Одноместный истребитель Grebe наряду с Hawker Woodcock и Armstrong Whitworth Siskin являлся истребителем, который рассматривался для обновления в межвоенный период парка британских ВВС. Самолет был спроектирован на базе опытного биплана Grouse. Потенциал
данной машины был настолько высок, что Министерство авиации провело его оценочные испытания. По весьма обнадеживающим результатам этих испытаний были заказаны три прототипа. Первым стал прототип Grebe, который получил обозначение Grebe Mk I. Машина оснащалась одним двигателем Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar III мощностью 325 л.с. После оценочных испытаний данного прототипа тут же был выдан заказ на запуск в серию самолета на базе второго прототипа Grebe Mk II, в конструкцию которого внедрили ряд усовершенствований, включая шасси с управляемым хвостовым костылем и более мощный двигатель Jaguar IV.
Королевские ВВС Великобритании получили около 120 экземпляров Grebe Mk II, среди которых были двухместные тренировочные самолеты с двойным управлением Grebe (Dual). Первый самолет был передан в строевую часть в октябре 1923 года. Самолет оставался на вооружении строевых частей британских ВВС почти пять лет, за это время некоторые машины приняли участие в программах испытательных полетов. Например, Grebe Mk II стал первым истребителем британских ВВС, достигшим максимальной скорости в 386 км/ч, а еще два самолета данного типа со специальными приспособлениями на верхнем крыле привлекались к экспериментальным запускам в воздухе с британского дирижабля R33. В 1928 году три самолета Grebe были приобретены Новой Зеландией и поставлены в национальные ВВС.
Gloster Grebe Mk II
Тип: одноместный истребитель
Силовая установка: один звездообразный ПД Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IV мощностью 400 л. с. (298 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 243 км/ч; набор высоты 6095 м - за 23 мин; практический потолок 7010 м; продолжительность полета 2 ч 45 мин
Масса: пустого 780 кг; максимальная взлетная 1189 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 8,94 м; длина 6,17 м; высота 2,82 м; площадь крыльев 23,60 мг
Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers вверху носовой части фюзеляжа
Самолет Gamecock, построенный по техническому заданию 27/23 Министерства авиации на одноместный истребитель, был еще одним представителем удачного семейства машин Grouse/Grebe. От предшественников он отличался, прежде всего, двигателем Bristol Jupiter, заменившим Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar, надежность которого оставляла желать лучшего. Другие отличия включали усовершенствованные элероны, измененные обводы фюзеляжа и внутреннюю установку двух пулеметов. Впервые взлетевший в феврале 1925 года, Gamecock быстро прошел испытания, по результатам которых изменили конструкцию оперения.
Доработанный таким образом первый из трех прототипов показал хорошие результаты, достаточные для получения контракта на 30 серийных истребителей Gamecock Mk I. Первый из них поступил на вооружение 23-й эскадрильи в мае 1926 года и нес службу до июля 1931 года. В общей сложности британские ВВС приобрели около 100 Gamecock, включая три Gamecock Mk II с новой центральной секцией верхнего крыла и рядом более мелких усовершенствований. Помимо британских ВВС "Gloster" поставила три Gamecock Mk II Финляндии, где еще 15 самолетов были построены по лицензии в 1929-1930 годах. Получившие название Kukko, эти самолеты несли службу в боевых частях финских ВВС с 1929 по 1935 годы, а затем использовались в качестве учебных. Последний из них был списан в 1941 году.
Gamecock Mk III: Gamecock Mk II, принадлежавший британским ВВС, прошедший доработки и использовавшийся для испытаний на штопор
Gloster Gamecock Mk I
Тип: одноместный истребитель
Силовая установка: один радиальный двигатель Bristol Jupiter VI мощностью 425 л. с. (317 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 1525 м - 249 км/ч; время набора высоты 3050м - 7 мин 35 с; потолок 6705 м; продолжительность полета 2 ч
Масса: пустого 875 кг; максимальная взлетная 1299 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 9,08 м; длина 5,99 м; высота 2,95 м; площадь крыла 24,53 м1
Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers Mk I по бортам носовой части фюзеляжа
Flight, July 1923
Gothenburg International Aero Exhibition 1923
Gloucestershire Aircraft Company, Ltd., Cheltenham
THE Gloucestershire Aircraft Company, the constructors of the world-famous "Mars I," or "Bamel" racing machine, which holds the British speed record of 196-6 m.p.h., have two types of machines at Gothenburg, one on view in the exhibition itself, and the other giving actual flying demonstrations. Both machines are of recent design, for which Mr. H. P. Folland, who also designed the "Mars I," is responsible, and, as may be expected, possess several distinctive features.
The second machine, the "Grebe," which will be flying during the exhibition, has been designed as a high altitude fighting scout, embodying the special arrangement of high lift and medium lift wing sections, as in the "Grouse."
Having been designed at the request of the British Air Ministry it is not permitted to give full details, but it may be said that on actual flight trials the machine shows good improvement in performance at altitude, and, whilst having greater loading-carrying capacity, its manoeuvrability and general handling is a considerable improvement.
Amongst detail improvements the petrol system may be mentioned as being simplicity itself and quite fool-proof, and the tanks being mounted in the wings gives greater immunity from fire.
The general dimensions are :- Span, 29 ft.; length, 19 ft.; height, 9 ft.
The engine fitted is a 350 h.p. Siddeley "Jaguar."
Flight, April 1926
THE GLOSTER "GAMECOCK”
A Single-Seater Fighter With Many Novel Features
FROM the very beginning of its existence, the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co., of Cheltenham, has concentrated on the production of high-performance aircraft, a type of which their chief designer and engineer, Mr. H. P. Folland, has had very extensive experience since - it seems ages ago now - he took a hand in the design of the S.E.5 at Farnborough during the war. When Mr. Folland joined the British Nieuport Co. a single-seater known as the "Nighthawk" was one of the first results, and although the type came too late to take an active part in the war 1914-18, a great number were built. When Mr. Folland joined the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co. he appears to have convinced Mr. D. Longden, managing director of the company, of the importance of this type, and the policy of that firm has always been one closely associated with the high-performance single-seater, although other types have been successfully produced. Some months ago we gave detailed descriptions, illustrated by sketches and photographs, as well as general arrangement drawings, of two "Gloster" machines which have proved highly successful - the "Grouse" school machine, and the "Grebe" single-seater fighter. The latter has been supplied in large numbers to the Royal Air Force, but is now about to be superseded by a more recent type, the "Gamecock." At the moment it is not possible to give a detailed description of this machine, which is not yet in quantity production, but on a recent visit to the Cheltenham works of the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co., and to their aerodrome at Brockworth, a few miles from Cheltenham, we obtained a series of flying pictures of the "Gamecock," and of a very slightly modified version of it which, being a "civilian" machine and carrying the usual registration letters, may be supplied to foreign governments. In point of fact, we believe that this latter machine is about to be sent on a tour abroad for the purpose of giving demonstration flights, presumably as a result of the Air Ministry decision to allow British aircraft constructors to demonstrate some of the latest machines abroad, and to supply them to foreign air services.
A detailed description of the "Gamecock" may not yet be given, but the photographs show it to be, as regards outward appearance, a fairly normal single-bay biplane, fitted with Bristol "Jupiter" engine. As a matter of fact, the "Gamecock" is a good deal less orthodox than a casual inspection would indicate, partly aerodynamically, and also in the matter of constructional details. Concerning the former it may, without going into too great detail, be said that it follows the principle, first tried in the "Grouse" and later applied with great success to the "Grebe," of having a thick-section top wing and a medium-section bottom wing. Moreover, the top wing is set at a slightly greater angle of incidence than the lower, the decalage being so chosen that, in conjunction with the difference in characteristics of the two sections used, the combination provides certain very important features.
For instance, at or near the stalling angle, the two wings contribute almost equally to the lift, and by the special arrangement of the wing tips and ailerons the lateral control is very effective, even at angles beyond the stall. The result naturally is that a low landing speed can be attained, since the lateral control does not become "sloppy" in the region of stalling speed. The wing combination is also such that at climbing speeds, or rather climbing angles, the L/D ratio is good, so that an improved climb is attained. At top speed, on the other hand the wing combination approaches in effect monoplane efficiency, since the lower plane, being set at a smaller angle of incidence than the top plane, contributes but little to the lift and has a very low drag being, of fairly small camber. A further advantage of the particular wing combination used is that travel of the centre of pressure is reduced, with consequent gain in stability, while if great controllability is desired a very short fuselage enables this to be achieved without introducing instability.
Perhaps a few words concerning the manner in which reduced c.p. travel in obtained may be of interest. At low speeds the two wings, as already stated, contribute almost equally to the lift. In other words, the mean chord, or "equivalent plane," is roughly half-way between the upper and lower wing. At large angles the centre of pressure is, of course, fairly far forward. As the speed of the machine increases, i.e., as the angle of incidence diminishes, the upper wing contributes an increasing proportion of the lift, so that the "equivalent plane" gradually rises towards the upper wing. Meanwhile the centre of pressure moves back with decrease in incidence, but as the upper wing is staggered and the "equivalent plane" moves towards it, i.e., forwards as well as upwards, the c.p. of the whole machine does not move back as far as it otherwise would, and the overall travel is confined within fairly narrow limits.
While on the subject of the movement of the centre of pressure in the "Gamecock," reference may be made to an impression which appears to have got about to the effect that the machine is somewhat inclined to be tail-heavy at large angles of incidence. It is considered that this is probably due wholly to extra load above specification being carried on the machine. It should be realised that on a small single-seater a variation in military load of from 400 lbs. (pilot and half fuel) to about 1,020 lbs. (pilot, full tanks and a lot of equipment) must necessarily involve a change in trim. We believe the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company has suggested to the Air Ministry that in future designs ballast would be necessary to trim a machine more satisfactorily with such a widely-varying load.
It is not permissible at the moment to give performance figures for the Gloster "Gamecock," but by way of demonstrating some of the advantages of the particular biplane combination used in the Gloster machines it may be of interest to quote a few figures relating to two earlier types. These are the "Sparrowhawk," with 230 h.p. B.R.2 rotary engine, and the "Grouse," fitted with the same engine. The former had the normal thin-wing section in both planes (R.A.F.15) whereas the latter had thick-section H.L.B.1 in the top plane and medium section H.L.B.2 in the bottom plane. The empty weight of the "Sparrowhawk" was 1,419 lbs. and that of the "Grouse" 1,357 lbs., so that there was a saving in structure weight due to the use of thicker wings. The loaded weights for the two machines were 2,168 lbs. and 2,106 lbs., respectively, while the wing areas were 270 sq. ft. and 205 sq. ft., a not inconsiderable reduction in size. In spite of the heavier wing loading, the "Grouse" has a stalling speed of 47 m.p.h., as compared with 51 m.p.h. of the "Sparrowhawk." The figures for speed at ground level are 125 and 128, and this advantage in speed in favour of the "Grouse" is maintained at altitudes, the figures at 15,000 ft. being 111 m.p.h. and 114 m.p.h., respectively. In climb, also, the modern biplane combination scores, its time to 17,000 ft. being 37-51 minutes, as against 43 minutes. The ceiling is 400 ft. higher, i.e.,19,400 ft. instead of 19,000 ft. Both machines, it should be pointed out, carried the same military load, had the same fuel capacity, and used the same propeller.
Returning to the Gloster "Gamecock," although little may be said at present concerning some of its more interesting features, it is possible to state that great attention has been paid to details, and that the full merits of the machine cannot be appreciated without taking these into consideration. It has already been intimated that as regards its aerodynamic features the "Gamecock" looks a normal machine, but that there is a great deal of thought and experience behind its aerodynamic design. So also with regard to construction and equipment. The machine is in a general way just a normal single-seater fighter, but the way in which details such as placing of the equipment have been thought out shows the amount of trouble that has been taken to study practical considerations. The "Gamecock" is not just a machine with high performance into which the required equipment has been crammed as best it might. Rather does it give the impression that the arrangement and placing of the equipment was the first consideration, and that around this the machine was designed.
To give but one illustration of what is meant, it may be stated that much of the equipment carried is mounted on sliding panels which can be pulled out clear of the machine for inspection and adjustment. The machine guns are favourably placed and are accessible without the pilot having to put his hands over the side. Inspection doors are detachable in a few seconds, with nothing of the old-fashioned "meat skewers" about them. Seat and rudder bar are adjustable to suit pilots of various heights. And many other features of which no mention can be made.
A feature of the "Grebe," and which has been retained in the "Gamecock," is the placing of the petrol tanks in the top plane, the cocks being within reach from the cockpit. The tanks themselves can be changed in a few minutes by undoing four bolts for each tank. One might go on enumerating good features incorporated in the "Gamecock," but sufficient has probably been said to show that the machine merits very close attention, and the specimen which is going abroad for demonstration purposes should help very materially in raising the prestige of British aircraft in foreign countries. A point about which nothing has been said so far is the performance of the machine at altitudes. In this respect also the particular biplane combination seems to score, as will, we think, be realised when it becomes possible to publish the certified performance figures.
Flight, June 1927
GLOSTER "GAMECOCKS" FOR FINLAND
"THE LAND OF A THOUSAND LAKES," or "Suomi" to give Finland its native name, has comparatively recently commenced seriously to interest itself in the establishment of an Air Force. Once it did decide upon the formation of such a force, however, there were no half-measures about it. It was laid down as a governing principle that in as far as finances would permit, the best obtainable flying material was to be obtained. Finland scores over most other countries, from an air force point of view, in having at the head of its air force men who are all comparatively young, men who are not, therefore, hidebound by ancient traditions in other services, and best of all, men who are practical flying people and who thus know what to aim at, what is good, and, last but not least, what is practical instead of what is mainly of theoretical value. Knowing a little of the history of the Finnish Air Force, one is not surprised to learn that an order has recently been placed by Finland for a batch of Gloster "Gamecock II" single-seater fighters, and thus very shortly the Finnish Air Force, or rather a part of it, will be mounted on really up-to-date machines worthy of the splendid personnel of which the force is composed.
Before commencing a description of the "Gamecock II," it may be as well to point out that in the general design of this machine one may trace quite easily an ancestry dating back through the Gloster "Grebe," and the Nieuport "Nighthawk" to the S.E.5A, with the design of which latter Mr. H. P. Folland, now Chief Engineer and Designer of the Gloster company, was concerned at the Royal Aircraft Factory (as it then was) of Farnborough. Thus Mr. Folland has had very lengthy experience of designing single-seater fighters, first at Farnborough, then with the British Nieuport Company, and during the last six or seven years with the Gloster Aircraft Company. During that period Mr. Folland has designed, and the Gloster Company produced machines of various other types, it is true, but in the main one may say that the firm has specialised in single-seater fighters or in closely related types such as racing land and seaplanes. The "Gamecock II" therefore represents the accumulated experience of Mr. Folland, his chief assistant, Mr. Preston, and the rest of the technical staff of the Gloster company, and that the Finnish Air Force is not acquiring an experiment but a well-tried type will be realised when we point out that the "Gamecock I" has been in use in the British Royal Air Force for a long time, while the "Gamecock II" as delivered to the R.A.F. is still on the "secret list." In this connection it should be pointed out that the R.A.F. "Gamecock II" differs from the type delivered to Finland mainly in that it is fitted with a British Bristol "Jupiter" Mark VI, while the Finnish machines are equipped with the Gnome-Rhone "Jupiter," which is less powerful, and thus may be expected to give a rather lower performance. Also, the Finnish machines have painted on their sides the Swastika in place of the circles of the British "Gamecocks," but it is not thought that this greatly affects the performance! The machine was demonstrated by Capt. Saint, at the Finnish Air Pageant held at Helsingfors from March 20 to 27 this winter, when it "put up a very fine show" and was greatly admired.
As the "Gamecock I" will be familiar to many of our readers, perhaps it may be of assistance to outline briefly the main differences between it and the “Gamecock II." To begin with, the fuselages are almost identical, as are also the wings with the exception that instead of the two top plane halves meeting on the centre-line of the machine, attached to a form of cabane, a centre-section has been interposed, supported on struts from the fuselage. This has had the double effect of throwing the two halves of the top plane outwards somewhat, and of very greatly improving the view from the cockpit. As a result of the outward displacement of the top planes, the inter-plane struts have been raked outward, while yet another slight change in the wing arrangement is found in the ailerons, which are of narrower chord in the Mark II machine, and the struts separating them have been moved outward and now occur in the centre of the ailerons.
Structurally the wings have only been changed in so far as the aileron false spars have been supplanted by spars running the whole span of the wing, giving a more rigid support for the ailerons.
The "Gamecock II" has been "cleaned up" by altering slightly the proportions of the petrol tanks carried in the top plane. In the Mark I machine these tanks were fairly narrow from side to side, but projected below the aerofoil section considerably. The new tanks of the Mark II are somewhat wider, but lie more nearly flush with the wing surface, so that the drag of them may be assumed to have been reduced a good deal. The wind screen of the "Gamecock II" is of a different type from that of the Mark I, and has been found to disturb the air flow over the tail to a much smaller degree. The result has been that the Mark II machine has better control under all conditions.
Of the structural features of the "Gamecock II" there is little which need be said. The methods of construction followed throughout are those employed by the Gloster company for several years. The fuselage is the usual girder type, with ash longerons and spruce struts, braced by tierods, while the wings have spruce spars, struts and ribs, and internal tierod drag bracing, with external streamline wire lift bracing. The new centre-section is, however, made of steel in view of the heavy loads imposed upon it.
The undercarriage is of the oleo-damped type, with rubber rings absorbing landing loads in compression.
The engine installed in the Gloster "Gamecock II," as delivered to the Finnish Air Force is, as, already mentioned, a Gnome-Rhone "Jupiter," normally developing 420 h.p., and a maximum of 454 at 1,800 r.p.m.
The two petrol tanks, carried in the top plane and giving direct gravity feed to the engine, have a capacity of 26 gallons each, while the oil tank, housed in the deck fairing aft of the engine, has a capacity of 5 1/2 gallons.
The load factors to which the "Gamecock II" is designed are 5 1/2 on the rear-wing truss and 7 1/2 on front-wing truss, working to a stress of 5,500 lb./sq. in. for spruce members. The fuselage has a factor of 5 1/2 for front portion, and for rear portion with landing loads. The undercarriage and tail skid have factors of 5.
Provision is made for fitting 2 Vickers guns lying in the sides of the fuselage and firing "through" the propeller by means of the usual synchronising gear. There is space for 1,200 rounds of ammunition, and if desired racks can be fitted to carry 4 bombs weighing 20 lbs. each.
The main dimensions of the "Gamecock II" are shown on the accompanying general arrangement drawings. The following itemised weight data may be of interest :-
Gnome-Rhone "Jupiter" 800 364
Propeller 55 25
Oil (5 1/2 gallons) 55 25
Petrol (52 gallons) 595 291
Piping and exhaust pipes 40 18-2
Gas starter, magneto, &c. 25 11-35
Total weight of power unit 1,570 lb. 734-55 kg.
Wings, struts and wires 450 205
Fuselage 172 78-2
Gun mounts, &c. 25 11-35
Fins, rudder, tail and elevator 42 19-1
Controls 26 11-8
Tail adjuster 6 2-73
Undercarriage 115 52-3
Tail skid 8 3-64
Fairing, cockpit and seat 120 54-5
Main petrol tanks 50 22-7
Oil tank and cooler 18 8-2
Miscellaneous parts 20 9-1
Total structure weight 1,052 lb. 478-62 kg.
Pilot 180 82
Electrical equipment 15 6-8
Oxygen 21 9-55
Instruments 26 11-8
Guns, ammunition, sights and C.C. gear 190 86-4
Total military load 432 lb. 196-55 kg.
Total loaded weight of machine, 3,054 lb. (1,409 kg).
Wing loading, 11-6 lb./sq. ft. (56-8 kg./sq. m.).
Power loading (normal), 7-27 lb./h.p. (3-3 kg./h.p).
The following performance figures are conservative, based upon the first machine, and have since been considerable improved upon :-
Maximum speed at sea level 150 m.p.h. 233-7 km./h.
10,000 ft. 140 „ 221 „
15,000 ft. 135 „ 204-6 „
Absolute ceiling, 22,000 ft. 6,770 m.
Stalling speed at sea level, 50 m.p.h. 80-5 km./h.
Climb to 10,000 ft. in 7 mins.; to 15,000 ft. in 12-23 mins.
Flight, July 1928
GLOSTER "GAMECOCK II”
One Bristol "Jupiter" Engine
THE "Gamecock" is a high performance single-seater fighter fitted with Mark VI "Jupiter" air-cooled radial engine of 420 h.p. It forms part of the standard equipment of the Royal Air Force and is one of the fastest and most manoeuvrable machines in the service.
In the handicap race for the Sassoon Cup in 1927, "Gamecock" machines won first, second and third places, and in the 1928 race also the fastest speed was attained by a "Gamecock" machine.
It has recently been adopted by the Finnish Air Service and is being manufactured under licence in that country.
The machine is supplied either in wood or metal or composite structure as required.
It is exceedingly clean and compact in design, giving exceptional manoeuvrability. The lay-out of the equipment is a striking feature. Accessibility to the engine and all essential parts, by easily removable inspection doors, makes it a machine economical to maintain in service.
The wings consist of a high lift section upper wing and a medium lift section lower ring of reduced span and chord. The latest version differs from the prototype in that a centre section has been introduced between the upper wings and narrow chord ailerons substituted for the earlier type, giving a much more rigid construction.
Fuel tanks are situated in the upper wings giving a fool-proof gravity feed.
The undercarriage is of the oleo type damper action with rubber in compression.
The armament consists of two Vickers' guns in grooved recesses in the sides of the body firing through the propeller with synchronising gear and 1,200 rounds of ammunition. Provision is also made for fitting racks to carry 4-20 lb. (9 kg.) bombs.
The Gloucestershire "Grebe," a single-seater fighter scout, fitted with a 350 h.p. Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar." This machine will be flying during the Exhibition.
Gloucestershire "Grebe" (350 h.p. "Jaguar").
A NEW MACHINE AT THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: The Gloucester "Grebe," a single-seater fighter, fitted with a 350 h.p. Siddeley "Jaguar" engine.
THE KING'S CUP: The last three away. From right to left, Mr. George Robey's D.H.9 (450 Napier "Lion"), flown by Mr. A. J. Cobham, who came in second; Mr. J. D. Siddeley's Siddeley "Siskin" (325 Siddeley "Jaguar"), piloted by Mr. Frank T. Courtney, in whom was found the winner; Sir William Joynson-Hicks' Gloucestershire "Grebe" (325 Siddeley "Jaguar"), flown by Mr. L. L. Carter. This entry was the scratch machine.
THE GLOSTER HELE-SHAW BEACHAM VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER: On the left, a "close-up" view of the hub, blade roots, &c, on a Bristol "Jupiter VI." On the right, the propeller in flight on the same engine, in a Gloster "Grebe," piloted by Flying Officer H. J. Saint.
THE TWO SIDDELEY "JAGUAR"-ENGINED MACHINES READY TO GET AWAY: Left, the Gloucestershire "Grebe," the scratch machine, and, right, Mr. J.D.Siddeley's "Siskin," which was piloted to victory by Mr. Frank T. Courtney.
"THE CUCKOOS" (No. 25 FIGHTER SQUADRON): "Off in Eight Minutes." Pilots running to their Grebes on receipt of urgent order.
THE SIR PHILIP SASSOON CUP RACE AT NORTHOLT: Three Gloster "Grebes" are here shown starting for the race.
GLOSTER "GREBE": Single-seater Fighter, with Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" Engine.
A very excellent show: Two Gloster "Grebes" came over from Hawkinge during the meeting and gave a wonderful demonstration of evolutions in "formation." They are here seen about to return to their nest.
TAKING OFF BY FLIGHTS: In eight minutes exactly from receipt of the order the three flights of No. 25 Squadron were in the air
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: The first event of the afternoon was the Group Evolutions of six Fighter Squadrons (54 machines), one squadron of which (No. 32) is shown about to land.
PRACTISING FOR THE PAGEANT: A formation of Gloster "Grebes" with Armstrong-Siddeley Jaguar engine, setting out for a low-bombing contest at Duxford aerodrome.
No. 56 Fighter Squadron off on a mission
THE RETURN AND THE DISPERSE: No. 25 has accomplished its mission
"HALLO, MOSQUITOS! ALTER COURSE 16 POINTS OUTWARDS." - This was the command given by the King to No.25 Fighter Squadron, under Squadron-Leader A. H. Peck, by means of wireless during the squadron drill at the R.A.F. Display. We show above his Majesty speaking into the microphone, and also some of the formations carried out by the nine "Grebes." (1) "Flight Mass Line Abreast." (2) "Flight Mass Echelon to Port." (3) "Double Line Ahead" (immediately preceding the King's order). (4) "Line Abreast." (5) "Flight Mass Line Ahead."
AT THE R.A .F. DISPLAY: Four movements in the air drill by wireless carried out by No. 25 Squadron. Left (top) "Squadron"; (bottom) "Flight Mass Line Abreast." Right (top) executing a half-roll; (bottom) right about turn (via a loop).
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: Event No. 1 (afternoon) Group Evolutions by Six Fighter Squadrons (54 machines). Some of the evolutions. On the right (top) will be seen one Wing of three squadrons (Nos. 19, 29, and 41) in "Mass line ahead." Our camera was not large enough to get in all 54 machines.
FORMATION FLYING EXTRAORDINARY: Daily visitors to Lympne during the light 'plane competition were "Grebes," "Woodcocks" and "Gamecocks," whose evolutions were generally admired. Our photographs show these machines in various formations.
THE RETURN OF THE SCHNEIDER TEAM: The Armstrong-Whitworth "Argosy" of Imperial Airways, Ltd., arrives at Croydon aerodrome, escorted by six Gloster "Grebes" and a de Havilland 50. Considering the extremely gusty wind, the "Grebes" kept excellent formation.
THE RETURN AND THE DISPERSE: Letting off Steam. After breaking formation the pilots of No. 25 display a little individuality.
FIGHTING TACTICS AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: Event No. 6, an aerial combat between a Boulton and Paul "Bugle" twin-engined bomber, piloted by Sqdn.-Ldr. W. H. Longton, D.F.C., A.F.C., and two Gloucestershire "Grebe" single-seater fighters, piloted respectively by Flight-Lieut. H. A. Hammersley, M.C., and Flying Officer J. N. Boothman. In this display the bomber (in centre) put up an excellent defence.
FIGHTING TACTICS AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: In Event No.9 a demonstration of flight evolutions in aerial attack was given by three Siddeley ''Siskins'' (No. 41 Fighter Squadron), three Gloucestershire "Grebes" (No. 32 Fighter Squadron), and two Bristol Fighters (No.24 Communication Squadron), In the picture some of the "Siskins" and "Grebes" are seen opening the attack on one of the Bristol Fighters.
EVENT 9, AN AIR ATTACK ON LONDON: An "enemy" squadron of day-bombers (D.H.9's) are followed by another squadron of "enemy" machines (Vickers "Virginias" night-bombers), which are being attacked by defending single-seater fighters (Gloster "Grebes"), and one is seen "in flames."
EVENT G. "SERVICE SKYWRITING": One of the two Gloster Grebes which took part in an "illuminating" display of Individual Aerobatics, assisted by the Savage Skywriting apparatus. It is seen, with its column of orange smoke, executing a half-roll.
Links in the Chain: Three Martlesham pilots giving an exhibition of aerobatics with smoke.
MORE SMOKED AEROBATICS: THE FORMATION OF A HUGE SPIRAL
Another evolution by the same pilots mounted on Grebes.
MORE SMOKED AEROBATICS: A TRIPLE LOOP
AEROBATICS IN SMOKE: THE THREE "GREBES" FORMING "PRINCE OF WALES' FEATHERS." THE EFFECT OBTAINED BY USING COLOURED SMOKE (ORANGE AND WHITE) IS VERY MARKED.
AEROBATICS IN SMOKE: THE THREE "GREBES" FORMING "PRINCE OF WALES' FEATHERS." SIX PICTURES SHOW, FROM TOP TO BOTTOM, PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN THE MANOEUVRE
MORE SMOKED AEROBATICS: THE SIX VIEWS AGAIN SHOW PROGRESSIVE STAGES: THIS TIME IN THE FORMATION OF A WREATH OF INTERWOVEN ORANGE AND WHITE TRAILS.
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: The Low-Bombing Competition. One of the Gloster "Grebes" of No. 19 Squadron makes a direct hit on the moving tank.
THE BIRMINGHAM AIR PAGEANT: One of the "Grebes" from No. 25 Squadron "converging" on the tank in the bombing attack.
H.R.H. THE INFANTE DON ALFONSO OF SPAIN VISITS THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE AIRCRAFT COMPANY: The photo shows the Infante Don Alfonso inspecting the Siddeley "Jaguar" engine of a Gloucestershire "Grebe."
H.M. AIR AIRCRAFT CARRIER, R.33: The British rigid airship, R.33, with two Gloster "Grebes" attached, just before ascending from Pulham on October 21.
The airship R.33 with her two Gloster Grebes, which were successfully flown-off and re-attached a number of times in 1926.
H.M. AIR AIRCRAFT CARRIER, R.33. The R.33 takes the air (with two Gloster "Grebes") once again after a year's rest. Inset, Major G. H. Scott, who was in command, and his second officer, Squad.-Leader R- Booth, in the control car.
Lighter-than-air starting: Two Gloster Grebes suspended under the keel of R33 preparatory to being dropped from the airship in flight.
21 октября 1926г.: два доработанных истребителя Gloster Grebe на высоте 760 м выполнили отцепку от жесткого дирижабля R 33.
"LIGHTER-HEAVIER-THAN-AIR": A close-up of the R.33 (or part of same) and the two Gloster "Grebes." Each of the latter weighed over a ton, and were successfully launched from about 2,000 ft.
R.33 AS AIRCRAFT CARRIER: Two detail views showing the suspension of the Gloster "Grebes" from the airship's keel. Each machine was suspended by a central quick-release attachment to the top plane centre section, whilst three struts, two to the wings and one to the fuselage near the tail, served to prevent the machine oscillating. Note the flexible piping running from the keel to the side of the fuselage, which conveyed the mixture from the Bristol "Gas" starter (in airship) to the "Grebe's "Jaguar" engine.
"DROPPING THE PILOT" - NEW STYLE: One of the two Gloster "Grebes" carried by R.33 gets well away during the tests at Pulham last Thursday. Piloted by F/O Mackenzie-Richards, the "Grebe" fell about 100 ft. before complete control was obtained, when, opening out his engine - note the "prrrup" of smoke - the pilot made a half-roll and then flew away.
The first production Grebe II, this type entering RAF service in October 1923 and remaining first-line equipment until mid-1928.
The Gloster "Grebe" II (Armstrong Siddeley "Jaguar") For a long period one of the most popular single-seater fighters in the Royal Air Force, the Gloster "Grebe," is now being gradually superseded by a later type, the Gloster "Gamecock," but it is still being used in large numbers. It has a fairly thick section, high-lift top plane and a thin-section, high-speed lower plane. It is claimed that at top speed the upper wing carries nearly the whole load, so that monoplane efficiency is approached. The "Grebe" is used by the following squadrons: No. 19 (Fighter), Duxford; No. 25 (Fighter), Hawkinge; No. 29 (Fighter), Duxford; No. 32 (Fighter), Kenley; and No. 56 (Fighter), Biggin Hill.
THE GLOSTER "GREBE II," ARMSTRONG-SIDDELEY "JAGUAR" ENGINE: Front view.
THE GLOSTER "GREBE II": Three-quarter rear view.
The first significant fighter to enter service after the end of the war was the Gloster Grebe, shown here in the markings of No 56 Squadron. The Grebe was the first of a series of Gloster fighters which were in service with the RAF almost without interruption from 1923 to 1967.
No. 29 Squadron Gloster Grebe J7381 marked with four red Xs in the hangar at Ouxford
GLOSTER "GREBES" FOR NEW ZEALAND: This photograph shows the first of a batch of the latest type "Jaguar"-engined "Grebes" ordered by the New Zealand Government from the Gloster Aircraft Co.
GLOSTER "GREBES" FOR NEW ZEALAND: These three photographs show the two-seater Gloster "Grebe." Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" engine, of which a batch has been ordered by the New Zealand Government.
A HUSTLER: One of the Gloster "Grebes" built for the New Zealand Air Force is here seen in flight, piloted by Capt. H. Saint.
THE KING'S CUP WINNER: Flight-Lieut. R. L. Atcherley ("Llewellyn") on the Gloster "Grebe" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar") entered by Sir Walter Preston, starting from Heston, and (inset) "crossing the line." The second "Grebe," with its entrant, the Hon. F. E. Guest, as passenger, and piloted by F./O. E. H. Fielden, is seen in the background.
The King's Cup Air Race: Flying Officer Atcherley (left) and his passenger in the Gloster "Grebe" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar") which was the first machine in at Glasgow on Section I of the race.
IN THE "FLY PAST" at the R.A.F. DISPLAY: The Gloucestershire "Gamecock" single-seater Fighter (400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter").
Gamecock prototype (J7947) had faired Jupiter IV and Grebe-type fin and rudder.
R.A.F. Gamecock I of No.23 Squadron is shown with standard tail and extra centre-section and wing-tip bracing struts.
Gloster’s successor for the Grebe, evolved to an official specification in the mid-twenties, was the Gamecock, illustrated here in the markings of No 56 Squadron (No 43 Sqdn. ???). Only seven squadrons were equipped with Gamecocks.
A VERY NEAT ENGINE INSTALLATION: In the civilian version of the "Gloster Gamecock" no exhaust pipes are fitted, as the machine is not intended for night flying, and a cowl of very pleasing appearance is fitted. The "spinner" is in the form of a swelling of the propeller boss, and is built integral with it, only the small pointed nose-cap being a separate metal fitment. The undercarriage is of special oleo-damped type.
TWO BROTHERS: On the left the "Gloster Gamecock," with Bristol "Jupiter" engine, as supplied to the British Royal Air Force. On the right the civilian version, which will be used for demonstration purposes abroad. The absence of "whiskers," in the form of exhaust pipes, on the civilian "brother" results in a much cleaner appearance.
THE SERVICE SHARE OF THE MIDLAND PAGEANT: The Gloster "Gamecocks" (Bristol "Jupiter") from No. 43 (Fighter) Squadron, Tangmere, played a prominent part in the Pageant Programme. Our picture shows the machines parked.
THE HAMPSHIRE AIR PAGEANT: A few of the many machines that took part in the programme.
THE SASSOON CUP. The line-up of Siskins and Gamecocks representing 12 Fighter Squadrons.
The full complement of 12 Gloster Gamecocks (Jupiter engines) of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron at Kenley.
THE AIR DEFENCE EXERCISES: With No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron, Kenley. The top picture shows a few of the squadron's "Gamecocks" off duty for a few hours, while below is seen a scene immediately after an alarm was received. The Hucks starter got busy without delay.
On the left, Air Marshal Sir John M. Salmond, Air Officer Commanding-n-Chief, Air Defences of Great Britain, and Sir Philip Sassoon, Under-Secretary of State for Air, congratulating Pilot-Officer Montgomery on his victory in the race for the Sassoon Cup. On the right, P/O Montgomery and his fitter and rigger, Leading Aircraftsmen Jenkins and Price. Inset, the machines lined up for the start.
WINNING PILOTS AND MACHINES OF R.A.F. FIGHTER COMPETITION: (Right to Left) F/O C. H. Jones and F/O H. A. Purvis of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron who won on the Gloster "Gamecocks" (Jupiters) seen in flight and stationary.
"SISKIN" v. "GAMECOCK": The two types represented in the Sassoon Cup: The Gloster "Gamecock" (Bristol "Jupiter") piloted by Sergt. Freeman (Kenley)
THE SIR PHILIP SASSOON CUP RACE AT NORTHOLT: Three Gloster "Gamecocks" are here shown starting for the race.
THE HAMPSHIRE AIR PAGEANT: Event 3, Flying boat v. Land 'plane. Three Supermarine "Southampton" flew over the aerodrome, at which a formation of 5 Gloster "Gamecocks" ascended and chased them away.
THE MORNING'S PROGRAMME: 4, Start of the altitude race between "Gamecocks" and "Siskins."
MORE BRITISH AIRCRAFT FOR FINLAND: A Gloster "Gamecock" with "Jupiter" engine, one of a batch being built for the Finnish Air Force, being tested by Mr. Saint at the Gloster aerodrome at Brockworth.
WELL AWAY: This photograph of the civilian version of the "Gloster Gamecock" gives an excellent idea of the general lines. The engine is a Bristol "Jupiter."
The Gloster "Gamecock" (Bristol "Jupiter") Although not unlike the Gloster "Grebe" in general appearance, the "Gamecock" incorporates a number of special features, improvements, etc., to which, however, no reference may be made here. Apart from the fact that a Bristol "Jupiter" of the latest type, similar to that which flew 25,000 miles between Croydon and Bristol, is fitted, the "Gamecock" is remarkable for the convenient manner in which its various pieces of equipment are arranged so as to be easily accessible, a feature of the very greatest importance in service work. At present the only squadron equipped with "Gamecocks" is No. 23 (Fighter) squadron, Henlow.
STUNTING AT HENDON: The Gloster "Gamecock" resisting gravity over the aerodrome with the help of Flight-Lieut. Horniman.
"- TO PLOUGH AND SOW, TO LOOP AND ROLL -." Mr. J. W. Tomkins, a farmer of Apethorpe, Peterborough, Northants, is an aerobatics enthusiast and has bought himself an old Gloster Gamecock fighter and, from the R.A.F., a radial - which looks like an early Mercury or late Jupiter - for ?7. The whole outfit cost him ?25. Sword into ploughshare indeed!
AT BROCKWORTH AERODROME: These three photographs of the "Gloster Gamecock" with Bristol "Jupiter" engine show the machine during a test flight, piloted by Maurice Piercey.
Manoeuvrability is a feature of the "Gloster Gamecock" as well as its civilian version, the latter being shown in above photographs. The view of the machine in a steeply-banked turn gives a plan view, while in the inset the machine is seen in front elevation, which admirably illustrates the clean design.
GLOSTER "GAMECOCK": Single-seater Fighter, with Bristol "Jupiter" Engine.
SEEN AT THE HAMPSHIRE AIR PAGEANT: One of Service Events; Flight-Lieut. H. C. Calvey gives a demonstration of Eccentric flying;
WINNER OF THE SIR PHILIP SASSOON CUP: The photo shows Pilot-Officer A. H. Montgomery, of 32 Squadron, Kenley, crossing the finishing line in a Gloster "Gamecock" with Bristol "Jupiter" engine as winner of the race.
A Flight of No. 23 Fighter Squadron catches the Sidestrands of No. 101 B.S. at Andover.
REALISTIC BOMBING AT BIRMINGHAM: One of the R.A.F. Gloster "Gamecocks" bombing the hostile "tank" - a direct hit; Insert, an indirect hit - but not on the tank. This is a hole made by the nose cap of one of the bombs in the fuselage of the Imperial Airways Handley Page, which was busy taking up "joy-riders" during the Pageant.
Individual Aerobatics: Two Gamecocks from No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron gave a fine display.
THE MORNING'S PROGRAMME: 2, Duel between two Gloster "Gamecocks" from No. 23 (Fighter) squadron. The machines were piloted by F/O. F. F. Wilkinson and F O. H. C. G. Dauncey respectively.
THE MARCHIONESS OF TOWNSHEND'S AERIAL FETE: The mimic battle between the Gloucester "Gamecock" and the Vickers "Venture."
EVENT 2. INDIVIDUAL AEROBATICS: This was given by F./O's. C. H. Jones and H. A. Purvis (No. 23 Fighter Sq.) on Gloster-Jupiter Gamecocks. After diving towards each other (as shown below), they zoomed upwards and simultaneously executed the same evolution (as shown above).
THE "SET PIECE" AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: An attack by fighters and day bomber on a hostile aerodrome. The views show No. 43 Squadron (Gamecocks) attacking, at low altitude, with machine gun fire and light bombs.
SEEN AT THE HAMPSHIRE AIR PAGEANT: One of Service Events; Flight-Lieut. C. R. Smythe. F. O. C. W. Byas, and Sergt.-Pilot E. H. Wells, give some fine Stunting in Formation on Gloster "Gamecocks."
R.A.F. ITEM: Three R.A.F. Gloster "Gamecocks" flying low in formation. These machines played a prominent part in the Pageant.
THE SERVICE SHARE OF THE MIDLAND PAGEANT: The Gloster "Gamecocks" (Bristol "Jupiter") from No. 43 (Fighter) Squadron, Tangmere, played a prominent part in the Pageant Programme. Our picture shows three "Gamecocks" giving a demonstration of close formation flying
Hooton Air Pageant: Three Gloucester ''Gamecocks" of No.23 (Fighter) Squadron flying past the enclosures in very close formation. They gave a thrilling show of air fighting and aerobatics.
HAMPSHIRE AIR PAGEANT: The four R.A.F. Gloster "Gamecocks" flying in formation during their exhibition of drill at the Pageant, flown by Sqdr.-Ldr. C. N. Lowe, Flt.-Lieut. A. C. Collier, and Flying Officers N. A. P. Pritchett and H. C. O. Hayter.
THE SERVICE SIDE: Three Gloster "Gamecocks" of No. 23 Squadron gave a fine display of Aerobatics.
THE GLOSTER "GAMECOCK": For many years this type has been in use by R.A.F. Fighter Squadrons. It is still very popular for demonstrations and practising "Aerobatics." The engine is a "Jupiter."
Many years after the first historical flying meeting at Bournemouth in 1910, this popular resort again held a meeting, two events from which are shown here. On the left, seven machines are seen flying in a race, and on the right three R.A.F. "Gamecocks" give a display.
FORMATION-FLYING EXTRAORDINARY: During the Bournemouth Whitsun Meeting a flight of Gloster "Gamecocks" with Bristol "Jupiter" engines gave some wonderful exhibitions of stunting in formation. They are here seen taking off and carrying out various evolutions.
A FORMATION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES USED FOR INSTRUCTION AT THE CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL: From left to right, Gamecock, Atlas, Moth, III.F, Avro-Lynx, Siskin and Bulldog.
A MIXED GRILL: A formation of seven different types over Wittering, viz., "Gamecock," "Atlas," "Moth," "Fairey III F," "Avro-Lynx," "Siskin," and "Bulldog."
VICKERS "VIRGINIA": Night Bomber, with two Napier "Lion" Engines.
A "Virginia " stunting, while under it and in the background may be seen a "Gloster Gamecock."
Первым местом службы Бадера стала 23-я истребительная эскадрилья в Кенли, вооруженная бипланами Gloster Gamecock. Бадер проявил исключительное летное мастерство и был выбран для участия в демонстрационных полетах на авиационной выставке в Хендоне в 1931 году. На глазах у 170 000 зрителей Бадер продемонстрировал головокружительный высший пилотаж.
THE R.A.F. AT THE BIRMINGHAM PAGEANT: Pilots of No. 43 (Fighter) Squadron added considerably to the brightness of the meeting with their Gloster "Gamecocks" (Bristol "Jupiter"). From left to right are :- P./O. Leech; F./O. H. C. O. Hayter; Flight-Lieut. A. C. Collier; Wing Commander Tyssen, M.C.; Sqdn.-Ldr. C. N. Lowe, M.C., D.F.C.; and F./O. N. A. P. Pritchett.
FORE! Two views secured some little time ago of the "Gloster Gamecock II" with Bristol "Jupiter" engine at full speed. Our photographer is still with us.
THE "GLOSTER GAMECOCK II," Bristol "Jupiter" engine, in various attitudes of flight. The pilot on this occasion, some little time ago, was Flying Officer Howard J. T. Saint, D.S.C., chief test pilot to the Gloster Aircraft Company. He is seen in the inset.
AT THE SIGN OF THE SWASTIKA: Three views of a Gloster "Gamecock II" with Gnome-Rhone "Jupiter" engine recently acquired by the Finnish Air Force.
A Gamecock II in Finnish service.
The sample Gamecock GA-38 fitted with locally-designed skis, at the aircraft factory in Suomenlinna on March 9, 1928. Note the short fuselage of Mk I and later Mk II wings.
BRITISH MACHINES IN FINLAND: Finland's Gloster "Gamecock II," on skis.
GA-46 of ‘Lentosotakoulu ’ (Air Fighting School) at Kauhava in early 1943. This machine performed the last Gamecock flight in Finland on July 22, 1944, when it ended up on its back after a landing accident.
GA-43 of ‘Lentolaivue’ 24 under light camouflage netting at Utti during the November 1934 exercises held at ‘Lentoasema’ 1. The aircraft had an experimental splinter camouflage.
In late 1938 the Air Fighting School began to receive the Gamecocks. GA-58 at the Kauhava base on November 21, 1938. The aircraft is wearing standard colours and markings for the late 1930s.