Junkers G 38
Junkers - G 38 - 1929 - Германия
Страна: Германия
Год: 1929

Четырехдвигательный пассажирский самолет
Как собрать магнитный умягчитель воды.
Junkers G.38
Flight, February 1929
Flight, November 1929

Junkers G.38

Junkers G.38 был очень амбициозным проектом фирмы - на момент своего первого полета он был самым большим сухопутным самолетом в мире. По конструкции и аэродинамике это была, в общем-то, типичная машина компании "Junkers", но с увеличенным крылом очень толстого профиля. Ее первый полет состоялся в 1929 году, а в 1931 году самолет, получив роскошную отделку, начал службу в авиакомпании "Luft Hansa".


  Junkers G.38ce

  Тип: четырехдвигательный пассажирский самолет
  Силовая установка: четыре 12-цилиндровых V-образных двигателя Junkers L 88а мощностью по 750 л. с. (559 кВт), вращающих четырехлопастные деревянные винты диаметром 4,50 м
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 210 км/ч; крейсерская скорость 185 км/ч; потолок 3100 м; начальная скороподъемность 177 м/мин; время набора высоты 3000 м - 34 мин; продолжительность полета на крейсерской скорости 10 ч; разбег 400 м; пробег 260 м; посадочная скорость 93 км/ч
  Масса: пустого 16 400 кг; максимальная взлетная 23 000 кг; запас топлива 2610 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 44 м; длина 23,2 м; высота 7,20 м; площадь крыла 305 м2
  Экипаж и полезная нагрузка: семь человек (два пилота, капитан, радист, два бортмеханика, стюард); 32-34 пассажира

Flight, February 1929

The 4-Engined Type J.38

  RECENTLY, rumour has been busy with reports of "giant" Junkers machines in which, it was alleged, the old 1910 ideal of Prof. Junkers - the "flying wing" - was said to have been realised. Like the death of Mark Twain, this is "grossly exaggerated." The Junkers firm of Dessau has kindly sent us a brief statement and the accompanying photographs, of which one shows two scale models, the larger of which represents the new machine. The other photograph shows a wing for the new machine in the works at Dessau, and the man standing by gives a good idea of the size of this wing.
  The J.38, as the new machine will be called, does not realise the ideal of the "flying wing," although it goes some way towards it, part of the space inside the wing forming a portion of the passenger accommodation. But there is a distinct fuselage, as the photograph of the scale model shows.
  At the moment but few particulars of the new machine are available, but we are informed that the wing span will be no less than 45 m. (147-5 ft.). The construction appears to be the usual Junkers, with multi spars of Duralumin tubing and corrugated Duralumin sheet covering.
  The power plant will consist of four Junkers engines, type L.55, mounted on the leading edge of the wing, and it is stated that the engineer will be able to crawl through the wing to any engine in order to effect adjustments and minor repairs. Thus it is expected that the reliability (i.e., freedom from forced landings) will be very good.
  The new machine departs from normal Junkers practice in that it is not a low-wing monoplane but has its wing arranged in a position which the Germans now term "shoulder decker," i.e., just below the top longerons.
  The photograph shows but little of the undercarriage, but it would appear that this will be of the four-wheeled type, with the two pairs of wheels arranged in tandem, under mudguards. The Bristol Aeroplane Co. produced an undercarriage of this type some years ago, but, as far as we are aware, no other British firm has tried it. One would imagine that when the machine is swung around sharply on the ground there would be a risk of ripping the tyres off, unless special precaution is taken.
  It is expected that the J.38 will be finished in the early summer of this year.

Flight, November 1929


  REFERENCE has previously been made to the new large monoplane recently launched by the Junkers Works of Dessau, Germany. A photograph of the wind tunnel scale model was published in FLIGHT of February 7, 1929, and a photograph of the actual machine in our issue of November 15, 1929. We have now received from the Junkers Works the accompanying photographs of the G.38, as well as a few data relating to the machine.
  Of all-metal construction, mainly of Duralumin, the G.38 is of the type which the Germans term "Shoulder decker," from the fact that the wing is attached near the top longerons. Passenger accommodation is partly in the fuselage and partly in the inner wing roots. The main dimensions and weights are as follows: Length, overall, 23 m. (75 ft. 5 in.). Wing span, 45 m. (147 ft. 6 in.). Tare weight, 13 m. tons (28,600 lbs.). Gross weight, 20 to 24 m. tons (44,000 to 52,800 lbs.). Range with 9,840 lbs. useful load 2,170 miles. The power plant consists of four Junkers engines, developing a total of 2,400 h.p.
G 38ce. Второй G 38 имел долгую историю эксплуатации, трижды сменив за ее время свое обозначение. Впервые взлетев в 1932 году, в июне он получил сертификат, а в июле начал службу в авиакомпании "Lufthansa". Машина с регистрационным номером D-2500 работала на линиях, связывающих Берлин со Скандинавскими странами, Веной и Римом, Амстердамом и Лондоном, Данцигом и Кенигсбергом, а также маршрутах внутри Германии. В 1934 году самолет получил новый регистрационный номер D-APIS и продолжал службу в "Lufthansa" до 1939 года. Мобилизованный в сентябре Люфтваффе, он служил в подразделении KGrbV 172 под регистрационным номером GF-GG.
Один Junkers G.38b был мобилизован для службы в Люфтваффе в сентябре 1939 и использовался для перевозок на Балканах. Олицетворявший концепцию "Grossflugzeug" (тяжелый и крупногабаритный), этот самолет имел крыло с толстым профилем, в котором размещались дополнительные места для пассажиров. Самолет также строился в Японии как тяжелый бомбардировщик Mitsubishi Ki-20. Всего построили восемь самолетов.
Этот снимок позволяет оценить огромные размеры крыла первого G 38 в первоначальном варианте. Проходы в крыле обеспечивали доступ к двигателям в полете. Демонтаж двигателей мог быть произведен через люки в верхней поверхности крыла.
THE AGE OF THE LARGE AIRCRAFT: The Junkers G.38 has now been completed and has made its first test flights. The machine is a step towards Dr. Junkers' ideal of the "flying wing." The machine is fitted with 4 Junkers I.55 engines, partly housed in the wing, and has a span of 147-5 ft.
A NEW VERSION OF THE JUNKERS G.38: The "D 2500" which has just been put into service on the Berlin-London route by Luft Hansa. It has accommodation for 34 persons.
WELL AWAY: A good picture of the giant Junkers "G.38" commercial monoplane taking off during its recent tour of Europe.
На момент своего первого полета в ноябре 1929 года G 38 был самым большим сухопутным самолетом в мире. Второй самолет (на снимке) уже не имел гигантских обтекателей колес, как у первой машины.
The Junkers G.38 (4 Junkers engines).
Only two Junkers G-38s were built in Germany, the example on photo, D-2000, later D-AZUR Deutschland, being the first. There was room for 34 passengers on two levels.
Первый прототип гигантского Junkers G.38 в полете над Германией в ходе испытаний демонстрирует свое огромное крыло. Обратите внимание на решетки радиаторов под крылом.
OVERHEAD: This view gives a very good idea of the plan form of the Junkers G.38.
THE ESCORT: The Junkers G.38, with more powerful engines and a "storey" added to her fuselage, accompanied the "Graf Zeppelin."
THREE BIG THINGS IN AVIATION: This photo - for which we have to thank our friends Shell-Mex Sc B.P.,Ltd. - taken recently over the Ausseralster, the larger of the two lakes in the centre of Hamburg, shows the Junkers G.38, the world's largest landplane, in flight; the Dornier Do. X, the world's largest flying-boat, moored on the left; and the new extensive Shell Haus on the lakeside on the right.
BROMMA IN ACTION: Transport machines of three nations at Stockholm's airport. On the ground are a British Continental Airways' D.H. 86 A and a Breguet-Wibault of Air France, while in the air is the Von Hindenburg, one of D.L.H.'s two Junkers G.38s, which have Jumo diesel engines.
DIESEL GIANT: The Junkers G.38, with four Jumo IV diesel engines, gets her tail up for a tarmac take-off at Croydon.
The machine originally had petrol engines but has now been fitted with four Junkers diesels. The neat cowling of these large engines is shown in the picture.
An interesting visitor to Croydon early this week was the huge Junkers G.38, shown in front view.
"GENERALFELDMARSCHALL VON HINDENBURG": The Junkers G 38 D2500 which, as previously reported in FLIGHT, was christened at Tempelhof Aerodrome, Berlin, by the Field Marshal.
Второй G 38 незадолго до мобилизации в Люфтваффе. К этому времени самолет уже имел силовую установку из четырех двигателей L 88а, вращавших четырехлопастные винты.
На этом снимке G 38ce хорошо видны решетки радиаторов, кабина в корневой части крыла и носовые прожекторы. Перед возвращением в "Lufthansa" в 1932 году G 38 получили имена "Deutschland" и "Generalfeldmarschall von Hindenburg" (на снимке) нанесенные на носовую часть.
Самый большой самолет фирмы Хуго Юнкерса - G 38
THE BUSINESS END OF D.2000: The two inner engines of the Junkers G.38 are Junkers L.88 of 800 h.p. each, while the two other engines are Junkers L.8, of 350 h.p. each.
Юнкерс G.38
REPLACEMENT: Hoisting one of the "Jumo 4" Diesel engines into the Junkers G.38 Von Hindenberg. This is, incidentally, one of the two types being manufactured under licence by D. Napier and Son, Ltd., and it will be known here as the "Culverin."
NOT DECORATIVE: The biplane tail of the Junkers G.38 does not add to the beauty of the machine, but a large-span monoplane tail behind four engines would probably have had an unhappy time of it.
Taking Shape: The wing for the J.38 being assembled at the Junkers Dessau works.
A TWO-STOREY AIRBUS: The large Junkers G.38 airliner has been modified to meet the demand for extra passenger space by the addition of a "second storey" on top of the fuselage, between the wings. A smoking compartment has also been provided. The machine will be put into service between Berlin and London.
Пассажиры G 38 пользовались большим комфортом, чем на других авиалайнерах. На снимке представлен вид в хвостовую часть нижней кабины. Позади небольшой лестницы расположен курительный салон. В нижней и верхней пассажирских кабинах размещалось по 11 человек.
THE NEW JUNKERS MONOPLANE: This photograph shows two scale models, the J.38 on the right and the W.33 on the left for purposes of comparison.
Four German types in regular service fitted with Junkers Jumo compression-ignition engines.