Avro 621 Tutor, Avro 646 Sea Tutor и Avro 626 Prefect
В начале 1930-х годов выявилась необходимость в замене основного самолета первоначального обучения британских ВВС Avro 504N. Его логичным преемником стал Avro 621 Tutor, спроектированный в 1929 году Роем Чедвиком. Каркас фюзеляжа равнокрылого биплана сварен
из стальных труб и обтянут полотном. Самолет - двухместный, члены экипажа размещены тандемом в открытых кабинах. Прототип с гражданской регистрацией был оснащен звездообразным двигателем Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose IIIA. На сравнительные испытания самолет поступил в декабре 1929 года.
В 1930 году по результатам испытаний Avro 621 был выбран британскими ВВС, заказавшими установочную партию из 21 машины по спецификации 3/30 с открыто установленным 5-цилиндровым мотором Mongoose (как на прототипе), но почти все остальные серийные самолеты получили 7-цилиндровые двигатели Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC мощностью 240 л.с, закрытые узкими кольцами Тауненда. Некоторое количество самолетов построили и для гражданских заказчиков, а также на экспорт, в том числе для Ирландии, Канады и Китая.
Британские ВВС получили 394 из 795 построенных самолетов, серийный выпуск которых продолжался до мая 1936 года. Большинство самолетов строилось по спецификации 18/31, хотя в 1934-1936 годах некоторое количество двухпоплавковых гидропланов Avro 646 Sea Tutor собрали по спецификации 26/34, они прослужили до апреля 1938 года. Поставки серийных самолетов Tutor начались в 1933 году, и за короткий срок они стали основными учебными самолетами британских ВВС. Множество самолетов поступило в университетские эскадрильи и подразделения британских Вспомогательных ВВС. В конце 1930-х годов, с перевооружением частей первой линии британской авиации на самолеты-монопланы, потребовался также учебный самолет-моноплан. На смену Tutor пришли учебные монопланы Miles Magister. 57 самолетов Tutor собрали по лицензии в Южной Африке.
В 1930 году "Avro" изменила конструкцию планера машины, в большей степени приспособив ее под требования ВВС третьих стран. Новый вариант получил обозначение Avro 626 Prefect. Помимо первоначальной подготовки пилотов на этом самолете стало возможным обучать курсантов воздушной стрельбе, бомбометанию, навигации, ночным полетам, аэрофотографированию, радиосвязи и пр. Штатно экипаж самолета состоял из двух человек, но в задней кабине предусматривалась возможность размещения воздушного стрелка.
На Avro 626 поступило значительное количество заказов, и до прекращения серийного производства в 1939 году произвели 178 самолетов. Для британских ВВС самолеты поставлялись с января по июль 1935 года, а для Новой Зеландии - в июле. Самолеты Prefect заменили Avro 621 Tutor в навигационном училище, дислоцированном в Эндовере. Avro 626 выпускались либо с двигателями Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC мощностью 240 л. с, либо с моторами Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah V мощностью 260 л. с. Не менее трех самолетов с гражданской регистрацией пережили Вторую мировую войну.
Обозначение Avro 637 получили 8 самолетов, доработанных в патрульные по заказу Китая.
Avro 621 Tutor Mk II: один экземпляр с доработанными стойками бипланной коробки
PWS 18: обозначение 40 самолетов Tutor, построенных по лицензии польской фирмой PWS
Avro 621 Tutor
Тип: двухместный самолет первоначального обучения
Силовая установка: один звездообразный двигатель Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC мощностью 240 л. с. (179 кВт)
Характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 196 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на высоте 305 м - 169 км/ч; скороподъемность на уровне моря 305 м/мин; практический потолок 4940 м; дальность полета 400 км
Масса: пустого 839 кг; максимальная взлетная 1115 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 10,36 м; длина 8,08 м; высота 2,92 м; площадь крыла 27,96 м2
Flight, April 1930
THE "AVRO TRAINER"
A New Machine with Many Interesting Features
SO long has the 504 been in existence as a type and so well has it done its work, that the thought that some day it must of necessity be replaced seldom occurs to one. Without thinking much about it, one has come to take the good old 504 for granted. It was first produced in 1913, underwent development during 1914 and onwards and during the war was used for a variety of purposes (for example, as a bomber of Zeppelin sheds!) finally to become standardised as the world's finest training machine. And although modern ideas of what constitutes a good bomber are a little different from what they were in 1914 and '15, the famous 504 is still the standard training machine of many air forces. It has been slightly modernised, it is true, but in all essentials it is the same machine as the prototype of 1913. A period of usefulness of 17 years is sufficient for any aircraft type, although there is no reason to doubt that the 504 will still be going strong when it attains, as a type, its twenty-first birthday.
In the meantime, modern demand will not be denied, and progress cannot be stopped by sentimental affection. The time has come when the old faithful machine must have a successor; and after 17 years of experience with the old machine, what could be more natural than that the Avro firm should produce that successor? In designing a new training machine the Avro engineers, headed by Mr. Roy Chadwick (who was with A. V. Roe in the early days, and who has remained with the firm ever since), would be expected to retain those features which made the 504 such a success. It is not altogether easy to assign relative values to the different characteristics of the 504, but to us it has always seemed that much of the secret of the phenomenal popularity of the 504 is to be found in the large-span, high aspect ratio, heavily-staggered wings and long fuselage, giving a good lever arm to the tail surfaces and getting them fairly well clear of the downwash. And if one examines the new "Avro Trainer" (as the successor to the 504 is called) it will be found that those features are retained. In fact, although the Trainer has scarcely a single dimension in common with the 504, the "family likeness" is quite striking. The two most marked changes are: the different shape of the rudder, and the different undercarriage.
It is on the practical rather than on the aerodynamic side that one would look for improvements in the Trainer, and one does not look in vain. Rarely have we seen a machine in which the user's point of view has so evidently been studied. The machine is primarily intended for training purposes, and the requirements of training have quite obviously been kept prominently in view throughout the design. Large, comfortable cockpits, good view, effective windscreens, an undercarriage of wide track, these are some of the features of the Trainer.
Layout of Cockpits
Very great care has been taken in planning the layout of the cockpits. Both are not only identical in size, but the controls, instrument arrangement, etc., are the same in both, so that a pupil changing from one cockpit to another will at once feel at home, and will not be in danger of having to fumble about, in an emergency, for any control or switch. Owing to the heavy stagger of the wings, both cockpits are well clear, and both occupants have a good chance of using their parachutes.
The cockpit floors are of Duralumin, and the controls, with the exception of the actual joy sticks and foot bars, are covered in by a tunnel-shaped raising of the floor, along the centre line. Behind the aft cockpit there is a slight drop from cockpit floor to the bottom fairing, so that any dirt which has collected can be swept along and dropped through a small trapdoor.
The inside of the fuselage structure is lined with leatherette and only a few controls, etc., project through this into the cockpits, so that the latter are entirely without that conglomeration of struts and other structure members which has been the rule in cockpits of aeroplanes hitherto. At the same time the detachable fuselage fairings enable the structure to be examined quite readily whenever it is desired to do so.
The controls are of normal type, but a very neat adjustment is provided for the foot bars to suit pilots of different heights. This adjustment, made by means of a small wheel operating a worm, can be made during flight quite easily. Of controls which are not quite standard yet, reference may be made to the locking arrangement of the Handley Page slots. A sliding bolt arrangement on the starboard side enables the instructor to lock the slots and to unlock them again during flight.
An exhaust heated cockpit is a boon for work in winter, or for flying at considerable altitudes, and in the Avro Trainer this takes the form of a duct along the side of the control tunnel on the floor, the hot air entering through openings near the feet of the occupants.
Altogether the Avro Trainer is an exceptionally interesting machine, and carefully thought out for the work it has to perform. Whether it is the successor to the 504 time alone will show. It starts with very good prospects of taking the place of its famous ancestor.
Flight, June 1931
SPECIAL TYPES AT THE DISPLAY
A VERY versatile machine is the Avro 626 Advanced Training type. It has been so designed that its equipment can be changed rapidly, if desired, so that the same machine can be used, in addition to ordinary flying training, for training in gunnery, wireless, photography, flying by instruments, etc. It is, however, rather intended that users should have one machine for each purpose, as this permits of simultaneous training in the various subjects. At the same time, the use of a standard type of machine has many advantages, as spares for engine and aircraft are the same for all models.
The Avro 626 is largely of metal construction, and has a welded steel tube fuselage. The engine fitted as standard is an Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx IV" of 215 h.p., but, if desired, the machine can be supplied fitted with other engines of approximately the same power. The wings are staggered so as to give a good view.
The main data are :- Wing span, 34 ft. (10.4 m.); total flying weight, 2,750 lb. (1,250 kg.); endurance at full throttle, 1 hr. at ground level and 2 1/4 hr. at 10,000 ft.; landing speed, 45 m.p.h. (72 km./h.); maximum speed, 110 m.p.h. (177 km./h.).
Flight, November 1932
A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd.
Newton Heath, Manchester
THE name A. V. Roe goes back to the earliest days of aviation in Great Britain, and Sir Alliott V. Roe was a pioneer of British design and construction. It is worth recalling that at the beginning of flying, when almost all the rest of the world's experimenters were developing the "pusher" type of aircraft, Mr. A. V. Roe (as he then was) foresaw the advantages of the tractor type of aeroplane, the type which was destined later to become almost universal. Sir Alliott V. Roe is no longer associated with the firm which bears his name, the company having now been included in the group of firms presided over by Sir John D. Siddeley.
Almost from its earliest days the Avro firm has specialised in training types of aircraft. Considerable numbers of other types have been produced from time to time, but it is the training type which has brought the Avro firm world renown, and there was thus poetic justice as well as good common sense in the decision made by the British Air Ministry recently, when the question of replacing the good old Avro 504 arose, to award the order to A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd., and to standardise the Avro 621 as the training machine of the British Royal Air Force. The 621 is known also as the "Tutor".
The Avro 621
The 621 is an equal-span, single-bay biplane of all-metal construction, but with fabric covering. The fuselage is a welded steel tube structure, while the wings have strip-steel spars and pressed light metal ribs. Bristol-Frise ailerons are fitted. The power plant of the 621 is an Armstrong-Siddeley Lynx developing 215 b.h.p. at 1,900 r.p.m. By giving the wings a pronounced stagger, not only do both occupants obtain a good view, but both are able to use their parachutes in emergency.
Both cockpits are identical in size and arrangement and, of course, full dual controls are provided, so that the machine can be flown equally well from either cockpit.
A wide-track undercarriage is used, and the shock-absorbing qualities have been so proportioned that, although the machine can be landed heavily without damage to the structure, the springing is hard enough to make the pupil realise that he has made a bad landing.
In addition to its uses as a landplane training machine, the Avro 621 can be fitted with floats and used for seaplane training. The floats are fitted with water rudders and the airscrew is of metal, while hand-turning gear is provided for starting the engine.
The main dimensions, weights and performance figures are given in the following data :-
Length o.a. 26 ft. 4 1/2 in. (8 m.)
Wing span 34 ft. 0 in. (10,36 m.)
Wing area 300 sq. ft. (27,9 m!.)
Tare weight 1,800 lb. (818 kg.)
Normal load 649 lb. (295 kg.)
Normal gross weight 2,449 lb. (1 113 kg.)
Max. permissible gross weight (aerobatic) 2,500 lb. (1 135 kg.)
Maximum speed 115 m.p.h. (185km./h.)
Cruising speed 95 m.p.h. (153 m.p.h.)
Initial rate of climb 880 ft./min. (4,5 m./sec.)
Service ceiling 15,000 ft. (4 570 m.)
The Avro 626
Similar in general appearance to the "Tutor" 621, the Avro 626 has been designed for complete instruction of military flying personnel, from flying instruction (ab initio to advanced aerobatics) through night flying to instruction in gunnery, bombing, photography, radio, etc, How wide is its scope may be gathered from the fact that the Avro 626 can be equipped for no less than 11 alternative training duties, and in all 11 cases the machine carries instructor as well as pupil. All the armament and equipment used for specialised instruction is of standard service pattern as used in military aircraft. It will doubtless be of interest to enumerate in a little more detail the training purposes for which this versatile aircraft can be used. (Obviously the equipment for any one or, at most two duties only is carried at the same time.) Dual-control flying instruction; blind flying and night flying; offensive gunnery, using Vickers gun; offensive gunnery using camera gun; defensive gunnery using Vickers or Lewis gun; defensive gunnery using camera gun; bombing for observer (prone position); bombing for pilot; wireless telegraphy and telephony; photography and navigation.
Although it is not intended that the one individual aircraft should be used for all these duties, but rather assumed that the user will have a series of machines, each equipped for a particular duty, it is nevertheless possible to change one complete set of equipment for another in a very short time - something like 2-3 hours.
To facilitate inspection and interchange of equipment, the sides of the fuselage, from the engine to a point aft of the gun turret, are covered with a series of quickly removable panels, so that in a moment the whole internal structure, equipment, controls, etc., can be exposed and made readily accessible.
Structurally the 626 is similar to the 621, and the engine is also the same, i.e., the Armstrong-Siddeley Lynx. The dimensions of the 626 are almost identical with those of the 621.
The tare and gross weights of the 626 vary, of course, in accordance with the particular duties for which the machine happens to be equipped. The tare weight varies from about 1,930 lb. (877 kg.) to about 2,000 lb. (910 kg.). The gross weight also varies according to the particular duties, but in no instance does it reach the permissible figure of 2,750 lb. (1 227 kg.) for aerobatics category or 3,000 lb. (1 363 kg.) for normal category.
The performance figures for the Avro 626 are substantially the same as for the "Tutor" 621.
Flight, November 1933
An Economical Military Machine with Low Power but High Performance
INTENDED primarily for duties like frontier patrol and police work, the Avro 637, although a fully-armed military aeroplane, is an extremely economical one. For countries where high cost and running expenses cannot be entertained, but which require aeroplanes with a wide variation of equipment, the 637 is excellent. In many countries suppression of bandits, frontier warfare, and smuggling is the regular job of their Air Force, and for this the Avro 637 can be used more economically than high-powered, more expensive machines, and with equal efficiency.
Usually, economy means that the best equipment cannot be obtained; the production of the Avro 637 has, however, changed that aspect, and makes available aircraft suitable in every respect for the work they have to do.
The 637 is called an "Economy, Bombing and Fighting Aeroplane," and is the third of the series of all-metal machines built by A. V. Roe, Ltd., at Manchester during the last few years. The first of the type was the Avro 621 or "Tutor," a machine suitable for all forms of flying training. Next came the 626, a somewhat enlarged and three-seater version of the former, arranged for every form of military training. The 637 possesses all advantages of the form of construction perfected in these types, and has incorporated in it many features facilitating maintenance and repair. It is a two-seater biplane powered with the Armstrong Siddeley "Cheetah" engine developing 260 h.p., at 2,000 r.p.m., at 2,500 ft. Its construction follows the same general lines as the Avro "Tutor," which we have recently described. The fuselage is a single unit of welded steel tubes. The undercarriage, of the divided axle type, is mounted in two separate units, the shock absorbing member utilising steel springs in conjunction with oleo gear to absorb the rebound.
In common with the previous machines, large removable panels on the sides of the fuselage facilitate inspection and maintenance of the controls, while grease gun lubrication is used wherever possible. One Vickers gun is fitted centrally in front of the pilot, who uses the front cockpit. This gun fires through a channel in the top decking and top engine cowling. The rear cockpit has a Lewis gun on an Avro mounting. Fuel tankage of liberal capacity is provided, thus giving the machine a long range. The normal bomb load is eight 20-lb. bombs.
The detail work of the equipment follows the usual Avro lines in its completeness. The pilot's seat is readily adjustable for height, while the observer is provided with a folding seat, which can be put back out of the way when he is using the gun or acting as photographer. Both seats, of course, accommodate a standard parachute. The controls are quite normal, with an adjustable rudder bar and the Avro screw-type tail plane incidence adjustment. The wheel brakes are operated by a hand lever differentially applied by the use of the rudder bar. The main planes are of all-metal construction, with steel spars and aluminium ribs.
Avro Trainer school machine. (Lynx engine.)
THE "AVRO TRAINER": Three-quarter Front View. The Fabric Fairings are made as detachable units to facilitate inspection of the Fuselage Structure.
The Nose of the "Avro Trainer" fitted with "Mongoose" engine.
FOR USE IN COLD CLIMATES: A new type of cowling has been produced by the Avro company for their Trainer (621) and Advanced Trainer (626) machines. The openings in the cowling can be adjusted from the cockpit by a Bowden cable and plunger arrangement.
An alternative power plant. The "Avro Trainer" fitted with "Lynx" engine.
THE "AVRO TRAINER": The front view gives a good idea of the wide track of the undercarriage.
Avro 621 Tutor G-ABIR. This Tutor served from March 1931 until being impressed as HM504 in October 1941 with 3 EFTS, as the school had become. In April 1942 it was downgraded to instructional airframe status, becoming 3065M.
Типичный самолет конца 1920-х годов: каркас фюзеляжа, крыла и оперения - стальные трубы, обшивка полотняная. На фотографии прототип самолета Avro 621 Tutor с мотором Mongoose, 1929г.
Avro Trainer school machine. Armstrong-Siddeley Mongoose engine.
THE "AVRO TRAINER": In this three-quarter rear view, possibility of jumping by parachute from either cockpit is well brought out.
A MODERN TRAINING MACHINE: The Avro "Tutor," or 621, with Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx" engine, is a worthy successor of the 504.
THE AVRO "TRAINER": Designed to supplant the famous Avro-Lynx, this machine is of all-metal construction, and incorporates all possible modern refinements. Supplied either with "Mongoose" or "Lynx" engines.
THE "AVRO TRAINER": The machine in flight.
The "Avro Trainer" in flight at Woodford Aerodrome.
NEW ALL-METAL TRAINING MACHINE: After undergoing tests at Martlesham, the new Avro "Trainer" has now gone into production, and a batch of machines is being built. Several have also been ordered for use in the Dominions and abroad, some for air survey work. The machine can be fitted with the Armstrong-Siddeley "Mongoose" engine (standard) or with the "Lynx" for special purposes, such as operating from aerodromes situated at a considerable altitude. A detailed description will be published next week.
Avro 621 Tutor G-ABIR is flight over the school buildings with the AST hangar just behind the tail and the northern airfield above its upper wing. This Tutor served from March 1931 until being impressed as HM504 in October 1941 with 3 EFTS, as the school had become. In April 1942 it was downgraded to instructional airframe status, becoming 3065M.
FOR GUNNERY INSTRUCTION: An aerial view of one of the Avro 626 Advanced Training aeroplanes, showing the machine fitted up for instruction in observers' gunnery.
INSTRUMENT FLYING: The pupil is under the hood in the rear cockpit.
AVROS FOR THE AIR MINISTRY: The first eight of a batch of Avro Lynx Tutor type 621 training biplanes supplied recently to the Air Ministry.
MEMBERS OF THE AVRO FAMILY: Beginning with the machine in the foreground, the types lined up are: The "Avian Monoplane," the "Avian" biplane, the "Avro Trainer," the Avro Five and the Avro Six.
THE AVRO 626: A training type used for flying training and military training (gunnery, bombing, photography, radio, etc.).
BRITISH AIRCRAFT TYPES WHICH ARE BEING FLOWN AT EL PALOMAR: 3, Avro Advanced Trainer, type 626, Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx" engine.
The Avro "Tutor" Two-seat Training Biplane (215 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Lynx" engine).
Old Avro. Formerly NZ203, ZK-APC is the last of the prewar R.N.Z.A.F. Avro 626s. Owned by J. Frogley, it still flies at Christchurch, New Zealand.
AN INTERNATIONAL GATHERING: A view along the machine park at Vincennes. The Avro "Tutor" of the ill-fated Portuguese competitor is in the foreground.
Ready for the afternoon's work. The Tutors are lined up and instructors ani members are just going up for solo or dual flights.
Avro Tutor K3213 spent most of its flying life at the RAF College. In May 1938 it was grounded and given the serial number 1063M.
Avro Tutor. Lynx Engine. The success with which the Avro Tutor completed three years of official trials in competition with every other British training aeroplane has been confirmed by the selection of the Tutor by the British Air Ministry as the new standard training aeroplane of the Royal Air Force.
The Avro 621 Tutor is wearing the dual identity K3387 and K3311, a common occurrence with training aircraft when parts were often interchanged. This Tutor was a 610 Squadron aircraft and is seen at Hooton. Note the blind flying hood folded down behind the rear cockpit.
SCHOLASTIC. This special version of the Avro "Tutor" (215 h.p. "Lynx") built for Royal Air Force use, and known officially as the "Prefect," is to be used initially for navigational training; a number are on order. Increased tankage appears to be a feature.
At the Goodyear Trophy Race, Wolverhampton, May 17, 1952
The Avro 621 "Tutor" and the Autogiro of Sir Alan's Circus flying in typical Cape Town scenery.
Flt Lt Geoffrey Tyson surveys a sea of upturned faces from his inverted Lynx-engined Avro Tutor G-ABZP at Redhill on April 13, 1935.
THE AVRO '626' CHEETAH OR LYNX ENGINE for ab initio and entire transformation instruction. The small air force can, moreover, use the Avro '626' for many peace-time military purposes with economy and without loss of efficiency
Ten 626s to supplement those already in service with the Egyptian Army Air Force
FOR EGYPT: This Avro 626 (Armstrong-Siddeley "Cheetah") is one of the batch of machines which have been sold through Airwork, Ltd., to the Egyptian Government for training and general reconnaissance work in Egypt. They are being taken over by Government representatives at Lympne Aerodrome shortly, where a number of Egyptian officers are undergoing training.
AVRO 626's supplied to the EGYPTIAN ARMY AIR FORCE
The Avro 626 machines illustrated form part of a recent order for the Egyptian Army Air Force.
A BATCH OF AVRO 626 BIPLANES FITTED WITH CHEETAH ENGINES WHICH ARE TO BE USED BY THE EGYPTIAN AIR FORCE FOR DESERT PATROL WORK
THE INSPECTION: The Egyptian Minister and Kaimakam Tait Bey inspecting the pilots under Bimbashi Webster.
THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT: The new equipment of the Egyptian Army Air Force.
The Egyptian party, with Kaimakam Tait Bey and Bimbashi Webster, inspects the personnel.
TUNIS: An aerial view of Tunis Aerodrome. In addition to the French military aeroplanes on the ground, the squadron of Avro 626 aircraft which recently flew out to Egypt from England, are also shown in this picture. Incidentally, these Egyptian machines reached Cairo on October 1.
APPOSITE: Christmas greetings from Air Service Training Ltd. at Hamble. The message is formed by white-overalled humanity "on the hands down," and the "A.S.T." consists of the ten different aircraft types which form the organisation's fleet: Avro V, 626, Avian, Tutors and Cadets; two-seater Siskin; A.W. Atlas; two Cutty Sarks; and D.H. Leopard Moth and Hornet Moth.
Avro "Tutor" Training Machines of the Greek Air Force at Janina.
FOR PORTUGUESE INSTRUCTION: Part of a batch of Avro 626 comprehensive military trainers (Siddeley Cheetah V) at Avro's Woodford aerodrome prior to delivery to the Portuguese Government. Despite the fact that the 626 was designed some years ago it is still extremely popular.
Avro 626. Cheetah or Lynx Engine. For the entire instruction of pilots and observers. For each alternative duty, standard service armament and equipment is used and in all cases both pilot instructor and pupil are accomodated.
Следом за "французской эрой" в авиации Эстонии наступила "английская". На снимке "Авро-626"
Один из трех учебных Авро-626 ВВС Литвы. Каунас, 1937 г.
Tutor установочной партии, заказанной британскими ВВС. Один самолет Tutor в 1948 году прошел модернизацию и использовался менеджером фирмы "Avro" в качестве персонального транспорта.
The Avro 626 Training Biplane (277 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Cheetah V" engine) as supplied to the Brazillian Government.
An Avro 626 (275 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah V) trainer for Brazil. It can be used for a variety of purposes, the rear cockpit being adaptable for gunnery, prone bombing, photography or radio, while provision is made for instrument flying and message collection. In the front seat is Mr. H. A. Brown (Avro chief test pilot), and the passenger is Sefior Polzin, Brazilian Vice-Consul.
The Avro 626 Trainer is readily adaptable for every branch of flying instruction. The photograph shows one of a number of these trainers recently supplied to the Brazil government. Avro training machines are now used by eighteen foreign governments.
The Avro 626 Trainer provides for the complete training of all flying personnel, and has proved economical both in cost and operation. The photograph shows one of a number of these trainers recently supplied to the Brazilian government. Avro training aircraft are now used by eighteen foreign governments.
In service during the ’30s. Note tail skid and lack of aileron tie rod
Avro "Tutor" (Siddeley "Lynx" IV C).
On a photographic sortie from Old Warden in 1972
INSTRUCTOR AND PUPIL: An Avro "Tutor" of the Oxford University Air Squadron flying along the Kentisn coast, with Whitstable in the background.
THE CHIEF INSTRUCTOR: Sqd. Ldr. Chick in an Avro "Tutor."
The Avro "Tutor" (215 h.p. "Lynx") is the standard training type in the Royal Air Force.
Flashback to 1933 - C.F.S. aerobatic team on Avro Tutors
Tens of thousands saw from below these three Tutors from the Central Flying School. In this view of them, taken at their own level, the attitudes of the machines are more clearly brought out. Note that in the inverted position the leader's machine has to be at a much greater angle to obtain the necessary lift.
A TUTORIAL TRICK. Instructors from The Central Flying School, Wittering, in special "Tutors," rehearse a phase of their inverted flying act to be given at Hendon on June 20. The rearmost machines, of course, are not in their normal attitude...
Avro Tutors (Lynx) in Formation.
THE TOP SILVER SIDE: Three "Tutors" from C.F.S.
Thanks very largely to the Avro concern the R.A.F. has always had first-class trainers. Tutors are seen here rehearsing inverted flying for an R.A.F. display.
COULD PEGOUD HAVE FORESEEN THIS? Before he made the first loop, it is said that the French pilot Pegoud had himself strapped upside down to a bench to grow accustomed to the sensation. These instructors of the Central Flying School at Wittering seem quite at home in their inverted Avro "Tutors," in which they will perform at the R.A.F. Display.
INVERSION AT CLOSE QUARTERS. Something the Hendon Display spectators did not see - what the inverted Ano "Tutors" of the Central Flying School look like from another machine only a few yards distant.
Avro Tutors of the Central Flying School, Wittering, rehearsing their display of inverted flying for the 1933 RAF Display at Hendon.
INVERSION: An Avro Tutor from A.S.T. over Southampton Water. The attitude of the sailing vessel is sufficient proof that the picture itself has not been inverted!
The Lynx-engined Avro Tutor trainer is seen here as a single-seater specially equipped for inverted flying. It is normally a dual-control two-seater.
FROM ISIS TO SWALE: The Oxford University Air Squadron is now encamped at Eastchurch in the isle ol Sheppey, and its Avro "Tutors" range over the waters of the Thames estuary. Here a flight is seen over a line of red-sailed barges which have just emerged from the Swale channel.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY AIR SQUADRON: A formation of "Tutors" over Canterbury. The squadron is doing its annual training at Eastchurch.
IN FORMATION: The Cambridge University Air Squadron on Avro "Tutors" over Salisbury Plain.
London University in the air: "echelon stepped up" by the U.L.A.S. in their Tutors.
Whitstable as seen from the air, with a flight of the Oxford "Tutors" coasting along.
A flight of three "Tutors" of Oxford University Air Squadron off the coast of Kent. The convoy of barges has just emerged from the so-called river Swale, which separates the Isle of Sheppey from the mainland.
Members of the C.U.A.S. and their instructors. Second from the left is the Chief Instructor, Wing Cdr. Lockyer, and fourth is the C.F.I., Sqn. Ldr. Mason.
CHILE! This Avro 626 (Siddeley "Cheetah") training machine was flown over the Andes in mid-winter by Mr. H. A. Brown, the makers' chief test pilot, accompanied by his engineer, Mr. Harper. It was necessary to cross the range at 18,000 ft., and the machine was loaded to a gross weight of 3,250 lb. The "626" was the first of its type to be delivered to the Chilean Air Force. This group, taken at Santiago de Chile, shows (left to right) Senor Paul Besa, Commodoro Franki, Commodoro Don Diego Aracena (Chief of the Chilean Air Force), Mr. Brown and Commandante Castro.
RIGHT WAY UP! During a recent visit to the C.F.S., Flight's photographer inveigled these three pilots into a "close-up." Since the Hendon Display crowd almost saw their faces as they flew their Avro Tutors inverted at low altitude, we make no apology for departing from the Hendon "no limelight" convention. Left to right : Fit. Lts. Mermagen and Stephenson and Fit. Sergt. Scragg.
ADVANCED TRAINING: Mr. A. V. Harvey and two Chinese pilots with an Avro 626 ("Lynx").
THE AVRO 626 ("LYNX"): Fit. Lt. Pope and his passenger just before the start of the Speed Race.
LORD LONDONDERRY: Secretary of State for Air arriving in an Avro "Trainer."
NOT AN ACCIDENT: The Avro 626 is variously used for training in gunnery, bombing, photography and wireless.
AVROS AT THE S.B.A.C. DISPLAY: From front to back, the "Cadet," the Autogiro, the "Commodore," the 626, and the 642.
NATIONS AT THE FOUNTAIN: A Yugoslav Autogiro (Genet Major), a Portuguese 626 comprehensive trainer Cheetah) and an Irish Anson reconnaissance machine (two Cheetahs) in a "feeding time" scene at Woodford, Avro's Manchester aerodrome. The Anson is fitted with flaps.
This combined Armstrong-Whitworth and A. V. Roe stand is one of the most attractive in the Show. All the three machines are painted white, with their exposed metal surfaces plated.
AST was formed by Armstrong Whitworth in 1931 with a large hangar built for the flying school on the north airfield (the former Avro factory and flying field being to the south). In this view of the crowded school hangar, the DH.83 Fox Moth G-ACCA helps to date the picture. This was registered in February 1933 but exported to Australia the following September, becoming VH-UTY. Other types in view are the staple of the school, with A W Atlas Trainer G-ABHW (registered April 1931, scrapped in 1938) in the left foreground. Behind the Fox Moth is Avro 621 Tutor G-ABIS which served with AST from March 1931 through to October 1941 as HM505 (by which time the school was designated 3 EFTS), becoming instructional airframe 3064M in April 1942. Behind the Atlas is Avro 631 Cadet G-ABYC which is another interloper, not having served with AST. This machine is the longest survivor of those identifiable in the photo, being broken up at Barton, Manchester in mid-1951.
AN ECONOMICAL PROPOSITION: The Avro 637 can be used for a variety of purposes, and is especially suitable for patrol and reconnaissance duties.
FOR BOMBING: For punitive purposes the 637 can carry this load of light bombs. The Armstrong-Siddeley "Cheetah" engine, although giving 260 h.p., looks small and neat when cowled with a Townend Ring.
ON TEST AT FELIXSTOWE: The Avro Trainer, type 621 S, has now been fitted with floats, and has just passed very successfully its preliminary tests at Hamble. The machine has now gone to Felixstowe for official tests. The engine is an Armstrong Siddeley "Lynx IV C."
The Avro "Seatutor" Two-seat Training Seaplane (215 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Lynx" engine).
WITH "BOOTS" ON: The A.S.T. seaplane fleet flying over our photographer at Hamble. Left to right, the " Avian," "Tutor," "504."
A FLIGHT OF THE SEAPLANE TRAINING SQUADRON: "Osprey" and "Seal" led by "Tutor."
CRAFT OF THE SEAPLANE TRAINING SQUADRON: The machines from left to right are Fairey "Seal," Avro "Tutor," Saro "Cloud," Hawker "Osprey" and Supermarine "Southampton."
INSTRUCTIONAL AIRCRAFT: This picture shows five types used at Cranwell for teaching cadets to fly. The leading machine is an Avro "Tutor," followed by a two-seater "Bulldog" and a single-seater "Bulldog," with an instructional "Hart" and a two-seater "Siskin" in the rear.
TRAINING TYPES: The machines from top to bottom are "Atlas," "Tutor," "Tiger Moth," "Tomtit" and "Siskin."
The staggering formation of aircraft was flown by instructors of Air Training Services Ltd in 1934. The aircraft are, from top to bottom: Avro Avian IVM, Avro Cadet, Avro Tutor, D.H.9J, Avro 626, Armstrong Whitworth Siskin III, Armstrong Whitworth Atlas, Saro Cutty Sark and an Avro Five.
The Skeleton of the "Avro Trainer." Nose, showing Engine Mounting, etc
Welded steel tube construction is employed in the tail unit of the "Avro Trainer." The tail skid is a leaf spring, carrying a chilled cast-iron shoe.
VERSATILITY: The Avro Advanced Training Aeroplane, Type 626, has now been equipped in six distinct styles, which between them make the machine suitable for specialised instruction in: 1, prone bombing; 2, wireless; 3, Lewis gun (observer's); 4, "blind" flying; 5, photography; 6, Vicker's gun (pilot's). In addition, the machine is, of course, equipped for dual instruction in flying, and instruction in navigation, while by fitting floats the Trainer is suitable for instruction in seaplane flying.
UNDER CONSTRUCTION: Rotatable trestles are used by A. V. Roe's for fuselage erection. It will be seen that the front end of this 637 fuselage is so held that it can be moved about or turned, thus making the job of erection very simple.