Семейство самолетов Farman F.190
F.190 стал самым популярным подкосным кабинным монопланом во Франции конца 1920-х - начала 1930-х годов, он использовался как туристский и аэротакси. Прототип F.190 выполнил первый полет в 1928 году. Закрытая кабина летчика размещена в носке крыла, за ней
находится салон для четырех пассажиров. Доступ в кабину осуществляется через дверь в правом борту, расположенную сразу за креслом пилота. Шасси с широкой колеей и с хвостовой лыжей обеспечило безопасную эксплуатацию с плохо подготовленных полевых аэродромов. Хвостовое оперение типично для "Farman". Конструкция - главным образом деревянная, обшивка изготовлена из фанеры и полотна. Построены не менее ста F.190 всех вариантов, более половины от этого количества приходится на исходную модель с одним звездообразным мотором Gnome-Rhone 5Ва. Санитарный вариант F.197S (Sanitaire) позволял перевозить двух больных на носилках и одного медицинского работника. F.190 покупались частными лицами и мелкими компаниями во Франции и других странах. Основным эксплуатантом стала компания "Farman", закупившая 14 самолетов, парк "Air Union" включал семь самолетов. Среди других французских эксплуатантов можно отметить "Air Orient" и "Air Afrique". С образованием в 1933 году "Air France" к ней отошло 15 самолетов F.190. На экспорт самолеты поставлялись в компании CIDNA из Праги и LARES из Будапешта.
Базовая модель выпускалась в вариантах с моторами разного типа, что нашло отражение в обозначениях: F.192 с 230-сильным Salmson 9Ab, F.193 с 230-сильным Farman 9Еа, F.194 с мотором Hispano-Suiza 6Mb мощностью 250 л. с., F.197 с 240-сильным Lorraine 7Ме, F.198 с 250-сильным Renault 9А и F.199 с мотором Lorraine 9Na мощностью 325 л. с.
Тип: пятиместный пассажирский самолет
Силовая установка: один звездообразный ПД Gnome-Rhone 5Ва мощностью 230 л. с. (172 кВт)
Летные характеристики: макс. скорость на уровне моря 185 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 160 км/ч; практический потолок 5150 м; дальность 850 км
Масса: пустого 926 кг; максимальная взлетная 1800 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 14,40 м; длина 10,45 м; высота 3,00 м; площадь крыла 40,20 м2
Flight, July 1928
THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1928
The Farman Machines
Designed for "family touring" or light commercial work, the Farman F.190 is a high-wing strut braced monoplane of the popular American type, with conduite interieure, and seating accommodation for four passengers. The engine is one of the new Gnome-Rhone 230-h.p. "Titan" models. This little machine is of very neat and clean appearance, and should have a variety of uses. Its main dimensions are: Span, 14 m. (45 ft. 11 in.); length, 10 m. (32 ft. 10 in.); wing area, 39m.2 (420 sq. ft). Tare weight, 750 kg. (1,650 lb.); fuel, 300 kg. (660 lb.); useful load, 550 kg. (1,210 lb.). Total loaded weight, 1,600 kg. (3,520 lb.). Maximum speed, 185 km./h. (115 m.p.h.); absolute ceiling, 5,400 m. (17,700 ft.). Normal range, 800 km. (500 miles). The ratio of load carried, to tare weight is remarkable, i.e., 1-13, and one rather wonders how such a low structure weight is attained with a monoplane wing.
Flight, October 1928
THE BERLIN AERO SHOW 1928
The Farman F.190
As it was exhibited at the Paris Show in July, there is little need to give here a very detailed description of the Farman F.190 "Family Touring" or small passenger machine. It is, however, interesting to learn from the Farman representative on the French stand at the I.L.A. that the machine has now been flight tested, and that as a result of these tests seven machines have been ordered, thus marking in a small way the beginning of mass production.
The Farman F. 190 is a high-wing, strut-braced monoplane mainly of wood construction, and fitted with one of the new Gnome-Rhone 230 h.p. "Titan" engines. The machine is of very neat appearance, and quite small and compact for its normal load of pilot and four passengers. The wing has a span of 14 m. (45 ft. 11 in.) and an area of 39 sq. m. (420 sq. ft.). The tare weight is 750 kg. (1,650 lbs.), and the permissible load of 850 kg. (1,870 lbs.) may be made up of 300 kg. (660 lbs.) of fuel and oil and 550 kg. (1,210 lbs.) of useful load in the form either of pilot and four passengers or pilot and freight to the equivalent weight. The ratio of useful load to tare weight is astonishing if these figures are correct. One almost suspects that the 1,210 lbs. of useful load must represent an overload, and that the normal useful load is much smaller. For instance, the weight of pilot and four passengers, assuming each to weigh 160 lbs., would only amount to 800 lbs. The top speed is given as 185 km. 'h. (115 m.p.h.), and the absolute ceiling as 5,400 m. (17,700 ft). With the amount of fuel quoted, the range is stated to be 800 km. (500 miles).
Flight, June 1929
OLYMPIA AERO SHOW 1929
The Farman F. 190
This machine was first shown in public at the last Paris Aero Show. Since then it has been adopted by several air routes in France, and also the type has a number of notable flights to its credit, of which it will suffice if we mention the flight from Paris to Indo-China in 10 days, piloted by M. Bailly. The Farman F.190 can be equipped with various power plants of 230/250 h.p. At Olympia it is shown with the Gnome-Rhone "Titan" of 230 h.p.
The F.190 is mainly of wood construction, and is a high-wing strut-braced monoplane. The two wing-halves are attached to the top longerons of the fuselage, and are braced from the bottom longerons by sloping struts of duralumin. The attachment of the undercarriage is very neat: A bent axle and a radius rod on each side are hinged to the lower longerons. The telescopic strut is attached, at its upper end, to the front wing bracing strut, and the side load on the latter is avoided by running a strut from this point to the front spar at the point where the latter meets the top of the fuselage. The whole structure is thus triangulated, and this is accomplished with the smallest number of struts possible.
Another feature of the Farman F.190, which is not, however, evident from external inspection, is the extraordinarily low tare weight, and ratio of gross weight to tare weight. This results in a machine very economical to operate. Although having accommodation for pilot and three passengers, the F.190 weighs empty but fully equipped with seats, etc., 950kg. (2,100 lbs.). The permissible gross weight is 1,688 kg. (3,700 lbs), which leaves 1,600 lbs. for disposable load. According to range desired and load carried, this may vary in its composition, but a typical division is the following: Pilot, 80 kg. (175 lbs.), fuel and oil, 220 kg. (485 lbs.). This leaves a pay load of 438 kg. (960 lbs.), and as the range with this quantity of fuel is 850 km. (530 miles) such a pay load is unusually good (more than 4 lbs. h.p.) for a machine of this class.
The main dimensions of the Farman F.190 are: Length o.a., 10 m. (32-8 ft.); wing span, 14-1 m. (46 ft.); wing area, 40 sq. m. (430 sq. ft.).
Near the ground the machine has a full speed of 185 km./h. (112-5 m.h.p.). At 3,000 ft. the speed is 183 km.h. (111 m.p.h.), and at 2,000 m. (6,600 ft.) the speed is 178 km./h. (110 m.p.h.). The climb to 6,600 ft. occupies 17 mins. 48 secs. The cruising speed is 100 m.p.h., and the minimum speed 50 m.p.h.
Flight, October 1933
THE FARMAN 390
A Cabin Machine for Pilot and Three Passengers
FARMAN BROS, have recently produced a new Cabin Monoplane, called the Farman 390. It has been designed to incorporate the improvements derived from the experience gained by the Farman 190, and to furnish the maximum comfort for tourist flying.
It is a high-wing monoplane capable of carrying three passengers. The fuselage is constructed of wood covered with plywood. The cabin is 7 ft. 9 in. in length, 3 ft. 4 in. in width, and 4 ft. 9 in. high; it is fitted with a skylight and a large lateral sliding window on each side. One of the passengers sits beside the pilot on a swivel seat and the other two behind, side by side. The walls of the cabin are lined with a specially prepared light rubber material, of about an inch in thickness, which deadens the noise of the engine and allows the passengers to converse without inconvenience. The cabin is also cooled by a series of intakes leading from the wings, and can be warmed in cold weather by pipes heated from the exhaust.
The wings are constructed of wood and covered with fabric. They are joined on each side to a centre section, which forms part of the roof of the cabin, and they are braced in addition by oblique struts, two on either side, attached to the lower part of the fuselage. These struts are constructed of duralumin and encased in a streamlined covering of wood. The fuel tanks, of a capacity of 30 gall., are installed in the wings. The undercarriage is of semi-cantilever construction composed of duralumin struts, also encased in streamlined coverings and fastened to the wing struts and the fuselage. It has a track of 9 ft. 9 in., and is fitted with Farman oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. The wheels, which are covered with fairings, are equipped with brakes and low-pressure balloon tyres.
The 390 has been designed so that it can be equipped with either the new Farman 150-h.p. seven-cylinder engine, or the 220-h.p. nine-cylinder. The valves and rocker arms of these engines are covered with hoods which prevent the oil spray being thrown against the cabin windows or the pilot's windscreen. A four-bladed propeller fitted to a reduction gear (ratio 2-1) has been found to give the highest efficiency. The petrol consumption of the machine, when fitted with either of these two engines, is about 12 gall, to the mile.
Length 32 ft. 6 in.
Wing spread 45 ft. 10 in.
Height 9 ft. 9 in.
Wing surface 422 sq. ft. 5 sq.
Weight (empty) 2,200 lb.
Weight (loaded) 3,520 lb.
Performance. 150 h.p. engine.; 220 h.p. engine.
Maximum speed 109 125
Cruising speed 92 109
Landing speed 31 31
Flight radius 750 ml. 750 ml.
(The 220 h.p. engine weighs 132 lb. more than the 150 h.p. engine.)
Flight, November 1934
THE FOURTEENTH PARIS AERO SHOW
THE EXHIBITS DESCRIBED
Large Civil Machines
The last machine to be included in the "larger civil" category is the Farman 393. This is the latest model of the well-known high-wing monoplane with the Farman 190 h.p. engine, and seats five passengers not including the pilot. Machines of this type have flown all over the world, as, for example, to Saigon piloted by Vicomte de Sibour.
ONE TYPE IN THE TOUR OF FRANCE: The Farman 190 (230 h.p. Titan), of which two were entered.
COMMERCIAL TYPE OF AIRCRAFT AT THE PARIS SHOW: The small Farman four-passenger monoplane
The Farman 190 (240 h.p. Lorraine) on which M. D'Estailleur Chauteraine made a Flight Round Africa.
It was on a similar type of machine to this, fitted with a 300-h.p. Lorraine engine, that Goulette and Salel accomplished their flight from Paris to Cape Town in 3 3/4 days.
The winner of the Cup for the second arrival was M. Seligman, who with Mme. Seligman flew over from Paris in this Farman 198 (Renault 215).
INTERESTING MACHINE AT ORLY: The "Marcel Lalouette" Farman 190 used by Goulette and Salel in their Paris-Cape flight.
ONE OF FOUR FARMANS EXHIBITED: The F.190 which flew to Indo-China in record time.
Больше чем на половине всех самолетов серии F.190 стояли моторы Titan, другие варианты встречались реже. На снимке - F.198.
The scene near the Dubendorf terminal building on the opening day of the meeting. The Farman in the middle distance brought over Mlle. Deutsch de la Meurthe. On Sunday some 75,000 people were at the airport and Swissair had to turn joyriders away.
A batch of Farman F 190's, used on the French flights between France and Madagascar.
TO THE LAST DROP: Measuring the fuel left in the tanks of one of the Farman machines.
MAROONED IN THE SAHARA: The three French pilots (left to right) Touge, Reginensi and Lenier and their Farman monoplane just before they started out from Le Bourget on a flight to Madagascar. As previously reported they were forced down in the Sahara and were "lost" for several days.
On the French stand: In the foreground the Nieuport-Delage commercial monoplane. In the extreme corner, a wing tip of the Potez 32. In the centre, the old Breguet "Nungesser-Coli." To the right of that the small Farman monoplane. And at the back, the Bleriot 111 and the fuselage of the Farman twin-engined machine.
The Farman F. 190 in flight.
THE FARMAN 390: A Cabin Machine for Pilot and Three Passengers
A peep into the little Farman four-passenger monoplane. Note the method of raising and lowering the window.
Looking into the Cabin of the Farman F. 190.
Undercarriage leg attachment on the Farman F.190