De Havilland Tiger Moth / D.H.82
Варианты:
De Havilland - Tiger Moth / D.H.82 - 1931 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1931


Двухместный учебный и спортивный самолет
Описание:
de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth
Flight, November 1931
The New “Tiger Moth”
Flight, November 1932
British Aircraft
Flight, October 1933
THE “TIGER MOTH" FIGHTER
Фотографии:

Схемы, чертежи (5)

de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth

Успех DH.60 Moth стимулировал разработку военной версии машины, известной как DH.60T Moth Trainer. По сравнению с гражданскими вариантами, конструкцию DH.60T усилили для полетов с большей массой. Он мог оснащаться подвеской для четырех практических бомб массой по 9,1-кг под фюзеляжем, а также фотопулеметом либо АФА различных типов для разведки. Поэтому Moth Trainer годился для обучения пилотов, бомбардиров и стрелков. Для облегчения аварийного выхода из передней кабины расчалки были наклонены вперед к передней части крепления корневой части крыла, а дверцы кабины - увеличены. Стойки центроплана все еще окружали переднюю кабину, однако в новом учебно-боевом самолете, разработанном по спецификации 15/31, их сдвинули вперед для облегчения покидания машины. Смещение центра тяжести, вызванное этим смещением крыльев, компенсировали, придав консолям небольшую стреловидность. Был установлен перевернутый рядный мотор Gipsy III мощностью 120 л. с. (90 кВт) и скошенный капот, обеспечивший лучший обзор из кабины пилота.
  Построили восемь предсерийных экземпляров с тем же обозначением DH.60T, но с новым наименованием Tiger Moth. За ними последовала машина с увеличенным поперечным "V" и стреловидностью нижнего крыла. Этот самолет получил новое обозначение DH.82. Он впервые поднялся в воздух 26 октября 1931 года. По спецификации 23/31 заказали 35 таких машин под военным обозначением Tiger Moth Mk I. В ноябре 1931 года первые из них прибыли в учебную часть FTS №3. Другие поступили в часть CFS в мае 1932 года. Звено из пяти летчиков CFS показало свое мастерство и перевернутый пилотаж на новом учебно-боевом самолете на аэрошоу 1932 года в Хендоне. Подобные машины поставлялись на экспорт в Бразилию, Данию, Персию, Португалию и Швецию. Еще два самолета со спаренными поплавками фирмы "Short Brothers" были построены по спецификации T.6/33 для оценки британскими ВВС.
  Затем де Хэвилленд разработал улучшенную версию с мотором Gipsy Major I мощностью 130 л. с. (97 кВт) и фанерной (вместо полотняной) обшивкой фюзеляжа. Этот самолет назвали DH.82A или Tiger Moth Mk II. ВВС Британии заказали 50 таких машин по спецификации T.26/33. На Tiger Moth Mk II имелся съемный колпак, которым можно было накрыть заднюю кабину для обучения полетам по приборам. Первые машины поступили в Кинли с ноября 1934 по январь 1935 года. Другие попали в летные школы авиакомпаний "Bristol Aeroplane Company", "de Havilland School of Flying", "Brooklands Aviation Ltd", "Phillips and Powis School of Flying", "Reid and Sigrist Ltd", "Airwork Ltd" и "Scottish Aviation Ltd".

  Эти компании участвовали в обучении резервистов для британских ВВС. В августе 1939 года действовало не менее 44 таких школ, хотя 20 из них закрылись с началом войны.
  До Второй мировой войны бипланы Tiger Moth строили по лицензии в Норвегии, Португалии, Швеции и Канаде. Фирма "de Havilland Aircraft of Canada" собрала 227 DH.82A. Позднее эта компания построила 1520 бипланов DH.82C зимней версии с мотором Gipsy Major IC мощностью 145 л. с. (108 кВт) с переделанным капотом, сдвижным фонарем, обогревом кабины, колесными тормозами и хвостовым колесом вместо стандартного костыля. При необходимости вместо колес могли устанавливаться лыжи либо поплавки. Некоторые экземпляры, для которых не хватало двигателей Gipsy Major, оснащались моторами Menasco Pirate D.4 мощностью 160 л.с. (119 кВт). 200 DH.82C, от которых отказались канадские ВВС, заказали ВВС США под обозначением PT-24.
  После начала войны гражданские машины мобилизовали в ВВС Британии для связи и обучения, а также заказали для военных нужд новую большую партию. 795 самолетов собрали на заводе в Хэтфилде, затем этот завод перевели на серийное производство самолетов Mosquito. Линию по сборке Tiger Moth восстановили на заводе фирмы "Morris Motors Ltd", где изготовили до 3500 машин, фирма "de Havilland Aircraft of New Zealand" построила еще 345 бипланов, а австралийская фирма "de Havilland Aircraft Pty" отправила военным заказчикам 1085 машин.
  17 сентября 1939 года, всего через две недели после объявления войны, звено "А" эскадрильи связи британского экспедиционного корпуса (позднее 81-я эскадрилья) отправили во Францию. Всю зиму и весну 1940 года бипланы Tiger Moth этой части летали в северной Франции, поддерживая связь вплоть до эвакуации британских войск из Дюнкерка. Уцелевшие самолеты перелетели в Великобританию.
  Бипланы Tiger Moth также готовили к ударам по возможному немецкому десанту. Под задней кабиной либо под нижним крылом устанавливали пилоны для подвески восьми бомб калибра 9,1 кг. Хотя было изготовлено и распределено по летным школам до 1500 комплектов пилонов, ни один такой самолет не применили в боях. Ранее, в декабре 1939 года, сформировали шесть эскадрилий прибрежного дозора, пять из них оснастили бипланами Tiger Moth. Они не могли атаковать субмарины, но звук их моторов и возможность обнаружения могли заставить немецких подводников погрузиться, тем самым помешав возможным атакам на корабли. На Дальнем Востоке несколько Tiger Moth переделали в санитарные самолеты, увеличив багажный отсек и расширив его створки, чтобы туда можно было поместить носилки с раненым.
  Однако наибольший вклад в победу Tiger Moth внес в качестве учебного самолета. Машинами этого типа оснастили 28 школ начальной летной подготовки в Британии, 25 в Канаде (плюс четыре школы радистов), 12 в Австралии, четыре в Родезии (плюс школа инструкторов летного дела), семь в Южной Африке и две в Индии.
  Также необходимо упомянуть радиоуправляемый самолет-мишень DH.82B Queen Bee, представлявший собой упрощенную цельнодеревянную версию Tiger Moth. Он имел фюзеляж от Moth Major, крылья от Tiger Moth, мотор Gipsy Major, электрогенератор с приводом от крыльчатки и бензобак большой емкости. 5 января 1935 года прототип облетали с ручным управлением, затем собрали 380 машин для обучения пилотов-истребителей, зенитчиков и воздушных стрелков.
  До конца войны собрали более 8000 аэропланов Tiger Moth. С окончанием войны многие из них попали на гражданский рынок. ВВС Британии передали много бипланов для гражданского и военного применения в Бельгию, Францию и Нидерланды. Кроме обучения, спорта и досуга они стали применяться в самых неожиданных ипостасях. Многие оказались ценными помощниками в сельском хозяйстве, что оказалось очень важным для Новой Зеландии. Ряд самолетов оборудовали закрытыми кабинами для повышения комфорта пилота и пассажира. Самую серьезную переделку осуществила британская компания "Jackaroo Aircraft Ltd", расширив фюзеляж для посадки четырех пассажиров попарно, плечом к плечу. В период с 1957 по 1959 год собрали 19 таких машин под названием Thruxton Jackaroo, включая варианты с открытой кабиной пилота и закрытым салоном. В 2010 году во всем мире еще летало изрядное число этих "долгожителей".


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth

  Тип: двухместный учебный и спортивный самолет
  Силовая установка: рядный поршневой мотор de Havilland Gipsy Major 1С мощностью 145 л.с. (108 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 172 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; крейсерская скорость 145 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; начальная скороподъемность 229 м/мин; практический потолок 4450 м; дальность полета 443 км
  Масса: пустого самолета 506 кг; максимальная взлетная 828 кг
  Размеры: размах крыльев 8,94 м; длина 7,29 м; высота 2,69 м; площадь крыльев 22,20 м2

Flight, November 1931

The New “Tiger Moth”
Strictly speaking the sub-title of this article should be "The Tiger Moth is dead. Long live the Tiger Moth." The original "Tiger Moth" was a very diminutive monoplane on which a world's speed record for light planes was established. It was fitted with the first De Havilland "Gipsy" engine. The new "Tiger Moth," described below, is a machine specially designed for training.

  ECONOMY in training is a subject which every nation possessing an Air Force is studying very intently at the moment. In the great majority of cases economy is sought by choosing for training a type of aircraft which, while reasonably cheap in first cost and maintenance, does not differ too greatly in its flying characteristics from the more powerful service types upon which pilots will have to do their flying after tuition. The old idea of the need for specialised types in the various stages of training dies hard, and, incredible as it may seem, there are still those who believe that efficient training demands something like four different aircraft types.
  Provided that the training machine has living characteristics not too different from those of more powerful aircraft, it would seem that one training type, followed perhaps by a relatively short period of practice on a really high-powered machine to accustom pilots to the roar of the big engine, should do all that is necessary. For this to be possible, the training machine must provide a good compromise, or rather series of compromises. It must be fairly easy to fly, yet not too easy. It must be capable of all the usual aerobatic manoeuvres, which is to say, it must be very controllable in all attitudes. It must be capable of carrying a very considerable load in the form of equipment, so that tuition in several subjects other than flying may be possible. But obviously there is no real necessity for the training machine to be capable of all these things simultaneously, provided the change-over from one form of training to another can be made quickly.
  We believe that considerations such as those outlined above guided the de Havilland designers in producing the new "Tiger Moth," which is now beginning to issue from the Stag Lane factory in considerable numbers. One batch was delivered recently to No. 3 Flying Training School, Grantham, and others are coming along.
  The name "Tiger Moth" was chosen - somewhat unwisely in our opinion - because under the Air Ministry's scheme training machine titles must begin with a T, and no other appropriate "Moth" name complying with that requirement presented itself. Most of our readers will remember that some years ago the de Havilland Company produced a very interesting little racing monoplane known as the "Tiger Moth," and some confusion is likely to arise by using the same name for a new type. However, doubtless in a couple of years, when the new "Tiger Moth" will have become familiar to everybody, the original machine bearing this name will have been forgotten, and so, perhaps, any disadvantage which the choice of this name may present at the moment will be of a temporary nature only.
  The new "Tiger Moth" retains most of the characteristics of appearance which one associates with the "Moth" machines of all types, but considerable changes have been made, changes which have a profound effect on the practical use of the machine. It may, perhaps, be recollected that some months ago we described and illustrated a type of "Moth" in which alterations to the wing bracing, and some smaller changes in the cockpit doors, resulted in a much easier path of exit from the front cockpit. In the "Tiger Moth" this principle has been carried to its logical conclusion by departing from the vertical biplane arrangement which has always been characteristic of the "Moth" and introducing a fairly heavily staggered cellule. To bring the centre of pressure back to its proper position, the stagger has had to be accompanied by a considerable sweep-back, not altogether beneficial in the matter of looks, but having probably no other disadvantages.
  Structurally, the "Tiger Moth" differs not at all from the earlier "Moths." The fuselage is a welded steel tube structure, while the wings have wooden spars and ribs, although quite probably sooner or later an all-metal version will be introduced by producing a set of metal wings for the welded steel tube fuselage. The earlier "Moth" is so well known the world over that it is unnecessary for us to devote space to a description of the constructional features of the "Tiger Moth," and our readers will doubtless prefer to be told something of the respects in which the "Tiger Moth" differs from previous "Moth" biplanes.
  The "Tiger Moth" is a tractor biplane with staggered and back-swept wings, and the engine fitted is the de Havilland inverted "Gipsy III," rated at 120 h.p. By staggering the upper wing, the centre-section struts are brought forward, ahead of the front cockpit, and as the doors have been made to hinge along a line quite low over the fuselage, exit from the front cockpit is very easy, and the occupant has as good a chance of using his parachute as has the occupant of the back seat. What further adds to the facility of exit is that the exhaust pipe has been changed to come straight down from the engine instead of running along the side of the fuselage, while the lift bracing wires both run to the front bottom spar fitting, so that the rear wire does not get in the way at all.
  The wings of the "Tiger Moth" do not fold. For a private owner this might be something of a drawback, but for service training there is usually plenty of hangar space available.
  Although the "Tiger Moth" can be used for a great variety of purposes, there are five main functions which it has been specially designed to fulfil. These are training in the following branches of air duties: Flying training, observation and reconnaissance, long-range light bombing, single-seater fighter training and two-seater seaplane training. The fact that the machine is of low first cost and very cheap indeed to operate and maintain should be a great point in its favour in these times of economy. The maximum permissible gross weight of the "Tiger Moth" is 1,825 lb. (828 kg.) for "Normal" Certificate of Airworthiness, and 1,650 lb. (748 kg.) for the "Aerobatics" Certificate. The tare weight varies, of course, according to the duties for which the machine is equipped.

Standard Equipment

  A very complete equipment is carried, irrespective of the duties for which the machine is being used at the moment. Dividing this into instruments, fixed equipment and loose equipment, the following are carried under these three subheads :-
  Instruments. - Duplicated, i.e., provided in both cockpits, on instrument boards: Airspeed indicator, altitude meter, oil pressure gauge, revolution indicator and inclinometer.
  Also duplicated, but not mounted on the instrument boards, are the following: Hughes Compass, III A 6/18 mounted on brackets on the control boxes; when the machine is equipped for wireless, the compass in the front cockpit is mounted on port side. D.H. strut-type airspeed indicator is mounted on interplane struts, and can be read from both cockpits.
  Fixed Equipment. - This comprises the following: Parachute-type seats; luggage locker; inter-cockpit telephones; 3-piece unsplinterable windscreens; D.H. aerobatic harness in both cockpits; parallel motion adjustable rudder bars; dual tail trimming control; dual throttle control; dual control column; split axle undercarriage with Dunlop low-pressure tyres; special wide doors for emergency exit; Essex fire extinguisher; special large cowl rolls; master ignition switch in front cockpit.
  Loose Equipment. - Airscrew and cockpit covers; engine and aircraft tool roll; engine and aircraft instruction books; engine, aircraft and journey log books; certificate of airworthiness; certificate of registration.

Special Equipment

  The following special equipment is supplied at extra cost when it is desired to use the machine for duties other than flying training :- Ten-gallon auxiliary petrol tank (larger auxiliary tanks can be supplied at the expense of other load); bomb racks to carry four 20-lb. bombs, complete with release gear; bomb sight; camera gun; gun sight; Marconi A.D. 22 wireless apparatus; P. 14 camera with slides and envelopes; parachutes; Handley-Page automatic wing tip slots; slot-locking device, operated from cockpit; metal airscrew; navigation lighting; turn indicator; drinking-water tank; ration boxes, etc.
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Performance

  When loaded to a gross weight of 1,643 lb. (745 kg.), the following official speed figures were attained (the first figure is the altitude in feet, and the second the speed in m.p.h.) :- Sea level. 109.5; 2.000, 107.5; 3,000, 106.5; 5,000, 104.0; 6,500, 102.5; 10,000, 97.0; 13,000, 91.0; 15,000, 85.5. The stalling speed is 46.5 m.p.h.

Climbing Tests
  Standard Height Time from Start Rate of Climb
  ft. m. s. ft. per min.
  Sea Level - - 700
  1,000 1 29 650
  2,000 3 5 605
  3,000 4 48 560
  5,000 8 40 480
  6,500 12 0 420
  10,000 22 13 280
  13,000 36 12 160
  15,000 54 0 80
  Estimated absolute ceiling, 17,000 ft.

Flight, November 1932

British Aircraft

The De Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd.
Stag Lane, Aerodrome, Edgware, Middlesex

  CAPT. GEOFFREY DE HAVILLAND is one of the oldest (aeronautically speaking) British aircraft designers, having designed his first aircraft somewhere around 1908, and having been actively engaged on aircraft design and construction ever since. The present company has been in existence since shortly after the war, and has branches in many of the Dominions overseas.
  It was the "Moth" which started the de Havilland Company on its post-war career as specialists in civil aircraft, and more particularly in aircraft suitable for the private owner, and more "Moths" have been built and flown over the world than any other type of aeroplane.
  The standard "Moth" with Gipsy II engine is already a familiar sight in almost any country, and needs no description here. A fairly recent version of it is the Gipsy III "Moth," which is offered as an alternative to, and not as a substitute for, the older model. The Gipsy III "Moth" is fitted with the inverted Gipsy III engine, and the view forward is thereby greatly improved. The very clean nose also improves the performance somewhat.

"Tiger Moth"
  
  Designed for economical training, the "Tiger Moth" (Gipsy III) can be used for flying training, and for training in bombing, wireless, etc., as well as for gunnery training with camera gun. Structurally the machine is of composite construction, with welded steel tube fuselage and wooden wings. The wings are slightly staggered and swept back, so that both occupants can use their parachutes. The rear lift wires are anchored at their lower ends near the lower front spar attachments, so that they do not interfere with getting into or out of the front cockpit.
  When the "Tiger Moth" is used for flying training, it has a tare weight of 1,075 lb. (488 kg.) and a gross weight (in acrobatic category) of 1,650 lb. (750 kg). As an observation aircraft, with camera and wireless, the tare weight is the same, but the maximum permissible gross weight is then 1,825 lb. (828 kg.). The same weight figures apply when the machine is used as above, but carrying three 20-lb. bombs.
  By fitting an extra 10-gall. tank and equipping the machine with four 20-lb. bombs, it becomes a light bomber, still retaining the same weight figures. Finally, by removing the front seat and installing a camera gun the "Tiger Moth" becomes suitable for single-seater fighter training. Weights: Tare, 1,075 lb. (488 kg.); gross (aerobatic), 1,650 lb. (750 kg.). The machine can also be supplied with floats and used for seaplane training. At a gross weight of 1,643 (745 kg.) the "Tiger Moth" has a maximum speed of 109 m.p.h. (175 km./h.) and an initial rate of climb of 700 ft./min. (3,6 m./sec).

Flight, October 1933

THE “TIGER MOTH" FIGHTER

  THE "Tiger Moth," fitted with a "Gipsy Major” engine, has been converted for use as a single-seater fighter. A machine gun, firing through the propeller, has been mounted on the fuselage, and slung beneath it bomb racks capable of holding eight 20-lb. bombs. With a load of four bombs the machine carries fuel for a distance of 500 miles. The machine gun. which has been tested on the machine, was manufactured by the Czechoslovakian Arms Factory, of Prague; the muzzle velocity is 839 m./sec, the maximum rate of fire 900, plus or minus 100 rounds a sec, the bore 7.92 mm., and a Pratt and Whitney synchronising gear is fitted, which is very light and efficient, the drive being taken from the top-half of the rear cover of the engine, where provision for hand-starting gear is normally allowed for. The gun is mounted in the front cockpit and shoots over the engine cowling; it is fixed to the machine mounting by two bolts, the rear bolt incorporating a vernier adjustment for direction and elevation. The ammunition box, holding 200 rounds, and the cartridge chute, are fixed to the mounting itself, the only connections between the gun mounting, and fuselage, being four holding-down bolts. The mounting is attached to the two top longerons by four bolts, but no extra holes have been drilled in the longerons. The gun mounting and sight can be very easily taken off by just removing eight bolts. The cocking handle is on the right-hand side of the cockpit, and is connected by a cotter pin to the lever which acts on the gun. The trigger is a little lever attached to the front of the joy stick and connected to the gun by a Bowden cable. The mounting for the sights is on the right side of the fuselage in front of the cockpit, the ordinary ring and bead sights can be fitted, or an Aldis Telescopic Gun Sight for long-distance firing. The ammunition box can be taken out and refilled without disturbing the rest of the mounting. Tests with propeller speeds varying between 800 and 2,400 r.p.m., were done with the following results: pulling over the propeller by hand the first round penetrated the disc attached to the propeller 19 1/2 degrees after top dead centre; dispersion throughout the entire speed range occurred between the angles 45 and 86 degrees.
  The machine looks a very nice little job and should be very useful for ground straffing, for which purpose it was probably designed more than for actual aerial fighting. It can easily be converted into a trainer by the removal of the gun and bomb racks. A detachment of this machine has been ordered by a foreign Government and has already been packed up for dispatch.
De Havilland D.H.82A Tiger Moth
THE GENERAL LAY-OUT: This side elevation indicates the arrangement of the cockpits, etc.
D.H. Tiger Moth Gipsy III Engine