Flight, March 1934
Aircraft construction in the Chinese Navy
By Harrison Forman
Type "Wu." - This was an observation or general purposes machine of 120-130 h.p. It was a twin-float single-bay tractor biplane. Its chief characteristics were simplicity
of construction and ease of maintenance. The Type "Wu" was distinctly marked from previous types in its fuselage construction. In this fuselage, except for the engine mounting in the nose, no metal fittings or wires were employed. It was built up in the form of Warren girders, composed of four longerons of Shanmu and a number of struts of the same material. The attachment of the struts to the longerons was by means of two-ply camphor wood gussets glued and copper riveted. This construction proved very rigid and strong under bending and torsional tests, and was proven entirely satisfactory in actual service. Its advantages over the ordinary braced type must be obvious, since no great numbers of metal fittings, wires and turnbuckles or special forms and jigs were required in its construction, and no great constant trueing up was necessary in service.
Three seats were provided in the fuselage, two side-by-side seats in the rear cockpit and one in the front, the floor of which was arranged to permit the installation of a camera for aerial photographic work or bomb sights and bombing controls. Except in the fuselage, all the struts in this type of machine were made of steel tubing faired with hollow wooden tail pieces for streamlining. The engine fitted was a 3-cylinder radial air-cooled Bristol. The gross weight of this aeroplane was 2,000 lb. The span was 35 ft. 5 in., overall length 26 ft., and overall height 12 ft. 3 in.
Type "Chiang Hung" (1930). - This is a two-seat training or three-seat touring biplane. Its characteristics, specifications and performance data are as follow:-
Wings. - .Single-bay biplane. Wooden structure with wire bracing. Fabric covering. Ailerons fitted on bottom planes only. Interplane struts are steel tubes with wood fairings. Means are provided on top centre section for hoisting.
Fuselage. - Rectangular structure of wood-covered fabric. Engine mounting and forward portion of fuselage of steel tubing.
Tail Unit. - Monoplane type, with braced three-ply tail plane and cantilever fin. Tail plane adjustable in the air. Unbalanced rudder and elevators. Wood structure and fabric covering.
Floats. - Twin floats, with single steps. Chassis consists of outwardly sloping "N" struts to floats. The floats are connected together by two spreaders which are supported midway by the apices of transverse Vees from the fuselage. The spreaders are further cross-braced with cables. All the float struts are steel tubes faired with wood. Floats made of wood, with five watertight compartments, each with hand-hole.
Power Plant. - One 165-h.p. Wright "Whirlwind" 5-cylinder air-cooled engine. Two fuel tanks on top centre section. Oil tank behind engine on top of fuselage.
Accommodation. - Front cockpit with side-by-side seats below wing. Rear cockpit behind trailing edge. Dual control is fitted in the front cockpit. When the machine is used for touring the rear cockpit can easily be. Converted into a luggage compartment with detachable cover.
Dimensions. - Span (top), 34 ft. 7 in.; span (bottom), 35 ft. 8 in.; chord, 5 ft. 3 in.; gap, 5 ft. 3 in.; length, 27 ft. 4 in.; height, 11 ft. 8 in.; wing area, 338 sq. ft.
Weights and Loadings. - Weight, empty, 1,630 lb.; disposable load, 2,600 lb.; wing loading, 7.7 lb./sq. ft.; power loading, 15.75 lb. /h.p.
Performance. - Maximum speed, 110 m.p.h.; landing speed, 53 m.p.h.; initial rate of climb, 514 ft./min.; climb to 10,000 ft., 31 min.; absolute ceiling, 15,500 ft.
Type "Chiang Hau" (1932). - This is powered with a Wright "Whirlwind" J-6-5, 165-h.p., at 2,000 r.p.m.
Performance with Full Load. - High speed, 118 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 97 m.p.h.; landing speed, 56 m.p.h.; rate of climb at sea-level, 450 ft./min.; climb in 10 min., 3,770 ft.; service ceiling, 9,620 ft.; wing loading, 10.1 lb./sq. ft.; power loading, 14.9 1b. /h.p.; cruising radius, 715 miles.
Dimensions. - Length overall, 27 ft.; height overall, 10 ft. 10 in.; wing span, upper, 32 ft. 2 in.; chord, upper wing, 4 ft. 4 in.; wing span, lower, 32 ft. 2 in.; chord, lower wing, 4 ft. 4 in.; dihedral, upper wing, 3 deg.; dihedral, lower wing, 4 deg.; incidence, upper wing, 1.5 deg.; incidence, lower wing, 1.5 deg.; tail incidence, adjustable in flight. -2.5 to +2.5 deg.
Areas. - Wing, including aileron, 245.2 sq. ft.; total aileron, 21.0 sq. ft.; tail plane, 13.1 sq. ft.; total elevator, 12.3 sq. ft.; fin, 5.0 sq. ft.; rudder, 7.6 sq. ft.; wing section, R.A.F., 34.
Weights. - Weight, empty, 1,660 lb.; useful load, 880 lb.; pilot, 140 lb.; oil (7 gall.), 53 lb.; pay load. 175 lb.; fuel (72 gall.), 432 lb.; gross weight loaded, 2,260 lb.
Equipment. - Propeller (metal, adjustable), diameter 8 ft. 6 in. Control (dual), conventional stick and rudder bar.
Instruments. - Compass, Bank Indicator, Airspeed Indicator, Altimeter, Tachometer, Petrol Gauge, Oil Pressure Gauge, Oil Temperature Gauge.