Gloster Goral
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1927

Единственный экземпляр
Двухместный многоцелевой самолет
Gloster Goral
Flight, July 1927

Gloster Goral

В первое десятилетие после окончания Первой мировой войны британское Министерство авиации не имело достаточно средств для закупки новых самолетов. Когда к 1927 году стало ясно, что требуется заменить не удовлетворявшие требованиям времени самолеты, Министерство потребовало от разработчиков поставить такой боевой самолет, который мог бы одновременно использоваться и как многоцелевой (общего назначения). Была подготовлена спецификация 26/27 на разработку замены Airco/de Havilland D.H.9A, поступившего на вооружение еще в 1918 году, согласно которой "Gloster Aircraft Company" спроектировала многоцелевой самолет Gloster G.22 Goral. Одним из главных требований спецификации было использование как можно большего количества деталей и узлов от D.H.9A - поскольку на складах ВВС еще имелось значительное количество запчастей к D.H.9A. Предложенный "Gloster" самолет представлял собой обычный биплан с бипланной коробкой, как у D.H.9A, с металлическим фюзеляжем с полотняной обшивкой, имел расчалочное хвостовое оперение и неубирающееся шасси с хвостовым костылем. Самолет оснащался звездообразным поршневым двигателем Bristol Jupiter VIA; первый прототип, J8673, поднялся в воздух 8 февраля 1927 года. Его соперниками по тендеру выступали самолеты компаний "Armstrong Whitworth", "Bristol", "de Havilland", "Fairey", "Vickers" и "Westland". Победителем в тендере стала последняя компания, что было не удивительно - ранее она построила по заказу Министерства авиации 390 самолетов D.H.9A, а после окончания Первой мировой войны и во время проведения тендера отвечала за техобслуживание находящихся на вооружении D.H.9. В итоге компания получила контракт на поставку ВВС и на экспорт более 560 самолетов Westland Wapiti, созданных на базе D.H.9A. Впрочем, "Gloster" в стороне от данного контракта не осталась - ее дочерняя компания "Steel Wing Company" получила подряд на поставку более 500 комплектов цельнометаллических крыльев для Wapiti.


  Gloster Goral

  Тип: двухместный многоцелевой самолет
  Силовая установка: один девятицилиндровый звездообразный ПД Bristol Jupiter VIA мощностью 425 л. с. (317 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 1525 м - 219 км/ч; практический потолок 6555 м; дальность 1207 км
  Масса: пустого 1268 кг; максимальная взлетная 2014 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 14,20 м; длина 9,60 м; высота 3,45 м; площадь крыльев 45,89 м2
  Вооружение: один фиксированный стреляющий вперед 7,7-мм пулемет Vickers и один 7,7-мм пулемет Lewis на шкворневой установке в задней кабине, плюс возможность монтажа подкрыльевых узлов для подвески до 209 кг бомб

Flight, July 1927

Bristol "Jupiter" or Siddeley "Jaguar" Engines

  So accustomed has one become to think of the Gloster Aircraft Co., Ltd., as producers of single-seater fighters only that one is apt to lose sight of the fact that a good many other types have been designed and built by that firm. That Mr. H. P. Folland, chief designer and engineer of the company, has specialised on single-seaters is, perhaps, not surprising when one remembers how closely he has been associated with that type for many years, from the old S.E.5 of the Royal Aircraft Factory (as it then was), through the various British Nieuport "Nighthawks" and Gloster "Goshawks," "Grebes," "Gamecocks," "Gorcocks," etc., not to mention the single-seater racers, aeroplanes, and Schneider Cup seaplanes, bearing the Gloster name. There is thus good excuse for linking the name of Gloster with the single-seater type of machine. It is, however, just as well not to overlook the fact that while specialising on the small, fast machine, the Gloster Company has not done so to the exclusion of very different types. For instance, it may be recalled that some five or six years ago Mr. Folland designed a freight aeroplane which in many ways was much ahead of its time, and had features which to this day have not yet been put into practice. More recently he designed a modern goods carrier with a very high pay load for its power, while of service types one may recall the "Goring" general purpose machine and the "Goral" two-seater reconnaissance and bombing machine. There are others to which no reference may be made, but sufficient has been said to indicate that, when the demand arises, the Gloster Aircraft Company is prepared and able to produce an aircraft of any type.
  The subject of these notes is the Gloster "Goral," a two seater reconnaissance and bombing machine fitted with air-cooled engine. Owing to the fact that it is a service machine and is still on the "Part publication" list, it is not permissible to say much about it, other than what may be gathered from an examination of the accompanying photographs.
  A feature of the machine which is not apparent in the photographs is the fact that the "Goral" is an all-metal machine, and more specifically an all-steel construction. The Gloster company, like nearly all the British firms, have for some time now been developing their own forms of metal construction, and in the "Goral" this is employed throughout the structure, the only part not made of metal being the covering, which is of the normal doped fabric kind.
  Although a detailed description of the Gloster metal construction is not permitted, it may be mentioned that this form of construction has been made use of in the "Goral" to incorporate a somewhat unusual feature. Thus the fuselage consists of three separate units, which can readily be dismantled for transport purposes, when each unit requires a packing case of very moderate dimensions only. This is naturally a great advantage where a purchaser of these machines has to have them delivered by rail or steamer, and this feature should, in itself, do much towards giving the "Goral" due consideration in placing an order. When it is further pointed out that many of the units of the machine, including the wings, are interchangeable with the corresponding ones of the de Havilland type 9A, it will be seen that the new machine becomes an attractive proposition in countries that have already standardised the D.H.9A.
  The three separate fuselage units are: (1) the front portion, with engine installed, complete; (2) the middle portion, complete with petrol tanks and fully equipped cockpits; (3) the rear portion, with tail skid assembled and control cables threaded through their guides, ready for joining up to the controls and tail surfaces.
  Another very interesting feature of the "Goral" is that the designers have kept prominently in mind the question of repairs in countries where facilities for specialised metalwork are lacking. To this end, all joints have been so designed that it is possible to replace a damaged steel member by a wooden one, and the Gloster company is prepared to supply to purchasers of this machine particulars of appropriate wood members of the correct size for any place in the machine. Thus, a purchaser who would like to acquire all-metal aircraft, but is deterred by the problem of repairs, can be assured that this need not prevent him from ordering his machines, since not only can he obtain steel tube spares from the makers, but also, should he prefer, he can carry out more or less temporary repairs by replacing damaged parts by wood members. All tubes and fittings are rustproofed inside and out, and soldering of joints has been avoided, the fittings being detachable, so that repairs can be easily carried out with quite simple workshop equipment.
  Unfortunately, it is not at the moment permissible to give performance figures of the Gloster "Goral," but it may be stated that the cruising range, fully loaded, is approximately 750 miles (1,200 kms.).
Gloster G.22 Goral проектировался для замены устаревшего de Havilland D.H.9A. Тендер выиграл Westland Wapiti, но крылья для нового самолета изготавливала дочерняя компания "Gloster".
THE GLOSTER "GORAL": Three-quarter rear view.
THE GLOSTER "GORAL": Three-quarter front view. The engine is a Bristol "Jupiter."
THE GLOSTER "GORAL" BRISTOL "JUPITER": Three views of the machine in flight, piloted by Flying-Officer Howard Saint, D.S.C.