Avro серии 534 Baby
После Первой мировой войны фирма "A.V. Roe" разработала легкомоторный биплан Avro 534 Baby с двигателем Green мощностью 35 л. с. (26 кВт). Самолет впервые взлетел 30 апреля 1919 года, но всего через две минуты упал, поскольку пилот по небрежности выключил
зажигание. Второй Baby полетел 10 мая 1919 года с двигателем, снятым с разбившегося самолета, и показал приемлемые характеристики. Одну машину использовала фирма "HG Leigh" для испытаний множественных аэродинамических поверхностей. Согласно документам, в Хэмбле построили девять экземпляров Baby, причем некоторые из них получили известность. Берт Хинклер выиграл на одной из машин Кубок Британии за перелет из Кройдона в Турин (1046 км) за 9,5 часов, еще один Baby в 1920 году выиграл "Воздушное дерби". Один самолет в 1922 году продали СССР, его перегонка стала первым полетом между Лондоном и Москвой. Дольше всех, вероятно, сохранился первый экземпляр, который перелетел в Австралию и числился в гражданском регистре страны до 1936 года.
Avro 534A Water Baby: двухпоплавковый гидросамолет, полетел в октябре 1919 года, разбился в сентябре 1921 года
Avro 534B: имел обшитый фанерой фюзеляж и нижнее крыло уменьшенного размаха, разбился в августе 1920 года
Avro 534C: отличался крыльями уменьшенного размаха, строился для "Воздушного дерби" 1921 года, разбился в сентябре 1922 года
Avro 534D: специальный вариант с модификациями по заказу полковника Э. Виллиерса, использовавшего самолет для деловых поездок в окрестностях Калькутты до 1929 года
Avro 543: двухместный самолет с удлиненной на 0,76 м передней частью фюзеляжа, позднее установили двигатель A.D.C. Cirrus мощностью 60 л.с. (45 кВт), летал до 1934 года
Avro 554 Antarctic Baby: самолет для аэрофотосъемки на двух поплавках, построенный для экспедиции Шеклтона и Роуэтта в 1921 году, оснащался ротативным двигателем Le Rhone мощностью 80 л.с. (60 кВт)
Avro серии 534 Baby
Тип: одноместный легкий самолет
Силовая установка: рядный поршневой двигатель Green мощностью 35 л. с. (26 кВт)
Характеристики: максимальная скорость 129 км/ч на уровне моря; крейсерская скорость 110 км/ч на высоте 3500 м; практический потолок 3660 м; дальность полета 322 км
Масса: пустого самолета 277 кг; максимальная взлетная 374 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 7,62 м; длина 5,33 м; высота 2,31 м; площадь крыльев 16,72 м2
Flight, July 1920
The Olympia Aero Show 1920
A.V. Roe and Co., Ltd. (STAND 63) Newton Heath, Manchester, and Hamble, Southampton.
The Avro "Baby," fitted with a 35 h.p. Green engine, will probably draw the most attention, particularly as it is the machine on which Mr. Bert Hinkler recently made his marvellous non-stop flight from London to Turin. It is claimed that the Avro "Baby," which has been specially designed for the private owner who wishes to fly and attend to his machine, is less costly, more economical to run, and requires less attention than a motor-car, and Mr. Hinkler's performance goes far to justify the claim. The first machine of this type flew for over twenty hours without any adjustment, although it had been raced and "stunted," and made many cross-country flights. It also won the efficiency prize in the Aerial Derby last year.
The "Baby" can be spun, looped, rolled, etc., to suit the most exacting "stunt" pilot's requirements, although at the same time, it is an exceedingly stable and safe machine to fly, and has a very low landing speed. The cockpit is roomy and comfortable and the pilot has an excellent view.
The machine can be fitted with floats to make a sporting seaplane, and also can be supplied with a modified fuselage with seating accommodation for two. A full description of this machine appeared in FLIGHT for June 26, 1919.
The Avro Baby, which has already been fully described in FLIGHT (June 26, 1919) has to its credit some very fine performances, chief among which is, of course, the flight from London to Turin non-stop in 9J hours, piloted by Sir. Bert Hinkler. This furnishes a most convincing proof of the utility of a small machine, this flight having been made for a fuel expenditure of 20 gallons of petrol, or well over 30 miles to the gallon. This opens up vast possibilities of cheap aerial touring in the future, and proves that very high-power engines are not necessary for rapid locomotion. The details of the construction are already well known from previous descriptions in FLIGHT, and no further reference to them is necessary here.
Flight, November 1920
TWO-SEATER AVRO "BABY" BIPLANE, TYPE 543
THIS aeroplane is a development of the little 35 h.p. single-seater Avro "Baby" biplane, type 543 - a full description, with scale drawings, of which appeared in FLIGHT for June 26, 1919 - which has put up such a remarkable series of performances during the last eighteen months, including 1st in Aerial Derby Handicap 1919, 1st and 2nd in Aerial Derby Handicap 1920, and non-stop flight to Turin, including crossing the Alps
Except for the longer cockpit and the slightly further forward position of the engine, which has been so placed in order to balance the weight of the passenger, it will be seen that the two-seater "Baby" is practically identical with the single-seater "Baby."
The following is a summary of the technical data of the two-seater Avro "Baby" :-
Span of top plane 25 ft.
Span of bottom plane 23 ft.
Chord ot planes 4 ft.
Gap between planes 4 ft. 3 in.
Stagger of planes 1 ft. 6 in.
Length overall 20 ft.
Height overall 7 ft. 6 in.
Span of tail-plane 7 ft. 6 in.
Chord of tail and elevators 3 ft. 5 1/4 in.
Area of planes and ailerons 176 1/2 sq. ft.
Area of tail and elevators 22 1/4 sq. ft.
Angle of incidence of planes 4 1/2 degs.
Dihedral angle 3 degs.
Weight bare (with water) 630 lbs.
Weight loaded 970 lbs.
Surface loading 5 1/2 lbs./sq. ft.
Engine loading (40 h.p.) 24-2 lbs./h.p.
Petrol capacity 8 galls.
Oil capacity 1 1/2 galls.
The following performances were obtained from the average of a number of carefully conducted test flights carried out at the Hamble Aerodrome, near Southampton :-
Maximum speed (sea level) 82 m.p.h.
Landing speed 40 m.p.h.
Stalling speed 40 m.p.h.
Cruising speed at 1,000 ft. 70 m.p.h.
Petrol consumption cruising at 1,000 ft. 2 1/2 galls, per hr.
Duration cruising at 1,000 ft. 3-2 hrs.
Cruising range 225 miles.
Climb to 1,000 ft. 2 1/4 mins.
Climb to 2,000 ft. 4 1/2 mins.
Climb to 5,000 ft. 13 mins.
Climb to 6,600 ft. 18 1/2 mins.
Climb to 10,000 ft. 35 mins.
Ceiling 12,000 ft. in 50 mins.
Sea level 82 m.p.h.
6,600 ft 77-5 m.p.h.
10,000 ft. 72-5 m.p.h.
From the above figures it will be seen this machine is very efficient, and the ease with which it can be landed in and flown out of small fields makes it particularly suitable for cross-country flying. The machine is reported as light and quick on the controls at high and low altitudes.
It is claimed that it can be flown equally well without a passenger, and can perform all the "stunts" which are expected of modern aeroplanes.
The undercarriage is of the "Vee" type with, a split axle, hinged in the centre. The chassis is entirely constructed of steel tube, faired off with light 3-ply fairings, which are, in turn, covered with linen, doped and painted. The wheels, fitted with Palmer cord tyres 600 by 50 mm., are sprung by the usual rubber shock-absorbers, while the track, 5 ft., is wide for such a small machine.
The tail skid is made of ash, with a steel shoe, and is also sprung with rubber shock-absorbers.
The planes are built up in the "Avro" manner, the main spars being of built-up box section with spindled wooden leading edge and tubular steel end sweeps and trailing edges. The ribs, of girder construction, are placed close together so as to retain a good wing form and R.A.F.15 Section. Small nose ribs are placed between each of the main ribs. Internal bracing is by means of high tensile steel wire and "Avro" turnbuckles. Compression struts are formed of strong box ribs, as in the standard "Avro" type.
Only one pair of interplane struts is used on each side of the body, and the lift wires are splayed out so as to attach to the body over a wide length, this distributing the lift loads along the body and also assisting the internal bracing of the wings to take the drag loads. The centre section struts, which are splayed out in front view, are made of streamline section steel tube.
The fuselage is built up on the conventional box girder system with spruce longerons and struts and steel wire bracing, "Avro" body sockets and strainers being employed. It is of ample proportions, and the cockpit is roomy for so small a machine. Two seats of the bucket type, with upholstered cushions, are fitted, and the engine and machine controls are conveniently placed, the engine control being on the pilot's left hand. A 3-ply floor covered with aluminium sheet forms the heel rest for the pilot's feet, the rudder bar being so arranged that the pilot can change the position of his feet slightly so as to use either the instep or toes on the rudder bar. The body is faired off and covered with linen, doped and varnished; it is laced on, so that it can easily be removed for inspection. Although the deck fairing in front of the pilot's cockpit renders it unnecessary to wear goggles, an "Avro" folding windscreen is fitted.
Rudder bar and rudder controls are of the usual "Avro" type, and the control stick consists of a single steel tube universally mounted at the base. The aileron control wires are taken direct from the control stick, and the elevators are operated through a rocking cross-shaft which is coupled up to the control stick by means of a pull-and-push rod connected to the control stick by universal joints. All control cables are standard stranded cable passing through fairleads. Pulleys are entirely eliminated from the control system, and pulley crank levers are employed where it is necessary to change the direction of the control cables.
A large instrument board is conveniently placed in front of the pilot's cockpit, and carries the following instruments :- Rev. counter, altimeter, air speed indicator, radiator thermometer, oil pressure gauge, cross level, watch and engine switch. One of the new 35-45 h.p. Green 4-cyl. vertical water-cooled engines is fitted. It drives a 7 ft. 6 in. diameter by 5 ft. 3 in. pitch tractor airscrew at a maximum speed of 1,500 r.p.m. in the air.
A honeycomb radiator is mounted in the nose of the fuselage.
THE AVRO BABY: Three-quarter Front View
10 мая 1919г.: первый послевоенный британский легкий самолет Avro Baby выиграл 21 июня гонки Aerial Derby.
THE AVRO BABY: Three-quarter Rear View
Avro Baby (35 h.p. water-cooled 4 cyl. Green), as flown non-stop to Turin by the late Bert Hinkler.
An Avro baby. Type 534, with 35 h.p. Green engine - the actual machine which Mr. Bert Hinkler flew to Turin and back recently
THE AVRO "BABY" AT OLYMPIA: This is the machine on which Mr. Bert Hinkler flew from London to Turin, non-stop, in 9 1/2 hours
THE AERIAL DERBY. Photographs of the starters. Avro Baby single-seater, 35 h.p. Green.
Mr. Hinkler's Avro "Baby," 35 h .p. Green engine (No. 1) in the Aerial Derby
THE RACE FOR THE KING'S CUP: Photographs of the competing machines. Avro Baby.
The Avro "Baby," 35 h.p. Green engine (No. 2), flown by Capt. Hamersley in the Aerial Derby. This machine was first in the Handicap
PROM THE AERIAL DERBY: Bert Hinkler gets away on the Avro Baby.
SOME OF THE STARTS FOR THE KING'S CUP RACE: The Avro Baby gets away;
THE GROSVENOR CHALLENGE CUP: An Avro starting from Lympne. A. V. Roe's watercooled Avro Baby (35 h.p. Green), with Bert Hinkler
THE AERIAL DERBY: Capt. Hamersley, who was first in the Handicap, passing the winning-post on the 35 Green-engined Avro "Baby" (No. 2), crossing the winning line in front of the Hendon Aerodrome enclosures
The Avro Baby passing Croydon on its second lap in the Aerial Derby, whilst below is the Sopwith-Hawker machine still awaiting its turn to start under its handicap time.
London-Moscow in an Avro Baby, 35 h.p. Green engine: A few weeks ago a very remarkable flight was made from London to Moscow in an Avro Baby. The pilot, a Russian named Gwailer, is seen in the photograph, which was taken just before the start of the flight. The machine was held up for some considerable time in Germany, the strange combination of a Russian pilot in a British machine, alighting on German soil, leading to complications. However, all difficulties were smoothed out ultimately, and the machine reached its goal in safety.
The Avro Baby, is an old-timer, and was originally fitted with the Green engine. It was on a machine of this type that Bert Hinckler flew from London to Turin non-stop many years ago.
The Avro "Baby," fitted with a 35 h.p. Green engine.
The 35-40 h,p. Green engine, installed in an Avro "Baby" biplane.
Avro Baby for India: This machine has been built for Mr. E. Villiers, who already owns a standard Avro type K.504. In view of the special conditions, a large radiator has been fitted, and the mounting for the 35 h.p. Green engine has been specially designed, being built of steel tubing. The new mounting makes the engine remarkably accessible. A large locker is fitted behind the cock-pit to accommodate the personal luggage of the owner when touring in India. Mr. Hinkler delivered the machine to Northolt by air, and Mr.Villiers at once went up for a test flight, expressing himself very pleased with the machine.
The Avro Two-Seater "Baby" Biplane: Three-quarter front view
The Avro Two-Seater "Baby" Biplane: Three-quarter rear view
THE AERIAL DERBY. Photographs of the starters. 1. Avro Baby two-seater
THE AERIAL DERBY: Capt. Tully (No.1) starts on the Avro Baby two-seater
One of two recent types of Avro biplanes: the "Water Baby," an amphibious edition of the Aerial Derby-famed "Baby"
Avro "Baby" 35 h.p. Green Two-Seater Biplane