Одноместный истребитель Grebe наряду с Hawker Woodcock и Armstrong Whitworth Siskin являлся истребителем, который рассматривался для обновления в межвоенный период парка британских ВВС. Самолет был спроектирован на базе опытного биплана Grouse. Потенциал
данной машины был настолько высок, что Министерство авиации провело его оценочные испытания. По весьма обнадеживающим результатам этих испытаний были заказаны три прототипа. Первым стал прототип Grebe, который получил обозначение Grebe Mk I. Машина оснащалась одним двигателем Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar III мощностью 325 л.с. После оценочных испытаний данного прототипа тут же был выдан заказ на запуск в серию самолета на базе второго прототипа Grebe Mk II, в конструкцию которого внедрили ряд усовершенствований, включая шасси с управляемым хвостовым костылем и более мощный двигатель Jaguar IV.
Королевские ВВС Великобритании получили около 120 экземпляров Grebe Mk II, среди которых были двухместные тренировочные самолеты с двойным управлением Grebe (Dual). Первый самолет был передан в строевую часть в октябре 1923 года. Самолет оставался на вооружении строевых частей британских ВВС почти пять лет, за это время некоторые машины приняли участие в программах испытательных полетов. Например, Grebe Mk II стал первым истребителем британских ВВС, достигшим максимальной скорости в 386 км/ч, а еще два самолета данного типа со специальными приспособлениями на верхнем крыле привлекались к экспериментальным запускам в воздухе с британского дирижабля R33. В 1928 году три самолета Grebe были приобретены Новой Зеландией и поставлены в национальные ВВС.
Gloster Grebe Mk II
Тип: одноместный истребитель
Силовая установка: один звездообразный ПД Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IV мощностью 400 л. с. (298 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 243 км/ч; набор высоты 6095 м - за 23 мин; практический потолок 7010 м; продолжительность полета 2 ч 45 мин
Масса: пустого 780 кг; максимальная взлетная 1189 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 8,94 м; длина 6,17 м; высота 2,82 м; площадь крыльев 23,60 мг
Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers вверху носовой части фюзеляжа
Flight, July 1923
Gothenburg International Aero Exhibition 1923
Gloucestershire Aircraft Company, Ltd., Cheltenham
THE Gloucestershire Aircraft Company, the constructors of the world-famous "Mars I," or "Bamel" racing machine, which holds the British speed record of 196-6 m.p.h., have two types of machines at Gothenburg, one on view in the exhibition itself, and the other giving actual flying demonstrations. Both machines are of recent design, for which Mr. H. P. Folland, who also designed the "Mars I," is responsible, and, as may be expected, possess several distinctive features.
The second machine, the "Grebe," which will be flying during the exhibition, has been designed as a high altitude fighting scout, embodying the special arrangement of high lift and medium lift wing sections, as in the "Grouse."
Having been designed at the request of the British Air Ministry it is not permitted to give full details, but it may be said that on actual flight trials the machine shows good improvement in performance at altitude, and, whilst having greater loading-carrying capacity, its manoeuvrability and general handling is a considerable improvement.
Amongst detail improvements the petrol system may be mentioned as being simplicity itself and quite fool-proof, and the tanks being mounted in the wings gives greater immunity from fire.
The general dimensions are :- Span, 29 ft.; length, 19 ft.; height, 9 ft.
The engine fitted is a 350 h.p. Siddeley "Jaguar."
Gloster Grebe был спроектирован Генри Фолландом на основе опытного самолета Grouse, также в новой машине заметно влияние и спроектированного им же SE.5. На рисунке - Grebe Mk II из британской 25-й эскадрильи.
The Gloucestershire "Grebe," a single-seater fighter scout, fitted with a 350 h.p. Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar." This machine will be flying during the Exhibition.
Gloucestershire "Grebe" (350 h.p. "Jaguar").
A NEW MACHINE AT THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: The Gloucester "Grebe," a single-seater fighter, fitted with a 350 h.p. Siddeley "Jaguar" engine.
THE KING'S CUP: The last three away. From right to left, Mr. George Robey's D.H.9 (450 Napier "Lion"), flown by Mr. A. J. Cobham, who came in second; Mr. J. D. Siddeley's Siddeley "Siskin" (325 Siddeley "Jaguar"), piloted by Mr. Frank T. Courtney, in whom was found the winner; Sir William Joynson-Hicks' Gloucestershire "Grebe" (325 Siddeley "Jaguar"), flown by Mr. L. L. Carter. This entry was the scratch machine.
THE GLOSTER HELE-SHAW BEACHAM VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER: On the left, a "close-up" view of the hub, blade roots, &c, on a Bristol "Jupiter VI." On the right, the propeller in flight on the same engine, in a Gloster "Grebe," piloted by Flying Officer H. J. Saint.
THE TWO SIDDELEY "JAGUAR"-ENGINED MACHINES READY TO GET AWAY: Left, the Gloucestershire "Grebe," the scratch machine, and, right, Mr. J.D.Siddeley's "Siskin," which was piloted to victory by Mr. Frank T. Courtney.
"THE CUCKOOS" (No. 25 FIGHTER SQUADRON): "Off in Eight Minutes." Pilots running to their Grebes on receipt of urgent order.
THE SIR PHILIP SASSOON CUP RACE AT NORTHOLT: Three Gloster "Grebes" are here shown starting for the race.
GLOSTER "GREBE": Single-seater Fighter, with Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" Engine.
A very excellent show: Two Gloster "Grebes" came over from Hawkinge during the meeting and gave a wonderful demonstration of evolutions in "formation." They are here seen about to return to their nest.
TAKING OFF BY FLIGHTS: In eight minutes exactly from receipt of the order the three flights of No. 25 Squadron were in the air
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: The first event of the afternoon was the Group Evolutions of six Fighter Squadrons (54 machines), one squadron of which (No. 32) is shown about to land.
PRACTISING FOR THE PAGEANT: A formation of Gloster "Grebes" with Armstrong-Siddeley Jaguar engine, setting out for a low-bombing contest at Duxford aerodrome.
No. 56 Fighter Squadron off on a mission
THE RETURN AND THE DISPERSE: No. 25 has accomplished its mission
"HALLO, MOSQUITOS! ALTER COURSE 16 POINTS OUTWARDS." - This was the command given by the King to No.25 Fighter Squadron, under Squadron-Leader A. H. Peck, by means of wireless during the squadron drill at the R.A.F. Display. We show above his Majesty speaking into the microphone, and also some of the formations carried out by the nine "Grebes." (1) "Flight Mass Line Abreast." (2) "Flight Mass Echelon to Port." (3) "Double Line Ahead" (immediately preceding the King's order). (4) "Line Abreast." (5) "Flight Mass Line Ahead."
AT THE R.A .F. DISPLAY: Four movements in the air drill by wireless carried out by No. 25 Squadron. Left (top) "Squadron"; (bottom) "Flight Mass Line Abreast." Right (top) executing a half-roll; (bottom) right about turn (via a loop).
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: Event No. 1 (afternoon) Group Evolutions by Six Fighter Squadrons (54 machines). Some of the evolutions. On the right (top) will be seen one Wing of three squadrons (Nos. 19, 29, and 41) in "Mass line ahead." Our camera was not large enough to get in all 54 machines.
FORMATION FLYING EXTRAORDINARY: Daily visitors to Lympne during the light 'plane competition were "Grebes," "Woodcocks" and "Gamecocks," whose evolutions were generally admired. Our photographs show these machines in various formations.
THE RETURN OF THE SCHNEIDER TEAM: The Armstrong-Whitworth "Argosy" of Imperial Airways, Ltd., arrives at Croydon aerodrome, escorted by six Gloster "Grebes" and a de Havilland 50. Considering the extremely gusty wind, the "Grebes" kept excellent formation.
THE RETURN AND THE DISPERSE: Letting off Steam. After breaking formation the pilots of No. 25 display a little individuality.
FIGHTING TACTICS AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: Event No. 6, an aerial combat between a Boulton and Paul "Bugle" twin-engined bomber, piloted by Sqdn.-Ldr. W. H. Longton, D.F.C., A.F.C., and two Gloucestershire "Grebe" single-seater fighters, piloted respectively by Flight-Lieut. H. A. Hammersley, M.C., and Flying Officer J. N. Boothman. In this display the bomber (in centre) put up an excellent defence.
FIGHTING TACTICS AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: In Event No.9 a demonstration of flight evolutions in aerial attack was given by three Siddeley ''Siskins'' (No. 41 Fighter Squadron), three Gloucestershire "Grebes" (No. 32 Fighter Squadron), and two Bristol Fighters (No.24 Communication Squadron), In the picture some of the "Siskins" and "Grebes" are seen opening the attack on one of the Bristol Fighters.
EVENT 9, AN AIR ATTACK ON LONDON: An "enemy" squadron of day-bombers (D.H.9's) are followed by another squadron of "enemy" machines (Vickers "Virginias" night-bombers), which are being attacked by defending single-seater fighters (Gloster "Grebes"), and one is seen "in flames."
EVENT G. "SERVICE SKYWRITING": One of the two Gloster Grebes which took part in an "illuminating" display of Individual Aerobatics, assisted by the Savage Skywriting apparatus. It is seen, with its column of orange smoke, executing a half-roll.
Links in the Chain: Three Martlesham pilots giving an exhibition of aerobatics with smoke.
MORE SMOKED AEROBATICS: THE FORMATION OF A HUGE SPIRAL
Another evolution by the same pilots mounted on Grebes.
MORE SMOKED AEROBATICS: A TRIPLE LOOP
AEROBATICS IN SMOKE: THE THREE "GREBES" FORMING "PRINCE OF WALES' FEATHERS." THE EFFECT OBTAINED BY USING COLOURED SMOKE (ORANGE AND WHITE) IS VERY MARKED.
AEROBATICS IN SMOKE: THE THREE "GREBES" FORMING "PRINCE OF WALES' FEATHERS." SIX PICTURES SHOW, FROM TOP TO BOTTOM, PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN THE MANOEUVRE
MORE SMOKED AEROBATICS: THE SIX VIEWS AGAIN SHOW PROGRESSIVE STAGES: THIS TIME IN THE FORMATION OF A WREATH OF INTERWOVEN ORANGE AND WHITE TRAILS.
AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: The Low-Bombing Competition. One of the Gloster "Grebes" of No. 19 Squadron makes a direct hit on the moving tank.
THE BIRMINGHAM AIR PAGEANT: One of the "Grebes" from No. 25 Squadron "converging" on the tank in the bombing attack.
H.R.H. THE INFANTE DON ALFONSO OF SPAIN VISITS THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE AIRCRAFT COMPANY: The photo shows the Infante Don Alfonso inspecting the Siddeley "Jaguar" engine of a Gloucestershire "Grebe."
H.M. AIR AIRCRAFT CARRIER, R.33: The British rigid airship, R.33, with two Gloster "Grebes" attached, just before ascending from Pulham on October 21.
The airship R.33 with her two Gloster Grebes, which were successfully flown-off and re-attached a number of times in 1926.
H.M. AIR AIRCRAFT CARRIER, R.33. The R.33 takes the air (with two Gloster "Grebes") once again after a year's rest. Inset, Major G. H. Scott, who was in command, and his second officer, Squad.-Leader R- Booth, in the control car.
Gloster Grebe beneath airship R33.
Lighter-than-air starting: Two Gloster Grebes suspended under the keel of R33 preparatory to being dropped from the airship in flight.
21 октября 1926г.: два доработанных истребителя Gloster Grebe на высоте 760 м выполнили отцепку от жесткого дирижабля R 33.
"LIGHTER-HEAVIER-THAN-AIR": A close-up of the R.33 (or part of same) and the two Gloster "Grebes." Each of the latter weighed over a ton, and were successfully launched from about 2,000 ft.
R.33 AS AIRCRAFT CARRIER: Two detail views showing the suspension of the Gloster "Grebes" from the airship's keel. Each machine was suspended by a central quick-release attachment to the top plane centre section, whilst three struts, two to the wings and one to the fuselage near the tail, served to prevent the machine oscillating. Note the flexible piping running from the keel to the side of the fuselage, which conveyed the mixture from the Bristol "Gas" starter (in airship) to the "Grebe's "Jaguar" engine.
"DROPPING THE PILOT" - NEW STYLE: One of the two Gloster "Grebes" carried by R.33 gets well away during the tests at Pulham last Thursday. Piloted by F/O Mackenzie-Richards, the "Grebe" fell about 100 ft. before complete control was obtained, when, opening out his engine - note the "prrrup" of smoke - the pilot made a half-roll and then flew away.
The first production Grebe II, this type entering RAF service in October 1923 and remaining first-line equipment until mid-1928.
The Gloster "Grebe" II (Armstrong Siddeley "Jaguar") For a long period one of the most popular single-seater fighters in the Royal Air Force, the Gloster "Grebe," is now being gradually superseded by a later type, the Gloster "Gamecock," but it is still being used in large numbers. It has a fairly thick section, high-lift top plane and a thin-section, high-speed lower plane. It is claimed that at top speed the upper wing carries nearly the whole load, so that monoplane efficiency is approached. The "Grebe" is used by the following squadrons: No. 19 (Fighter), Duxford; No. 25 (Fighter), Hawkinge; No. 29 (Fighter), Duxford; No. 32 (Fighter), Kenley; and No. 56 (Fighter), Biggin Hill.
THE GLOSTER "GREBE II," ARMSTRONG-SIDDELEY "JAGUAR" ENGINE: Front view.
THE GLOSTER "GREBE II": Three-quarter rear view.
The first significant fighter to enter service after the end of the war was the Gloster Grebe, shown here in the markings of No 56 Squadron. The Grebe was the first of a series of Gloster fighters which were in service with the RAF almost without interruption from 1923 to 1967.
No. 29 Squadron Gloster Grebe J7381 marked with four red Xs in the hangar at Ouxford
GLOSTER "GREBES" FOR NEW ZEALAND: This photograph shows the first of a batch of the latest type "Jaguar"-engined "Grebes" ordered by the New Zealand Government from the Gloster Aircraft Co.
GLOSTER "GREBES" FOR NEW ZEALAND: These three photographs show the two-seater Gloster "Grebe." Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" engine, of which a batch has been ordered by the New Zealand Government.
A HUSTLER: One of the Gloster "Grebes" built for the New Zealand Air Force is here seen in flight, piloted by Capt. H. Saint.
THE KING'S CUP WINNER: Flight-Lieut. R. L. Atcherley ("Llewellyn") on the Gloster "Grebe" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar") entered by Sir Walter Preston, starting from Heston, and (inset) "crossing the line." The second "Grebe," with its entrant, the Hon. F. E. Guest, as passenger, and piloted by F./O. E. H. Fielden, is seen in the background.
The King's Cup Air Race: Flying Officer Atcherley (left) and his passenger in the Gloster "Grebe" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar") which was the first machine in at Glasgow on Section I of the race.
"AFTER YOU WITH THAT TANK!" One of the most thrilling events seen at this year's R.A.F. Display at Hendon was the demonstration of Low Bombing by three Gloucestershire "Grebes" from No. 25 Fighter Squadron, and three Siddeley "Siskins" from No.41 Fighter Squadron. Instead of the machines diving on to their target - a stranded Tank - one after another from the same direction, they maintained a continuous attack, swooping down in rapid succession from all directions, with, apparently, only a matter of yards separating each machine, and releasing their bombs from about 50 ft. without the use of bombsights or such-like gadgets. The picture by Charles Dickson, gives one an excellent impression of this wonderful "criss-crossing" manoeuvre by the machines.
SOME "GLOSTER" CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS: 1 shows the tail-plane support and elevator crank as well as fittings for the stern-post, etc., of the "Grebe." In 2 are seen the gravity petrol tanks, mounted in the top plane, the petrol cocks being within reach of the pilot from his cockpit. The fuel flows to a distributor (shown last week) which enables fuel to be taken from either or both tanks. The ailerons of the Gloster "Grebe'' and "Grouse" are operated, as regards the lower flaps, by a crank of the form shown in 3, which is mounted on a specially strengthened rib, and from which tie rods run to the controls, while a steel tube runs to the aileron crank, as shown in 4. The movement is transmitted to the top ailerons by struts, the attachment for which is shown inset in 4.
The Grebe II was the first Gloster aeroplane produced in substantial numbers for RAF service.
Gloster "Grebe II" Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" Engine