Bristol Bloodhound / Type 84
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1923


Двухместный истребитель
Описание:
Bristol Type 84 Bloodhound
Flight, July 1924
THE BRISTOL "BLOODHOUND"
Фотографии

Bristol Type 84 Bloodhound

Одной из целей фирмы "Bristol" при проектировании самолета Type 52 Bullfinch было создание машины, которую можно превратить в двухместный истребитель-разведчик для замены F.2B Fighter. После неудачи с двухместным Bullfinch, самолет F.2B продолжал обеспечивать загрузку производственных мощностей "Bristol" большую часть 1920-х годов. Но еще в октябре 1921 года Министерство авиации выпустило спецификацию 3/21 на самолет для замены F.2B с двигателем Napier Lion. В соответствии с этими требованиями были спроектированы два биплана и один моноплан. Но "Bristol" была против использования "чужого" двигателя и, в конце концов, договорилась с Министерством о создании проекта самолета с мотором Jupiter. Проекты биплана и моноплана, представленные заказчику в мае 1922 года, не имели успеха. Однако в июне 1922 года была выпущена новая спецификация 3/22 на двухместный истребитель с двигателем, оснащенным турбонагнетателем. Наиболее подходящим считался мотор Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar, уже имевший такое устройство. Но глава моторного отдела "Bristol" Рой Федден утверждал, что при использовании в качестве топлива спирта или повышении степени сжатия Jupiter будет развивать такую же мощность до высоты 3050 м при меньших стоимости, массе и сложности силовой установки.
  В июле 1922 года "Bristol" представила проекты биплана Fighter "С" и моноплана Fighter "D", а в октябре решила построить биплан в инициативном порядке. Тогда Министерство авиации заказало три прототипа, оснащенных двигателями с турбонагнетателями. Один из них имел цельнометаллический каркас, а у двух других конструкция несущих поверхностей была деревянной и предусматривала замену бипланной коробки на одно цельнометаллическое крыло.

  Федден предлагал Уилфреду Рейду, главному конструктору фирмы, использовать двигатель Orion, дальнейшее развитие Jupiter с турбонагнетателем. Этот мотор развивал мощность 400 л.с. (298 кВт) на высоте 4570 м, но до установки его на самолет дело не дошло. В феврале 1923 года проект Fighter "С" получил официальное имя Bloodhound, а позднее - фирменное обозначение Type 84. Прототип совершил первый полет в мае 1923 года, и вскоре его оснастили вертикальным оперением увеличенной площади. В конце июня "Bristol" получила заказ на три Bloodhound для участия в сравнительных испытаниях, проводимых Королевскими ВВС, где их соперниками должны были стать истребители Hawker Duiker, Armstrong Whitworth Wolf и de Havilland Dormouse.
  У прототипа Bloodhound имелся ряд незначительных проблем, и Барнуэлл, в октябре 1923 года вернувшийся на фирму, доработал его конструкцию. Была улучшена устойчивость и управляемость машины, а пилот получил больший обзор. Максимальная скорость самолета составляла 209 км/ч, и в январе 1924 года он был передан на официальные испытания. Три Bloodhound, заказанные Министерством авиации, в основном соответствовали по конструкции прототипу.
  В отчете испытателей из Мартлешем Хит указывалось, что, хотя Dormouse имел более высокие летные характеристики, Bloodhound отличался великолепной маневренностью и лучше подходил для роли истребителя. Но конструкция из стальных труб была признана неподходящей для серийных самолетов, и дальнейших заказов не последовало. Самолеты затем использовали для участия в гонках и испытаний различных вариантов двигателей Jupiter. Но самым заметным вкладом машины в британское авиастроение стали ресурсные испытания Jupiter, прошедшие столь успешно, что этот двигатель был принят в эксплуатацию компанией "Imperial Airways".


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Bristol Type 84 Bloodhound

  Тип: двухместный истребитель
  Силовая установка: один радиальный двигатель Bristol Jupiter IV мощностью 425 л. с. (317 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 209 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; время набора высоты 3050 м -14 мин 21 с; потолок 6705 м; продолжительность полета 3 ч
  Масса: пустого 1141 кг; максимальная взлетная 1921 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 12,24 м; длина 8,08 м; высота 3,25 м; площадь крыла 45,89 м2
  Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers в носовой части фюзеляжа и один 7,7-мм пулемет Lewis на турели в задней кабине

Flight, July 1924

THE BRISTOL "BLOODHOUND"
An All-Metal Two-Seater Fighter, with "Jupiter" Engine

  MANY interesting features are incorporated in the design and construction of the Bristol "Bloodhound," one of the latest types to be produced by the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., of Filton, Bristol. Unfortunately, Air Ministry restrictions do not allow of referring to this machine in anything like as much detail as one could have wished, and in fact little may be said that is not fairly evident from an examination of the accompanying photographs.
  The Bristol "Bloodhound" is mainly remarkable for two things, as regards general design. One is that it is an all-metal machine, with the exception of the covering; the other is the somewhat unusual wing form. With regard to the former it is not permissible to go into details concerning the particular form of metal construction employed, but as one would expect from a Bristol machine the "Bloodhound" is of very sturdy construction and of excellent workmanship.
  Intended for reconnaissance or fighting, the "Bloodhound" is a two-seater tractor biplane with Bristol "Jupiter" engine. In order to provide a good view and field of fire for both pilot and gunner the wing arrangement is somewhat unusual, and incorporates a feature that has not, we believe, been seen on any modern machine, at any rate in such marked degree. We are referring to the sweep-back or "arrow" formation of the wings. The early German aeroplanes, it will be remembered, were often characterised by this feature, but of recent years the straight wing appears to have superseded the arrow type entirely in this country.
  In France the arrow wing is still found on some machines, notably in the Spad-Herbemonts, in which the top plane is swept back, while the bottom plane is straight. In the early days the reason for adopting the arrow plan form was usually an attempt at obtaining stability, and those who were interested in flying during 1911-12 or so will remember one British machine, the Dunne, in which the angle of sweep-back was very pronounced, so much so that no tail was fitted, the ailerons, when operated together, performing the duties of an elevator. Nowadays designers obtain stability by other means, and when the arrow plan form is employed the reason is usually something other than stability. In the case of the Bristol "Bloodhound" the arrow formation was chosen in order to give the occupants a better view. The fact that both top and bottom planes are swept back has enabled both pilot and gunner to be placed aft of the wings, the former with his head in line with the chord line of the top centre section, and the latter aft of the trailing edge. Cut-outs in top and bottom trailing edges further improve the view, and it would be difficult to imagine a design of this type with smaller "blind areas" than has the "Bloodhound." Thus whether the machine is used as a two-seater fighter or as a reconnaissance machine the view is excellent and a free field obtained for guns, bombs or camera.
  Apart from the sweep-back of the planes, the wing structure is unusual, inasmuch as the system of bracing adopted is one in which there is no wire bracing in the inner bay. Top and bottom centre sections are joined by streamline steel tube struts, and the lift is taken by two relatively short struts on each side, running to the fuselage. The inter-plane struts are steadied by short horizontal struts to the fuselage. The outer bay is of orthodox form, with streamline wire bracing.
  The undercarriage is remarkable for the very wide wheel track. This is obtained by attaching the undercarriage vees to the lower plane centre-section, the axles being hinged under the floor of the fuselage. The shock-absorbing gear is in the form of steel springs and oil damper, so that when the machine is used in tropical countries there is no rubber to require attention and frequent renewal. The landing loads are, of course, transmitted to the fuselage by the short sloping struts.
  The Bristol "Jupiter" engine is partly cowled-in, but it will be observed that no spinner is fitted over the propeller boss. The fuselage covering just behind the engine is aluminium, but for the rest of the machine fabric covering is used. 104 gallons of petrol are carried, the petrol system including centrifugal pumps, a hand-operated pump and a gravity tank. The oil tank contains 15 gallons. The armament includes two Vickers' machine guns with CC gear, for the pilot, and one Lewis gun for the gunner, whilst there is stowage space for 1,600 rounds of ammunition for the Vickers gun and seven double ammunition drums for the gunner. Fittings are also provided for the carriage of bombs, electrical generator and accumulators, the necessary identification and landing lights, Verey pistol and ammunition, oxygen apparatus, fire extinguishers and instrument-board lighting.
  All control surfaces are balanced, the elevator and rudder by horn balances and the ailerons by being pivoted some little distance behind their leading edge, so that the machine is exceptionally light and powerful on her controls. It is regretted that performance figures may not be published, nor any data relating to the weight and load of the machine, but the Bristol "Bloodhound" combines a very good performance with her free field of vision, and should be a valuable addition to any country's service machines.
Увеличив поперечное V крыла и немного отклонив ось тяги двигателя, Барнуэлл сумел существенно улучшить устойчивость и управляемость Bloodhound.
AFTER 25,074 MILES: The Bristol "Bloodhound" in which the "Jupiter" was installed for the endurance tests. This machine, although some three years old, is still going strong, and it is interesting to record that it is the prototype of the latest "Bloodhounds."
BRISTOL TYPE 84 BLOODHOUND - The Bloodhound was an experimental two-seat fighter biplane of composite wood and metal construction. powered by a 436-h.p. Bristol Jupiter V engine. It first flew on 8th June, 1925, and although it did not go into production was subsequently used for various engine tests, and in 1926 made a series of flights between Filton and Croydon totalling 25,074 miles in a flying time of 225 hours 54 minutes, without any engine parts having to be changed. Span, 40 ft.. length, 26 ft. 6 ins. Weight loaded, 4,236 lb. Speed, 122 m.p.h.
A REMARKABLE ENDURANCE TEST: The Bristol "Bloodhound," fitted with a Bristol "Jupiter" engine, which has been carrying out a series of endurance flights between Filton (Bristol) and Croydon since January 4. So far it has been in the air for 77 hr. 15 min., and has covered 8,595 miles.
London-Cairo with a "Jupiter": The Bristol "Bloodhound," Col. Minchin, and Mr. Mayer at Croydon before the flight commenced.
LONDON-CAIRO WITH A "JUPITER": The Bristol "Bloodhound" at Athens.
The Bristol "Bloodhound," entered by Sir G. Stanley White, is an all-metal biplane with 400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter" engine. It will be piloted by Mr. T. W. Campbell.
The Bristol "Bloodhound" is a two-seater fighter, built entirely of metal. Note the back-swept wings. The engine is a Bristol "Jupiter."
THE GEARED BRISTOL "JUPITER" AT HOME: The Series VIII geared engine which, installed in a Bristol "Bloodhound" biplane, successfully accomplished a 150-hrs.' flying test
ONE OF THREE BRISTOL MACHINES ENTERED FOR THE LYMPNE MEETING: The "Bloodhound," with 400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter" engine.
LONDON-CAIRO WITH A "JUPITER": Filling up with "Shell" at Pisa.
LONDON-CAIRO WITH A "JUPITER": Left, filling up with "Shell" at Sollum, an operation somewhat difficult of accomplishment, and, right, a first taste of Egyptian coffee.
London-Cairo with a "Jupiter": Willing helpers haul the "Bloodhound" out of the sand into which its wheels had sunk when alighting at Mersa Mathruh.
THE KING'S CUP: Some of the first day's starters. 4, T. W. Campbell well away on the Bristol "Bloodhound."
Campbell on the Bristol "Bloodhound."
THE BRISTOL "JUPITER" ENDURANCE TEST: Our photo shows the Bristol "Bloodhound" biplane fitted with a sealed "Jupiter" engine, arriving at Croydon, from Filton, on February 25. Since January 4, when the test started, the machine has been making daily trips between these two points, and no engine replacements have yet been made so far. On Tuesday over 200 hours' flying had been completed and over 22,500 miles flown.
HEADING FOR POSTLING: The Bristol "Bloodhound," and the Sopwith "Gnu," approaching the aerodrome turning point.
AN EXTRA TURN AT THE KING'S CUP RACE: An S.E.5 (Savage Sky-Writing) and a Bristol "Bloodhound" put up some smart banking during the impromptu race at Hendon last Saturday.
London - Cairo with a "Jupiter": A view in the Alps, near the Mount Cenis Pass.
SOME OF THE LARGER MACHINES AT LYMPNE: From left to right, the Avro-Lynx, Bristol "Lucifer," Bristol "Bloodhound," S.E.5, Sopwith "Gnu," A.D.C.l, and a sky-writing S.E.5.
TABLE-TOP AERONAUTICS: This is a photograph of Toydon Aerodrome, showing in the foreground an Avro 504K and behind a Bristol "Bloodhound." It is the work of Mr. R. S. Allon of South Woodford, the machines being constructed - with the help of "Flight" scale drawings - to a scale of 1/4 in. to the foot out of cardboard. Unfortunately we cannot recognise the pilot standing outside the "Trust House." Our readers will, we think, agree that it is all quite realistic.
A FEW DETAILS AT LYMPNE: 3. The unusual aileron crank and pulley arrangement on the Bristol "Bloodhound."