA был награжден крестом "За боевые заслуги".
  Выпуск Seafox завершился в 1938 году, но самолет оставался на вооружении боевых частей до 1942 года, когда ему на смену пришли Vought Kingfisher. Но и после этого некоторое количество Seafox использовалось в учебных подразделениях до июля 1943 года.
  

ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Fairey Seafox

  Тип: двухместный поплавковый разведчик-корректировщик
  Силовая установка: один ПД Napier Rapier VI мощностью 395 л. с. (295 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 1785 м - 200 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте - 171 км/ч; время набора высоты 1525 м - 15 мин 30 с; потолок 2955 м; дальность полета 708 км
  Масса: пустого 1726 кг; максимальная взлетная 2458 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 10,81 м; длина 10,81 м; высота 3,68 м; площадь крыльев 40,32 м2
  Вооружение: один 7,7 мм пулемет Lewis на турели в задней кабине и до 163 кг вооружения на четырех узлах подвески под крылом, обычно включавшего две 45-кг глубинные бомбы и восемь 9,1-кг бомб

Flight, December 1937

FOR LIGHT RECONNAISSANCE
The Fairey Seafox Catapult Floatplane: Napier Rapier VI Engine: Monococque Fuselage: Easy Maintenance Features

  TRADITIONALLY silent, the Navy has unobtrusively taken into service a number of Fairey Seafox floatplanes of a large batch ordered for operation with the Fleet. The official term "light reconnaissance" is novel and calls for some definition. An "L.R." machine as typified by the Seafox is a lightly loaded, lightly armed seaplane designed primarily for operation from cruisers under any but the very worst conditions. Ease of handling on the water and on shipboard are first essentials, and provision must be made for easy repair. The Seafox is the first machine of its kind to be adopted and may be operated from the smaller type of naval catapult, which is not intended to handle the heavier amphibians and floatplanes. Its compactness when folded allows three machines to be carried on a cruiser of average size.
  Several Seafoxes with Napier Rapier VI engines have been in service since the early part of this year in East and West Indian, South African and Mediterranean waters. Although the performance is not high - speed climb and ceiling being relatively unimportant so far as the specification is concerned - the handling qualities of the Seafox have ensured its popularity among Fleet Air Arm pilots.
  Not only is the Seafox expected to be able to land safely in quite appalling seas, but it must withstand the blast of naval guns and the effects of prolonged exposure to sea water and salt air.
  The precise extent of the Seafox contract is confidential, but as the entire Fairey factory at Hamble is devoted to the production of these machines it is obviously of a substantial nature.
  The staff at Fairey's Hamble works is headed by Mr. B. G. Slater, the general manager, who has Mr. G. Lyon as his production manager. Mr. C. G. James is the chief draughtsman.
  Designed to the same factors as the Fairey Battle high-speed medium bomber, the Seafox, unlike that aircraft, is a two-bay slightly staggered biplane with twin-float undercarriage, stressed-skin Alclad fuselage, and fabric-covered wings. It is produced exclusively as a floatplane.
  As frequently pointed out in Flight, one of the major disadvantages of the stressed-skin fuselage as applied to modern military aircraft is the difficulty of installing the complex equipment. Notwithstanding the "light" in the official designation of the Seafox, this problem was quite acute, as the standard load is very similar to that of the big Pegasus X-engined Fairey Swordfish torpedo spotter reconnaissance machine operating in “reconnaissance” condition. Matters were eased very considerably when it was decided to build the fuselage in a number of sections. The main portion - approximately of horseshoe section - is fitted with a fore-and-aft coaming plate and the top decking, which is really fairing, is subsequently added. Large apertures must, of course, be left in the coaming plate for the cockpits. The bottom portion of the fuselage is strengthened by longitudinal inter-bulkhead members and longitudinal stringers, but for the greater part there are no stringers in the accepted sense of the term, each plate of the Alclad covering being curled over along one edge, the resultant lip taking the place of the usual riveted-on stringer. Thus each plate virtually provides its own stringer. The frames, of course, are notched to receive the lipped edges.
  Aft of the fuselage main portion is the tail wedge, which is bolted on as a separate unit. This carries the three-spar metal-skinned tailplane, which resembles in construction that of the Battle. Attachment is by taper bolts with split bushes. The fin is likewise metal skinned.
  The forty-foot two-bay folding wings have Handley Page leading-edge slots (top planes only) and ailerons and Fairey flaps of high aspect ratio. Conventional two-spar construction is used, the spars picking up at the roots as shown in the sketches. They have booms of "figure eight" section of drawn-steel tube and have steel drag ribs and ordinary ribs of duralumin. The wing tips are readily detachable for replacement should they sustain damage by contact with the hull of the parent vessel in rough weather. Ingenious wing-folding arrangements are incorporated, folding being greatly facilitated by the push-pull tubes with ball bearings used for the flying controls. The front spar latch-pin arrangements are quite straightforward, the pins for the bottom planes being operated from the floats and those for the top planes from the rear, the pilot's levers having special rods.
  A cam and claw arrangement at the lower-wing junctions automatically links up the flap-operating torque tubes and aileron control rods when the wings are spread. The Perspex-covered orientable landing lights in the leading edge of each lower main plane are Bowden-operated, so no complication arises on their account. Their leads are kept under control during folding by bungee. The wings, when folded, clip in handholds at the tips of the tailplane.
  The controls for the tail surfaces are all internal, the rudder being actuated by a lever with its axis set at 45 deg. to the line of the rudder-operating tube. A similar arrangement is employed for the adjustment of the elevator trimming tab. Transmission for this last operation is by wire, chain and Bowden. Co-ordination was a primary consideration.
  Provision is made for locking the control surfaces when the machine is stowed at sea. The slots may also be locked to prevent "dithering" on the catapult in stormy weather. Should the pilot forget to unlock his slots before taking off they are released automatically by the action of the ailerons.
  The engine - a Napier Rapier VI medium-supercharged 16-cylinder air-cooled unit of "H" formation - is carried on a substantial structure of square and round tubes incorporating resilient rubber bearings which permit a movement of 3/16 - 1/4 in. The latest power figures for the Rapier VI are 355/370 h.p. at 3,650 r.p.m. at 4,750 ft. (normal) and 380/395 h.p. at 4,000 r.p.m. at 6,000 ft. (maximum). For take-off 365 h.p. is available at 3,500 r.p.m. at sea level. As a matter of interest, the maximum r.p.m. at 2 1/2 lb./sq. in. boost for terminal velocity diving is no less than 4,800 r.p.m. The nose cowling of the Rapier is supplied as an integral part of the power plant. Cooling louvres, a Fairey oil-cooler, and the latest recessed exhaust manifolds are features of the Seafox installation. There is a pedal for the compressed-air starter forward of the pilot's control column. The metal airscrew is a three-bladed fixed-pitch Fairey-Reed, anodised and finished in black.
  A large tank, divided into "main" and "emergency" sections, is mounted vertically in the fuselage behind the engine bay, picking up at four points. It is possible to withdraw the complete tank through an aperture in the bottom of the fuselage by releasing two bolts.
  The sprung float undercarriage is exceptionally sturdy. Clean running is but one of the excellent characteristics of the Fairey floats, which are built at the big-new Stockport factory. The Seafox floats are of the single-step type and are built up mainly of Alclad, although anodically treated duralumin is also employed. The springing gear is generally similar to that used on previous Fairey floatplanes incorporating a pile of rubber rings and a rebound rubber at the bottom. The principle is explained in one of the accompanying sketches. Walkways extend for the whole length of each float. One float houses the anchor (not to be confused with the drogue, which is stowed in a box behind the observer's cockpit) and each has a powerful water-rudder. These rudders, incidentally, are of very neat construction and have welded edges. It is claimed that a Seafox has been turned in its own length in a 25 m.p.h. wind.
  But one of the secondary problems associated with the design of aircraft for catapult work is the provision of handling and slinging gear. The Seafox has an arrangement of cables under the leading edge of the top main planes and a carefully studied system of wires in the top centre section leading to the slinging ring which connects with the hook of the hoisting derrick. Handholds are provided at strategic points, and there is a towing bridle attached at the front float struts. Each float has a towing eye, and a boat-hook is stowed in one of the floats.
  Although the pilot's cockpit is left uncovered (doubtless due to the necessity for the pilot to have complete freedom of movement during slinging operations), the observer's cockpit has a Perspex enclosure, which, when in the open position, provides adequate shelter for gunnery. All fittings in the cockpits are of non-magnetic stainless steel in order that the compass - a vital factor in over-water flying - might not be affected. The pilot's rudder bar assembly and adjustable seat are of standard Fairey construction. Dual controls may be fitted in twenty minutes, there being two quickly detachable assemblies. The observer's seat is of the Swordfish type, which folds down on to the floor.
  Armament comprises a Lewis gun over the observer's cockpit and bombs. The gun mounting is of special Fairey design and is adapted from the standard "high-speed" type as used on the majority of Fairey two-seaters for some years past. When not in use the gun folds down into a trough in the top fuselage decking. Provision is also made for the carriage of reconnaissance flares or smoke floats.
  As already intimated, the equipment is surprisingly comprehensive and includes an F.24 hand camera, range-finder, light filters, marine distress signals, sea markers, and an Aldis lamp. The light filters are small pieces of coloured glass for observing objects on a shimmering sea, and the sea markers take the form of boxes of aluminium dust.
  Provision is made for the installation of a blind-flying hood for use in conjunction with the dual controls.

FAIREY SEAFOX
Light Reconnaissance Floatplane. Napier Rapier VI Engine

DIMENSIONS:
  Span 40ft. 0in.
  Length 33ft. 5 1/2 in.
  Height 12ft. 1in.
  Wing Area 434 sq.ft.

WEIGHTS:
  Empty weight 3,805 lb
  Loaded weight 5,420 lb
  Disposable load (excluding pilot, fuel and oil) 642 lb

PERFORMANCE:
  Max. speed at sea level 121 m.p.h.
  Max. speed at 5,860ft. 124 m.p.h.
  Initial rate of climb 420 ft./min.
  Rate of climb at 10,000 ft. 150 ft./min.
  Time to 5,000 ft. 10.4 min.
  Service Ceiling 11,000 ft.
  Absolute Ceiling 12,000 ft.
  Range 440 miles
The Fairey "Seafox" Two-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane (375 h.p. Napier "Rapier" engine).
The Seafox light reconnaissance seaplane with 16-cylinder Rapier engine. The type is in service with the Fleet Air Arm.
Seafox были оснащены 702-й, 713-й, 714-й, 716-й и 718-й отряды FAA, в январе 1940 года сведенные в 700-ю эскадрилью. Самолет также использовался 753-й и 754-й эскадрильями в качестве учебного.
Delivery commenced of Fairey Seafox light reconnaissance seaplanes with Napier Rapier engines.
FOR LIGHT RECONNAISSANCE: The first of a batch of the new Fairey Sea Foxes, which have the Napier Rapier VI - the 370 h.p. (at 4,750 ft.) sixteen-cylinder "small sister" of the H-type Dagger. The Sea Fox is specially designed for arduous catapult work, and to that end is liberally furnished with aids for (and defence against) deck crews.
The view is evidence of the clean running.
A FOX THAT NEVER GOES TO EARTH: Another view of the new Fairey Sea Fox (Napier Rapier VI) light reconnaissance seaplane.
Excellent handling qualities - on shipboard, on the water and in the air - characterise the Seafox.
The Seafox is seen in photo returning to the ship after flight. The observer is balanced on the wing centre section preparing for the winch back to the ship.
Photo shows Seafox L4539 ready to be winched back onto HMS Asturias. Note the massive raised hood in the observer’s position. This was raised from the rear to enable the observer to use the Lewis gun, when fitted. Apparently the hood was criticised for its effect on gun-sighting accuracy. Even when the hood was down gaps caused severe draughts and the crew often flew with the hood permanently open.
Seafox L4326, Coded L, is hoisted aboard and retaining struts are attached. Note the observer’s hood in the closed position and that the pilot has no such protection. The pilot’s cockpit remained open to allow sufficient view for catapult launching and freedom of movement for recovery.
Photo shows the ship’s No 2 Seafox being hoisted out of its hangar. Note the balance weights hanging from the floats.
The Seafox is seen running up on the catapult, with flaps set for take-off.
Another photograph of Seafox L4526 back on the catapult. The Seafox was of all-metal construction although the wings were fabric covered. Racks on the wings carried either two 100 lb bombs or eight 20lb bombs. Strangely no bomb sights were fitted to the aircraft and aiming was inspired guesswork.
"Сифокс" I вернулся из тренировочного полета, июнь 1938 г.
Fairey Seafox I K8573 of the Seaside Training Flight, Lee-on-Solent, returns to base on June 24, 1938. Taken on charge by the School of Naval Cooperation on June 22, 1937, it returned to Faireys on July 8 and joined the Coastal Command FAA Pool at Lee-on-Solent on June 24, 1937, subsequently being assigned to HMS Pegasus and then to 718 Squadron, a catapult unit, before it was struck off charge on May 2, 1939, probably as the result of an accident. A total of 66 Seafoxes were built, one of which, flown from HMS Ajax, spotted for the guns of the British cruisers during the Battle of the River Plate on December 13, 1939.
PROTOTYPE II. The Fairey light reconnaissance seaplane intended for operation from warships. A Napier Rapier VI moderately supercharged engine is fitted.
Этот "Сифокс" в мае 1939 г. использовался на базе Ли-он-Солент как учебный
Fairey Seafox floatplane K8605 was photographed at Lee-on-Solent on May 12, 1939, when it was serving as a trainer with the FTF. Designed to Specification S.11/32 for a Fleet Air Arm two-seat reconnaissance seaplane, the Seafox was somewhat underpowered, having a 395 h.p. Napier Rapier VI 16-cylinder air-cooled engine, which, with its characteristic H arrangement of cylinders, gave the aircraft's nose a distinctive line. The Seafox was the first Fairey aircraft to be designed and built at the company's Hamble works, the prototype making its maiden flight on May 27, 1936.
The compactness of the Seafox when the wings are folded is apparent in this view. There is an ingenious arrangement for linking up the controls for flaps and ailerons when the wings are spread.
Showing how the cam and claw arrangement links up the controls for the flaps and ailerons.
The left-hand view shows how easy it is to remove the tank of the Seafox through an aperture in the fuselage bottom, the installation of the Napier Rapier VI are revealed on the right.
Though the observer has a cockpit enclosure, the working of which is illustrated here, the pilot of the Seafox is without a "greenhouse." His duties when being hoisted on board ship demand freedom of movement.
Поплавковое шасси имели все Seafox за исключением второго прототипа, оснащенного колесами. Но в 1937 году его также оснастили поплавками и использовали для испытаний.
The Fairey "Seafox" Two-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane.
The large "exploded" sketch reveals how the Seafox is constructed in a number of units, facilitating the installation of equipment.
The wing construction of the Seafox is of fairly conventional two-spar fabric-covered type. Drawn steel tubes are used for the booms, which are more or less of figure eight section. The wing tips are easily detachable.
This sketch not only serves as a key to the accompanying drawings but indicates the general layout of the Seafox.
A certain affinity between the Seafox and previous Fairey floatplanes is suggested by the design of wings and undercarriage.
Fairey Seafox