De Havilland Express Air Liner / D.H.86
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1934


Средний транспортный самолет с экипажем из двух человек
Описание:
de Havilland DH.86
Flight, February 1934
SPEED WITH SAFETY
Фотографии:

Ч/б фото (134)

de Havilland DH.86

Разработанный и построенный в соответствии с требованиями правительства Австралии к многомоторному самолету для компании QANTAS (для полетов между Сингапуром и Австралией), DH.86 получил сертификат летной годности 30 января 1934 года - всего через четыре месяца после начала проектирования. Самолет представлял собой двухстоечный биплан деревянной конструкции с полотняной обшивкой и шасси с хвостовым костылем. Основные стойки, установленные под внутренними мотогондолами, были закрыты большими обтекателями.
   Первый полет DH.86 совершил 14 января 1934 года. Прототип и вторая аналогичная ему машина были приспособлены под управление одним пилотом. Вторая машина с 21 августа 1934 года использовалась "Railway Air Services" для работы на линии Кройдон - Глазго, с промежуточными посадками в Бирмингеме, Манчестере и Белфасте. Второй член экипажа (штурман-радист) сидел позади пилота.
   Компании QANTAS и "Imperial Airways" потребовали, чтобы оба члена экипажа сидели бок о бок, и в августе 1934 года фирма доработала прототип, удлинив и расширив носовую часть.
   Первый из 29 серийных самолетов получила австралийская компания "Holyman Airways" (четыре машины). Также самолеты получили компании QANTAS (6), "Imperial Airways" (5), "Jersey Airways" (6), египетская "Misr Airwork" (4), "Hillmans Airways" (3) и "Wrightways" (1).


Варианты

   DH.86A: этот вариант, созданный в 1935 году, отличался модифицированным ветровым козырьком, пневматическими амортизаторами шасси и хвостовой стойкой с колесом. Построили 20 самолетов, большая часть из которых была переделана в вариант DH.86B в 1937 году. RAF получили четыре самолета: два - школа радистов в Кранвелле и два - 24-я эскадрилья в Хендоне, другие машины были мобилизованы во время Второй мировой войны
   DH.86B: конверсия DH.86A с концевыми шайбами на стабилизаторе, установленными после расследования катастрофы в Мартлешем Хит, происшедшей с одной из машин; вновь построенные DH.86B отличались горизонтальным оперением с законцовками увеличенной хорды и большими передаточными отношениями в проводке элеронов


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

   de Havilland DH.86B

   Тип: средний транспортный самолет с экипажем из двух человек
   Силовая установка: четыре рядных двигателя de Havilland Gipsy Six мощностью по 200 л.с. (149 кВт)
   Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 267 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 229 км/ч; начальная скороподъемность 690 м/мин; потолок 5305 м; дальность полета 1287 км
   Масса: пустого 2943 кг; максимальная взлетная 4649 кг
   Размеры: размах крыльев 19,66 м; длина 14,05 м; высота 3,96 м; площадь крыльев 59,55 м2
   Полезная нагрузка: до 19 пассажиров в закрытой кабине
   Все четыре двигателя DH.86 были установлены в ряд на передней кромке нижнего крыла.

Flight, February 1934

SPEED WITH SAFETY
Built for Imperial Airways, Ltd. and Quantas Empire Airways to comply with the conditions of the Australian Government tender for the Empire Air Route extension from Singapore to Darwin and Cootamundra, the new De Havilland Express Four-engined Air Liner provides exceptionally fast and safe air travel

   TO design and build a four-engined aeroplane and to obtain for it a certificate of airworthiness all in a period of four months is no mean feat, in fact, we venture to suggest that it must be quite unique; yet this is what the de Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., have done in their works at Stag Lane, and their "Express Air Liner," the first details of which we give in the following pages, is the result of wonderful keenness and co-operation by all departments of this company.
   On September 28 last year we gave in FLIGHT the details of the conditions of tender issued by the Australian Government for the Singapore-Darwin-Cootamundra section of the England-Australia air mail service. It will also be remembered that some little time before that we published the result of a talk with Mr. Hudson Fysh, Managing Director, Queensland & Northern Territory Air Services, Ltd. Mr. Hudson Fysh was at that time in England concluding arrangements with Imperial Airways for collaboration between them and his firm for this tender.
   At the same time the de Havilland Aircraft company submitted a proposal for a four-engined airliner with a high performance and a wide margin of safety in the event of engine failure. It was seen that the proposed type was not only capable of conforming to the Australian requirements but that it would exceed the minimum performance needs handsomely. A contract was therefore placed by Imperial Airways on behalf of the newly formed firm, Quantas Empire Airways, for one of these aeroplanes to be built and used as a basis for their tender to the Australian Government. A condition of the tender was that the aeroplane submitted had to possess a certificate of airworthiness on the closing date for the tenders, which was January 31, 1934. The task, however, though great, proved not to be beyond the resources of the factory, and the C. of A was obtained on January 30. It will be remembered that we published some of the first flying pictures of this machine on January 18. Not only had every detail of the machine to be designed and manufactured in this period, but the "Gipsy Six" engine, which was then only in its early stages of development, had to be brought through its teething troubles and to obtain its Air Ministry Type Test; moreover, four engines had to be completed for installation in the new machine.
   Everything went according to programme. The machine was first flown by the firm's test pilot, Capt. H. S. Broad, on January 14, and during the following week the D.H.86, as she is officially known, passed through the Aircraft Experimental Establishment at Martlesham for airworthiness and handling trials.
   It will be seen from the artist's impression that the cabin space is particularly large, naturally, therefore, permitting a variety of arrangements. As shown, accommodation is provided for ten passengers, with a lavatory and luggage compartment, and when Rumbold's have finished the upholstery it will be a very comfortable job. It is probable, however, that for the England-Australia service, should the tender be accepted, the lavatory will be brought forward and a large mail compartment built behind it, thus decreasing the passenger accommodation by two. This sketch also shows the deep long windows which are built either side of the fuselage, making the cabin light and pleasant, a feature which is enhanced by the two top lights normally provided in the roof of the cabin through two emergency exit panels. There is generous head, room as the average height of the cabin is 6 ft. 3 in. (1,9 m.), and the total cubic capacity in the machine available for the carriage of load is 594 cu. ft. (16,82 m3.). A fully controllable fresh-air ventilator system, which ventilates without causing draught, and a cabin-warming equipment is, of course, fitted.
   The machine has not got dual control in its present form, but the pilot sits right forward in a cabin separated from the passenger compartment by a bulkhead and door. In this position he has a well-nigh perfect outlook, and the slope of the windscreen, combined with the speed of the machine, should obviate any obstruction of the glass due to snow or rain. Nevertheless, the two large side panels are single pieces of Triplex glass which may easily be lowered, to give a clear and unobstructed outlook forward and to the side. The second member of the crew is accommodated on the starboard side of the pilot and behind him, in which position there is ample room for a full wireless equipment as well as a chart table and stowage for the navigating equipment generally.
   Structurally the "86" is interesting, as it is the first machine incorporating a new method of using plywood and spruce. Our artist's sectional sketch shows that the fuselage is primarily a three-ply box, but it has this great difference from the normal type, in that the fuselage is built with the plywood inside the box, and with the spruce longerons, struts and stringers, outside it. Outside this again is a complete fabric covering, doped, as are the other covered units, with Titanine, giving a weatherproof and durable finish. This method of forming the fuselage provides clear walls, floor and roof, and also conserves space, as the sound proofing material, in this case Cabot quilting, can be packed between the plywood and the fabric in the space made by the longerons and stringers. Aft of the main planes sheet Elektron guards are placed over the corners of the fuselage, serving both to give a better shape to the fuselage and to obviate taking the fabric over the otherwise sharp corner.
   The tail units are, in general, normal de Havilland design and construction. Their shape is, of course, typically "D.H.," and their construction is of spindled spruce spars, fairly substantial spruce ribs, and a covering of 0.8 mm. plywood. Over the whole there is a covering of fabric and then the usual dope. The elevators (and the ailerons) are not aerodynamically balanced and are controlled by straightforward dual cables between the control column and top and bottom steel horns on the centre of the elevator spar. The tail plane is adjustable throughout a wide range by a vertically mounted square cut screw acting on the leading edge and controlled by an endless cable from a handwheel in the pilot's cockpit. The fin is particularly interesting, because it, also, has its leading edge mounted on a similar screw, allowing it to be offset either side, thus counteracting the unbalanced thrust in the case of engine failure. The rudder is also balanced by means of a small movable surface inset into its trailing edge. This, being attached to the fin by means of cables either side of the rudder, automatically produces a balancing force when the rudder is operated by the main controls. The attachment point on the fin is mounted on a vertical rotatable tube having at its lower end a fore and aft horizontal slotted lever with a pin fixed to the fuselage through the slot. When the fin is offset by its own trimming device the tube will' rotate, operate the balance, and compensate the rudder for the effect of the offset thrust. The fully castoring tail wheel is fitted with rubber blocks in compression to absorb the shock of landing.
   The wing construction, as regards the outer portions, is more or less standard "Dragon," the heavily tapered aerofoil section being R.A.F.34 modified. The spars are of spruce, spindled to "I" section. The ribs are of spruce fixed to the spars with the "D.H." capping clips of light alloy. The drag bracing is, for the most part, of double piano wire with steel drag struts. The leading edge is completely covered with plywood which is carried right back to the rear spar round about the region of the single interplane strut separating the top and bottom planes in the outer bay. This strut is a streamline steel tube and in subsequent models of this machine the aileron interconnecting gear will, instead of being cables as at present, consist of a tube running up inside this strut. The interplane main bracing is by dual streamline wires in the front bay only. The ailerons are of the same construction as the tail unite and are completely covered with 0.8 mm. plywood. They are actuated, as are all the flying controls, by Bruntons "Tru-Lay” cable running over large pulleys without the use of fibre blocks at any point, thus providing a control system with extremely little frictional loss. To facilitate inspection of the controls to the tail units, the fabric in the bottom of the fuselage is brought together with a "Zip" fastener so that it can be opened at any time without difficulty. The inner bays of the main planes are, of course, very interesting structurally, as the bottom one carries all four engines and the undercarriage. Our artist's sketch shows one of the inner engine mountings, built up of welded steel tubes, and incorporating the cantilever undercarriage. In the sketch this undercarriage has dual compression legs either side, but we understand that for subsequent models it has been found, by Mr. Dowty, of Aircraft Components Co., Cheltenham, who has designed this undercarriage, that a considerable saving in weight will be made by having only a single leg either side. Between the points of attachment of the two inner engines the wing spars are continuous underneath the fuselage and are steel tubes of circular section. Those between the roots and the top main planes are the same. The engine mountings are all similar, those of the inner engines carrying behind them fuel tanks of 57 gall, each, each tank sufficing for the two engines on that side. The oil tanks are slung below the engine mountings in the case of the inner engines and behind in the case of the outer engines. The engine cowlings and the fairings over the rear portion of the mounting are all of sheet Elektron, which is chromated before being painted as an anticorrosion measure. It is interesting to note that, throughout the whole machine, where sheet light alloy is used, as the fairings over the wheels, the frames of the windows and doors, Elektron is used.
   The engines have already been described in FLIGHT (January 25, 1934), and there is therefore no need to go into detail here. In this machine they drive Fairey metal airscrews and are fitted with Eclipse direct acting electric starters fed from a 20 ampere electric battery (Caple electric inertia starters can be fitted if required). This seems small, but we are told that 70 engine starts have been obtained from this battery without recharging. Fuel is fed from the tanks to each engine by dual Amal pumps, a type which is now being manufactured by D.H.'s themselves. The fuel cocks will be operated on subsequent machines from the pilot's cockpit, as will be the altitude controls to the carburetters, by Simmonds-Corsey controls. The revolution counters are of the Record electrical type operating neat vertical dials either side of the dashboard. The two Claudel-Hobson carburetters of each engine take fresh air through a Vokes flame trap during slow running, and the throttle control is operated by an endless cable over pulleys from normal levers close to the pilot's left hand. The Bendix wheel brakes, acting in Dunlop wheels with low-pressure tyres, are differentially connected to the rudder bar and controlled by a hand lever in the same way as other "D.H." aircraft.
   In the pilot's cockpit the control column is of the spectacle type. The seat can readily be raised for landing. The dashboard, which is very neat though carrying instruments for four engines, swivels forward allowing ready access to the wiring behind it. The trail trim wheel comes readily to the pilot's left hand and the fin trim to his right. A Smith's electric fuel gauge is placed behind, and to the left hand of, the pilot.
D.H.86
SPEEDING-UP BRITISH AIR TRANSPORT: The de Havilland D.H.86 can be regarded as a high-speed development of the "Dragon," from which it differs in having four engines and very tapered wings. The machine has not been through the Martlesham tests yet, and no official performance figures are, therefore, available, but one only has to see it fly to realise that it is very fast indeed.
The prototype D.H.86 being flown from Stag Lane in January 1934 by Hubert Broad, just a few days after its first flight.
The prototype D.H.86 G-ACPL flying as E.2. The undercarriage fairings were soon redesigned.
This three-quarter front view gives a good idea how neatly the engines are faired into the bottom wing.
The prototype D.H.86 “Express Air Liner” with its B Conditions registration E.2 around the time of its first flight in January 1934, a mere four months after the decision was taken to proceed with the design. Note the original single-pilot “Roman” nose. Later examples were fitted with dual controls and a revised longer nose profile.
The foreshortening effect of this side view makes the "Express Air Liner" look somewhat ugly, but in point of fact this is far from the case, largely due to the heavily tapered wings.
The view shows the general cleanliness and tapered wings.
The prototype D.H.86 flying from Hatfield in September 1934, bearing the civil registration letters G-ACPL.
G-ACPL was the prototype de Havilland D.H.86, and it was first flown from Stag Lane by Hubert Broad on January 14, 1934, its C of A being granted on January 30. Later that year the aircraft was delivered to Railway Air Services Ltd at Croydon. It was later re-built as a 2 crew aircraft and joined the imperial Airways fleet, where it was named Delphinus. In December 1941 it was impressed into RAF service at Cairo and carried service number HK844.
FOR IMPERIAL AIRWAYS: The D.H. 86 Delphinus, with four "Gipsy Six" 200-h.p. engines.
D.H.86, G-ACPL, Delphinus, before conversion to dual control.
CRUISING AT 145 M.P.H.: One of the D.H.86's which are being used on Railway Air Services' Glasgow run, photographed near Hatfield. The "Diana" class is probably the fastest four-engined commercial machine in the world.
Railway Air Services’ D.H.86 G-ACVY Mercury over Hatfield Park in 1934. This was the third D.H.86 and retained its short nose throughout its working life.
Despite QEA's input into the design of the D.H.86, the first example in Australia was the first production machine, the single-pilot VH-URN, named Miss Hobart, for Holyman’s Airways, which was delivered in July 1934. The aircraft operated between Melbourne and Hobart on Tasmania until it was lost in the Bass Strait that October.
A section of the long line of machines on exhibition. In the foreground is the B.A.C. "Drone," then a Spartan "Cruiser," a Railway Air Services D.H.86, the K.L.M. Douglas D.C.2, and others.
D.H.86A
BUSINESS AS USUAL. - The disturbed state of China under Japanese invasion has not affected the regularity of the Imperial Airways service. The "Dorado," here seen at Kai Tak Aerodrome, Hong Kong, connects every week in each direction with the main Imperial route at Penang, 1,600 miles away. The flags are painted on wing and rudder for information and guidance of belligerent pilots.
FAR EAST TERMINUS: The Imperial Airways D.H. 86 Dorado at Hong Kong after two years service on the Penang - Hong Kong service. From now on this service will cut across from Bangkok, thus shortening the flying distance. The Union Jacks painted on the fin and the wings are an efficient commentary on the present Far East situation.
TOWARDS HONG KONG: The Imperial Airways D.H.86 Dorado at Penang. On the left can be seen the four members of the crew, including Capt. W. Armstrong. Third from the right is Major R. L. Nunn, the D.C.A. for Malaya.
Giffard Bay, on the beach at St. Helier, with three of the service "Dragons" in the background. This picture was taken immediately after landing and before the inevitably large crowd collected.
Jersey Airways DH.86 G-ACZN 'St Catherine’s Bay'.
One of JERSEY AIRWAY'S large fleet of D.H.86's.
Imperial Airways D.H.86 Daedalus on the Croydon tarmac under the new floodlighting. The line in the background is the black and white boundary fence.
British Airways D.H.86 G-ADEA surrounded by smaller fry, with two D.H.83 Fox Moths in the foreground.
HILLMAN'S BIGGEST: The first of the three D.H. 86 machines ordered by Hillman's Airways for their Paris service taken by a Flight photographer while it was flying above the clouds near Hatfield. This machine is fitted with full dual control though the later 86 's will have the swing-over type.
BRITISH AIRWAYS operate many D.H.86's.
Hillman's D.H.86A G-ADEB. The Air Mail crest is visible just forward of the registration letters.
D.H.86A G-ADEB again, this time in British Airways livery. Photographs was taken at Gatwick before the aircraft was modified to D.H.86B standard.
D.H.86 G-ADEB of British Airways Ltd crashed near Altenkirchen in Germany on August 12, 1936.
The general appearance of the terminal building with its retractable gangways is well shown in this view. A British Airways' D.H.86 has just come in from Scandinavia.
NIGHT MAIL: This country's first real night mail service was opened by British Airways on Monday. Leaving Gatwick at 10 o'clock, the mails reach Stockholm at 8.20 on the following morning. For the moment they are carried by A.B. Aerotransport from Hanover.
D.H.86 G-ADEC after transfer to British Airways from Hillman's in June 1936, on the tarmac in front of the recently completed Beehive.
This view of Croydon in 1938 shows British Airways' D.H.86A G-ADEC nearest the camera. This aircraft began life in 1935 with Hillmans Airways, and was absorbed into British Airways the following year. Shortly after this photograph was taken 'EC was sold to Uruguay as CX-AAH. The centre aircraft of the group is KLM's DC-2 PH-AKH, Haan, with Air France's three engined Wibault Penhoet F-AMHM in the background.
FOR IMPERIAL SERVICE: The first of the new D.H. 86A's which are being built for Imperial Airways. machines are not fitted with v.p. airscrews.
The D.H. 86, a type first commissioned by Imperial Airways in May, 1934, for economical medium capacity work, and used also by Qantas Empire Airways for their section of the trunk route from 1934 to 1938.
An IMPERIAL AIRWAYS D.H.86 Express Air Liner.
British Continental Airways' D.H.86A G-ADMY, St. George
FLYING AT ITS BEST: British Continental Airways' D.H. 86 above the clouds in Surrey. Very shortly this company will be taking delivery of the first pair of four 86As, which will be fitted with Marconi two-way radio and a specially long fixed aerial. Lorenz short-wave receiving equipment will also be installed and all the instruments will be calibrated in the metric system.
A D.H.86A G-ADMY, St. George, of British Continental Airways.
Все четыре двигателя DH.86 были установлены в ряд на передней кромке нижнего крыла.
BROMMA IN ACTION: Transport machines of three nations at Stockholm's airport. On the ground are a British Continental Airways' D.H. 86A and a Breguet-Wibault of Air France, while in the air is the Von Hindenburg, one of D.L.H.'s two Junkers G.38s, which have Jumo diesel engines.
Popular De Havilland biplane: the 86a transport machine with four Gipsy Six engines
D.H.86A G-ADYH at A&AEE during trials in July 1936.
de Havilland D.H.86A.
A Dagenite ground-starting trolley in use by Imperial Airways. Its twelve-volt batteries are capable of 489 10-second "starts" at 100 amperes on one charge.
The only example of a four-motor biplane still flying is G-ACZP (Lancashire Aircraft Corpn.), a 1934-vintage de Havilland D.H.86A, now used for charter and joy-riding at Blackpool.
Rapide G-AHPU (c/n 6963) was acquired by Bellamy in January 1957 from Luton Flying Club, and was modified to Mk 4 standard in January 1958. It is seen here in the Hampshire Aeroplane Club’s Eastleigh hangar just after being repainted in the club’s new red, yellow and black scheme. Note D.H.86 G-ACZP in the background.
BRITISH CONTINENTAL AIRWAYS use D.H.86's for their Scandinavian Line.
THE BASS STRAIT SERVICE: One of Holyman's Airways' D.H. 86s used on the service between Melbourne, Launceston and Hobart.
A superb illustration of the rather primitive facilities the D.H.86 had to face on the Brisbane-Singapore service, this Shell Company photograph shows VH-USC at Talang Betutu aerodrome at Palembang on Sumatra. The first of QEA’s D.H.86s was returned to QEA in May 1942 but was lost in a crash at Darwin on October 10, 1944.
Qantas Empire Airways' Commonwealth class D.H.86 VH-USC RMA Canberra at Archerfield Aerodrome, Brisbane.
OUT EAST. - A D.H.86 of Qantas Empire Airways at Samarang, Netherlands East Indies.
Lester Brain (middle) poses with First Officer R.U. Price (left) at Talang Betutu during the delivery flight of VH-USC in October 1934. Brain had joined Qantas in 1924, becoming the airline’s chief pilot in 1930, and went on to become the linchpin for Qantas operations during World War Two before joining de Havilland after the war.
With its inner Gipsy Six engines stopped to minimise wear and tear and conserve fuel, VH-USC taxies in under the guidance of QEA chief pilot Lester Brain at Darmo aerodrome in Sourabaya on Java during its ferry flight from the UK in October 1934. The second and third QEA D.H.86s were delivered by sea rather than flown.
The first of QEA’s D.H.86s, VH-USC, at Cairo on September 26, 1934, on its eastbound flight from the UK to Australia. The aircraft arrived in Brisbane on October 13, having covered 12,819 miles (20,630km).
QANTAS D.H.86 VH-USC photographed in September 1934.
SINGAPORE-BRISBANE: The first of the D.H. 86s for the Qantas lap of the Australian route, in the air near Hatfield. The provision of dual control explains the "different" shape of the nose, in which a landing searchlight is also mounted. Mr. L. J. Brain, chief pilot of Qantas Empire Airways, Ltd., is to fly the machine out to Australia.
Named Canberra in QEA service, VH-USC (c/n 2307) was fitted with dual controls and the revised nose profile, as were all six of QEA’s examples. The aircraft went to MacRobertson-Miller Aviation in July 1938 and was impressed by the RAAF as A31-5 on the outbreak of war, during which it undertook supply flights in New Guinea.
One of the fleet of de Havilland Express Air Liners, which have regularly served, throughout the post two years, the 4,350-mile Singapore-Brisbane section of the main Imperial route to Australia, which is operated twice weekly in each direction by Qantas Empire Airway's. On a recent reckoning this fleet had completed 1,277.000 miles without a single forced landing.
Originally built to an Imperial Airways order as G-ACWE, D.H.86 VH-UUA (c/n 2306) was transferred to QEA after the loss of VH-USG, and became Adelaide in QEA service. It later went to India to operate with Tata Airlines as VT-AKM and was impressed into RAF service as HX789 in July 1942.
A D.H.86 of Qantas. This type has done a vast amount of good pioneering work in Australia.
A MAJESTIC CLOUDSCAPE. Taken by a Flight photographer among snow-clouds near Hatfield last week, this impressive picture shows the sixth and last D.H.86 of the fleet ordered by Qantas Empire Airways for the Singapore-Brisbane section of the Empire route.
After the crash of QANTAS' D.H.86 VH-USG, Imperial Airways' G-ACWE was reallocated to QANTAS as VH-UUA. It is seen here on a flight from Hatfield in February 1935.
Designed originally for the Australia route, the De Havilland D.H. 86 has become very popular on all classes of air line. The four engines give freedom from hurried forced landings
QANTAS EMPIRE AIRWAYS maintain the SINGAPORE-BRISBANE service with D.H.86's.
AN EASTERN JUNCTION. - Charleville, where Qantas Empire Airways Lts. connect with Butler Air Transport.
D.H.86 owned by MISR-AIRWORK, Egypt.
CAIRO "EXPRESS": Misr Airwork's first D.H.86 ("Express") photographed by a "Shell" representative in front of its new quarters at Almaza aerodrome. During its delivery journey Mr. Roderick Denman, a director of Airwork, Ltd., acted as radio operator.
Misr Airwork’s D.H.86 SU-ABN on the crowded apron.
CAIRO-BAGHDAD: At Almaza airport, Cairo, before the start of Misr Airlines' inaugural service to Baghdad. On the left, in white, can be seen H. E. Kilani Bey, of the Iraqi Legation, with the general secretary of the Misr Bank immediately beside him and almost hidden on the left.
AFTER DARK: An impressive night picture of the Jersey Airport building with one of Jersey Airways' D.H.86s in the foreground. Last month this company carried 8,015 passengers in and out of the airport
JERSEY'S AIRPORT: A sunny impression of the well-planned terminal building of Jersey's new airport, with a Jersey Airways' D.H. 86 in the foreground. The airport was officially opened on Wednesday of last week.
SOUTH IRISH TERMINUS. - A D.H.86 of Aer Lingus Teoranta at the Dublin Aerodrome at Baldonnell.
A snapshot taken at Amsterdam on the British Continental Airways inaugural flight. Leaving the machine is Mr. D. A. Adkins and in the group, left to right, are Messrs. J. R. Bryans, F. W. Jones, M. C. Bryans and W. K. Bear.
Interest at Ronaldsway after the finish of the London - I.O.M. Race. In the foreground are F/O. Hughesdon's Wolseley-engined Hawker Tomtit (2nd), Mr. Humble's single-seater Gipsy Six Hawk (3rd) and the D.H.86 flown by Mr. Higgins (4th).
Union Airways' D.H.86 ZK-AEF Kotuku. This example is seen with wooden propellers.
A Union Airways D.H.86 on the daily Palmerston-Blenheim-Christchurch-Dunedin run.
It is seldom that the aerial photographer is fortunate enough to enjoy atmospheric conditions that will allow such perfection of detail as is seen above. Shoreham, Sussex, is the ground subject, and the machine is a Jersey Airways D. H. 86.
One of Union Airways D.H. 86s flying over Blenheim where New Zealand’s first aero club was formed.
NEW ZEALAND SCENE: One of Union Airways’ D.H.86s over Marlborough Sounds, with the entrance to Tory Channel, Cook Strait, and the North Island in the background. At the moment Union Airways fly 86s from Auckland to Gisborne, Napier, Palmerston North, Blenheim and Christchurch. The company’s Lockheed Electras are used for the through services, and, with the 86s, for the long-distance service between Auckland and Dunedin. This machine is flying on the Dunedin service.
D.H.86B
The D.H.86B SU-ABV.
G-ADUF, Dido, at Tai Qali, Malta, on November 21, 1938.
Bond Air Services’ D.H.86B G-ADVJ sits on the Ingoldmells grass in company with Rapide G-ALBC, owned by construction company McAlpine. Both of Bond’s D.H.86Bs went to Bahrein after leaving the company in 1951; sadly, G-ADUH was destroyed in a ground collision in 1952 and G-ADVJ was derelict by the end of that year.
A line-up of the visiting aircraft at Skegness Airport Ltd’s Grand Air Display held at Ingoldmells on August 27, 1950. Leading the line is the company’s own de Havilland Rapide, G-AKOG, beyond which is Bond Air Services’ D.H.86B G-ADVJ and another Rapide, G-ALBC.
The concours d’elegance at Ingoldmells, which served the Butlin’s holiday camp at Skegness, in August 1950, including Miles Gemini 1A G-ALUG (c/n 6320), owned by the one-armed Dr James Daly, and Miles Messenger G-AKKK (c/n 6712), based nearby at Boston (Wyberton). In the background are McAlpine’s de Havilland Dragon Rapide G-ALBC and Bond Air Services’ D.H.86B G-ADVJ.
One of Bond Air Services’ two D.H.86Bs, G-ADVJ, swoops low over the crowd at Ingoldmells at the 1950 air rally. Both D.H.86Bs were acquired by Bond in 1947 (the other was G-ADUH) and used for charter work, often to race meetings in the UK and on the Continent from the company’s bases at Gatwick, Rearsby and Skegness.
The D.H.86B is fitted with four Gipsy Six engines of 200 h.p. each.
THE LATEST EXPRESS: This aerial view of the D.H. 86B - actually one for Wrightways of Croydon - clearly shows the modifications that have been made, in the interests of improved full-load stability, to what used to be known as the "empennage."
The D.H.86B Commercial Transport (four 200 h.p. D.H. "Gipsy-six" engines).
Wrightways’ D.H.86A G-AEJM flying from Hatfield in February 1937.
В 1934 году "de Havilland" завершила разработку нового четырехмоторного лайнера, получившего обозначение DH.86 (на фото). Самолет был создан под требования к 10-местному скоростному лайнеру, способному работать на участке Сингапур - Австралия планировавшейся авиалинии от Лондона до Брисбена. DH.86 напоминал по схеме увеличенный DH.84 Dragon, но получил новое крыло и был оснащен четырьмя новейшими 200-сильными (149 кВт) двигателями de Havilland Gipsy Six.
D.H.86A G-AEJM, owned by Wrightways Ltd and based at Croydon from 1936 until the outbreak of war.
THE LATEST EXPRESS: This view of the new D.H. 86B clearly shows the details of the new tail unit which has been designed to improve the handling qualities, particularly on full load. Improvements have also been made to the undercarriage. This particular 86B was about to be delivered to Blackpool and West Coast Air Services.
D.H.86B G-AENR operating with West Coast Air Services Ltd in February 1937.
THE DE HAVILLAND EXPRESS AIR LINER IMPROVED 1937 MODEL. A fast, safe and reliable aircraft for day and night public transport services which demand four-engined security and which must be operated on economic lines.
The Aer Lingus D.H.86B EI-ABK Eire. It has metal propellers and modified tailplane with auxiliary fins.
DH.86B G-AETM 'Silver Star' was acquired by fund raising and on February 15, 1940, arrived in Finland. It was registered as OH-IPA and is seen three weeks later at Luonetjarvi behind DH.89 OH-BLB. It would have been the first four-engined aircraft in the Finnish Air Force, and would have been serialled DH-1, but crashed on delivery, May 2, 1940.
The new terminal building and hangar at Sola Airport, Stavanger, with the Allied Airways 86B on the tarmac
Converted to a D.H.86B from an 86A, L8037 was formerly G-ADYC of British Airways. It was taken over in 1937 by the RAF and used as a flying classroom.
Another view of D.H.86A L8037, now camouflaged, photographed in November 1942.
IN SERVICE DRESS: To replace the D.H.89 which members of the Air Council have used for their official journeys since 1935, the De Havilland Company last week delivered this D.H.86B. This well-known commercial type, with its four 200 h.p. Gipsy Six I engines, cruises at 140 m.p.h.
Originally registered G-ADYJ, this D.H.86B became L7596 and flew with 24 (Communications) Squadron from Hendon. It was lost in a crash at Kirby-in-Furness in July 1939.
Mr Leslie Hore-Belisha leaves Malta in de Havilland D.H.86B L7696, escorted by Hawker Nimrods of 802 Sqn, on April 22,1938. As Secretary of State for War, Hore-Belisha had spent four days on the island inspecting the various defences.
The Air Council’s D.H.86 arriving over the factory.
Before and after the passage of a warm front. In the picture the Air Council D.H.86, bringing Sir Kingsley Wood, arrives in one of the many downpours. The machines behind the 86 are the Gladiators.
 
MAILS TO STOCKHOLM: On Wednesday of last week the first direct mail service to Stockholm was opened by British Airways. The machine left Gatwick with passengers and 1,000 lb. of mail.
Oil supplies for a D.H.86 from a Mobiloil aerodrome unit.
Captain Anderson, chief pilot of British Airways, receives the air mail pennant.
Lady Cunliffe-Lister christens Hillman's first D.H.86. Capt. T. N. Stack can be seen, with the chief pilot, Capt. Anderson, beside him, standing beneath the nose.
Some well-known pilots on the Dominion's airlines (left to right): Cdr. S. Gilkison Cook Strait Airways; 2nd Officer G Harvey and Cdr A G Gerrand service manager and chief pilot of Union Airways; and 2nd Officer W. G. C. Allison and Cdr. R. A. Kirkup of Union Airway
PROVEN: After a year of successful operation with two D.H. Dragonflies, P.L.U.N.A., Uraguay's first airline, took delivery of a D.H.86B, which has now been carrying full passenger loads for four months. The machine is seen here with some notabilities - Mr. Ballantyne, D.H. manager in South America; Sr. Alberto Marquez Vaeza; Sta. Fleurquin; Dr. Fleurquin, a director of P.L.U.N.A ; Noack, chief pilot; and Capt. Nudelmann, pilot.
The party which made British Airways, Ltd., survey flight in a D.H.89, photographed at Malmo. The group includes Flt. Lt. W. F. Anderson, chief pilot (third from right), Sqn. Ldr. E. H. D. Spence, R.A.F.O., of the Air Ministry technical department (fourth from right) and Mrs. Spence.
Arrived at Ards Aerodrome. In this group are, from left to right, Flt. Lt. Lee, Sqn. Ldr. Goode, Lord Londonderry, Sir Edward Campbell, Sir Kingsley Wood, and Lord Craigavon.
THE 'NORSEMAN' AT STAVANGER
Flying to Brussels with Her Majesty the Queen (then the Duchess of York) in the imperial Airways' liner Draco in 1935.
Another view of Fortuna taken at Croydon with an H.P.42 and a D.H.86 in the background.
Nothing to do with the subjects discussed by "Indicator," but Connor Park aerodrome, Australia, with a portion of the town of Rockhampton in the background. It is the mid-way stopping place between Brisbane and rich north-west. Airlines of Australia run a daily service each way with Stinson Trimotors. One of the two Dragons belongs to Aircraft Pty. and is used for carrying Sunday newspapers from Brisbane. The D.H.86 belongs to W. R. Carpenter and was, when the picture was taken, on its way from New Guinea to Sydney. The Monospar belongs to Air Taxis,while the Moth is owned by the Rockhampton branch of the Royal Queensland Aero Club.
Most of the cars and a few of the aeroplanes present at the opening display. The big machine is the British Continental D.H. 86 and the Autogiro has its full parking equipment in place. The future control building will probably be built on the boundary at the top of the Picture.
CHRISTMAS RUSH: A tarmac impression at Croydon on December 24. Beneath the port wing of the Swissair Douglas can be seen an Air France Wibault, an H.P. 42, Scylla and Syrinx, while behind the Douglas is a Railway Air Services' D.H.86.
THESE photographs, secured by Flight's photographer at Hatfield, show some of the features of the first D.H.86a. Two versions of this type are actually being produced, one with standard Gipsy Six engines and wooden airscrews, and the other with Series II "Sixes" driving De Havilland controllable-pitch airscrews. These pictures show the former model. In this view may be seen the muffs on the exhaust pipes for cabin heating purposes.
FLAPS FOR THE "EXPRESS": This photograph shows how the new split flaps, which are to be fitted to all future D.H. 86 s. present considerable area to the flow. They are operated by oil pressure and the whole movement can be made in 20 seconds The glide is steepened from 1 in 9 1/2 at 80 m.p.h to 1 in 6 1/2 at 75 m.p.h. and the landing speed reduced by 5 m.p.h.
FLAPS FOR THE "EXPRESS": The D.H. 86 machines which are being delivered to Jersey Airways next year will be fitted with split flaps on the upper wing.
The view shows Venturis mounted within the leading edge
One half of the undercarriage which now embodies Turner compressed-air shock-absorber struts, more powerful brakes, and reinforced tyres. The disposable load of the machine as shown is 4,110 lb., whereas that of the previous 86 was 3,680 lb.
HIGH AND DRY: While the Jersey-bound D.H.86 flies serenely on its way, a Dutch freighter makes heavy weather in the Channel. A picture taken last week by a member of the staff of Flight.
JERSEY EXPRESS: The Island of Alderney passes beyond the wing-tip of a homeward-bound Jersey Airways' D.H.86, the crews of which nowadays have permission to cut ths corner of the French coast, which can be seen in the left-hand corner.
HOLIDAY AIRPORT. After three years of beach landings Jersey Airways now have an aerodrome to use in Jersey. This Flight photograph was taken through a cabin window of the first D.H.86 to come in on regular service. The possible ravages of a small insect - the Colorado beetle - at present restricts the entry of the private owner; the sea crossing from France is a matter only of fourteen miles