Самолет Southampton был разработан на базе единственной 10-местной летающей лодки Swan, использовавшейся компанией "Imperial Airways", дополнявшей ее парк из трех Sea Eagle на линии Саутгемптон - Нормандские острова в 1926-1927 годах.
Реджинальд Митчелл, создав Southampton, добился своего первого крупного успеха. Для британских ВВС было построено не менее 68 этих элегантных летающих лодок с экипажем из пяти человек.
Southampton был выполнен по схеме биплана со стабилизирующими поплавками под крылом и узким корпусом с высоко поднятой хвостовой частью, на которой было установлено горизонтальное оперение. Вертикальное оперение, установленное на горизонтальном, было трехкилевым. Силовая установка включала два ПД Napier Lion, установленных на подкосах между крыльями.
Первая из шести летающих лодок Southampton Mk I с деревянным корпусом совершила первый полет 10 марта 1925 года, а несколько месяцев спустя начались первые поставки 480-му авиазвену береговой разведки ВВС.
Основным серийным вариантом стал Southampton Mk II, на котором ввели дюралюминиевый корпус, обеспечивающий лучшие летные характеристики.
Southampton поступил на вооружение 201-й, 203-й, 204-й, 205-й и 210-й эскадрилий британских ВВС и нес службу более десятилетия. Кроме того, эти самолеты строились по заказам Аргентины (восемь) и Турции и Японии (шесть). Австралия получила два Mk 1, ранее служивших в Великобритании.
Supermarine Southampton Mk II
Тип: летающая лодка - разведчик
Силовая установка: два V-образных 12 цилиндровых ПД Napier Lion VA мощностью по 500 л. с. (373 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 174 км/ч; потолок 4265 м; максимальная дальность полета 1497 км
Масса: пустого 4082 кг; максимальная взлетная 6895 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 22,86 м; длина 15,58 м; высота 6,82 м; площадь крыла 134,61 м2
Вооружение: три 7,7-мм пулемета Lewis (один в носовой и два в средней части корпуса) и 499 кг бомб
Flight, November 1926
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON”
Two Napier "Lion" Engines
THE Supermarine Aviation Works, Limited, occupy a somewhat unique position inside the British aircraft industry. Founded by Mr. Noel Pemberton Billing in 1913 (Mr. Billing, by the way, has had no connection with the company for a number of years) this firm concentrated from the first upon the design and construction of seaplanes of the flying-boat type. Machines of other types have been produced, it is true, such as the Pemberton Billing "seven day 'bus" (so called from the fact that it was built in a week), and the "Night Hawk" triplane built during the war, while of more recent years the firm has built a few light 'planes and last year the Supermarine S.4 for the Schneider Cup seaplane race, the latter machine being, of course, a twin-float seaplane of the monoplane type. In the main, however, the firm has specialised in flying boats even for fast machines, and it will be recollected that it was on a machine of this type that Captain Biard won the Schneider Cup Race at Naples in 1922. After the 1923 Schneider Cup Race at Cowes, however, it was decided that the flying-boat type was no longer fast enough for the speeds demanded, and Mr. R. J. Mitchell, the firm's chief designer, set to work and produced the S.4, to which reference has been made above.
Another respect in which the Supermarine Aviation Works have differed from most other firms, apart from concentrating on the production of flying-boats, has been that of further specialising on the type of flying-boat hull which has now come to be known as the "Linton Hope" type, consisting of a main hull of approximately circular cross-section, built on to which, as a separate structure, are the two steps. In this connection it is rather interesting to recall that even the very first Supermarine flying-boat was more or less of this type. This machine, the P.B.1 had a cigar-shaped hull, built, if we remember right, with a ply skin of spruce planking running fore and aft, and having a single step. This machine, which was exhibited at the Olympia Aero Show in 1914, was not a success, it is true, but the main idea of the circular flexible hull was undoubtedly there in a somewhat crude and incompletely understood form, and all Supermarine flying-boats built since those early days have retained this feature of the circular flexible hull. In modern times this type has come to be looked upon almost as the standard type, but it is worth keeping in mind that when Supermarines first started producing hulls of this type the general practice was to design hulls with straight "V" bottoms and flat sides.
Having specialised for thirteen years on the design and construction of flying-boats, it is not to be wondered at that the Supermarine Aviation Works have secured a leading position in this branch of aircraft work, and within the last year or so the firm has produced a boat which proved an instant success and large orders for which have been placed by the British Air Ministry. This type has become known as the "Southampton," and the machine having gone into quantity production it has now become possible to give a detailed description of it, unfettered by the rules of secrecy which surround all aircraft built for the British Air Ministry until the restrictions are raised upon the machine being ordered in quantities. The Supermarine "Southampton," among its many other excellent features, incorporates the somewhat unusual one of being able definitely to fly and manoeuvre with one of its two Napier "Lion" engines stopped. There are probably very few types of twin-engined aircraft in the world able to do this, and the fact that the "Southampton" will do it with comparative ease speaks well for the design of the machine.
It will not be unknown to readers of FLIGHT that during the years immediately following the war the flying-boat type of machine received somewhat step-motherly treatment by the authorities, a fact upon which we have commented frequently in FLIGHT, pleading for greater support for this type of machine which, in our view, is the logical type to develop for British Empire aviation. For a number of years but little was done, and one should not blame the Air Ministry unduly for this, since war-time experience with flying-boats had not been altogether satisfactory, the war-time hulls being somewhat frail and the percentage of useful load carried rather small in comparison with aeroplanes of the same power. The idea rather gained currency that the flying-boat as a type was necessarily less efficient than a land machine. This view has never been held by the Supermarine Aviation Works, and certainly recent developments seem to indicate that a well-designed flying-boat of medium size is at least as efficient as the land machine of about the same weight and power, while it seems very probable that the future will show that in really large machines the flying-boat may be far and away more efficient than its counterpart on wheels. Moreover, so far as can be seen at present, it seems probable that a practical limit in size is likely to be reached much sooner with land machines than with flying-boats, so that if we look to the really large aircraft of the future, the flying-boat type appears to hold very considerable claims on our attention.
However, to return to the history of the Supermarine "Southampton." During the slump to which we have referred, the Supermarine Aviation Works produced a civil flying-boat, the "Swan," which was a really remarkable machine in many ways, and which appeared to put a somewhat different aspect on the flying-boat question. On the strength of the results obtained with the "Swan," the Air Ministry decided to give the Supermarine Aviation Works a chance to retrieve the reputation of the flying-boat, and a contract for six machines was placed in 1924. The placing of such a contract was, incidentally, significant of the trust which the Air Ministry placed in this firm, since it was an unusual procedure to order six machines of an experimental type. Needless to say, the confidence of the Air Ministry proved to be not misplaced, and the direct outcome was the "Southampton" flying-boat, which forms the subject of this article. Work was commenced in August, 1924, and the first machine was flying on March 14, 1925. The machine was found to provide one of those somewhat rare instances in which a machine is absolutely "right" straight away. No modifications of any kind were found to be necessary, and the machine was delivered by air to the Experimental Air Station at Felixstowe on the following day. This feat of designing and constructing a large twin-engined flying-boat in a period of only 7 1/2 months must be regarded as a remarkable achievement. The machine then went through its type tests at Felixstowe, and everything went "without a hitch," with the result that the trials were completed in record time. The "Southampton" was then adopted as the standard twin-engined reconnaissance flying-boat of the R.A.F., and by now a large number of "Southamptons" have been delivered, while many more are still on order.
Hardly had a flight of these machines been handed over to the Service, than it was announced that they would undertake an extended cruise, in conjunction with the Fleet, around the British Isles. This cruise, which commenced on September 3, 1925, was accomplished without incident, and the success, from the Service point of view, was such that, on October 8, 1925, the Air Ministry issued a special communique praising the boats. This communique was published in FLIGHT at the time, and there is thus no need to repeat it here, beyond recalling that the cruise was one of some 10,000 miles in very bad weather.
On July 1, 1926, commenced the first long-distance foreign cruise by R.A.F. flying-boats to Egypt and back. Like the previous one, this cruise was a complete success, and again an announcement was issued by the Air Ministry (on August 2, 1926) concerning the flight of two "Southamptons" from Plymouth to Aboukir and back, a total distance of some 7,000 miles. This flight was carried out to a pre-arranged schedule, and with one exception the programme was strictly adhered to, the exception being that, owing to a northerly gale at Marseilles, it was considered advisable to postpone the departure for Plymouth until the following day. No trouble whatsoever was experienced, either with the machine or with its Napier "Lion" engines, and a special feature of the cruise was that constant wireless communication was maintained throughout, with R.A.F. and other wireless stations.
To appreciate to the full these two cruises, it should be kept in mind that they were in no way stunt flights with an elaborate detail organisation, but ordinary Service exercises with standard machines, carrying throughout a crew of four and full Service load.
Owing to the fact that the "Southampton" has, until comparatively recently, been on the Air Ministry's "Secret List," it has been prevented from attempting to beat some of the existing word's records, although there is very little doubt that it could do so. In point of fact, it is believed that the "Southampton" could beat no less than 15 existing records, and establish four new ones not hitherto attempted. It would scarcely be fair to the firm to state at the moment the exact nature of these records, but it is to be hoped that it will now be found possible to make arrangements for the carrying out of a number of flights with this object in view.
The Supermarine "Southampton" has been designed as a Naval Patrol and Reconnaissance flying-boat, possessing very long range, being very effectively armed, and capable of carrying out bombing operations.
The "Southampton" is a twin-engined flying-boat with a two-stepped circular-section hull of the flexible "Linton Hope" type, the steps being built on as a separate structure. Apart from the generally "clean" lines of the hull, the machine is mainly remarkable on account of its somewhat unusual wing structure.
The whole machine has been designed with a view to eliminate "blind spots," i.e., areas blanketing the gunners' view and field of fire. As a result the "Southampton" is well able to defend itself, and the manner in which the usual "blind spot" behind the tail has been avoided is extremely interesting. To begin with, the tail has been designed as a semi-cantilever, the supporting struts projecting but a very short way out from the tail root. Secondly, the cockpits for the aft guns are placed as far out as possible laterally, and staggered in relation to one another, so that from one or other of the two cockpits there is no blind area beyond a distance of about 50 ft. from the tail.
The hull has been given plenty of freeboard and buoyancy, so that the cockpits and propellers are well clear of the water, and the lines of the hull and planing bottom are such that the machine is exceptionally "clean" when manoeuvring on the sea. Very complete marine gear is provided, such as towing bollards, mooring slings, boathooks, sea anchor, etc., so that the machine can be very efficiently handled while on the sea. The forward cockpit is well situated for the purpose of picking up moorings and generally attending to the various operations on the water.
Another feature of the "Southampton" is that no petrol is carried inside the hull, the main petrol tanks being supported under the top plane. In consequence the hull itself is particularly free of obstructions, and in fact it is possible for members of the crew to walk about freely anywhere from bow to stern. There is even ample space in which to sling hammocks for the crew, who can, and do, thus sleep on board. In fact, except for refuelling, the machine is independent altogether, and is a self-contained unit.
The accommodation for the crew is as follows : In the bows is the forward gunner's cockpit, fitted with mounting for Lewis gun. A comfortable hinged seat is provided, which can be swung out of the way and stowed when the gun is being operated. Aft of this is the pilot's cockpit, while behind that again is the cockpit for the navigator. Inside the hull, aft of the navigator's cockpit, is a roomy compartment with chair and table for the navigator, the wireless compartment being still farther aft. Finally, the two rear gunners' cockpits are situated quite a long way aft of the wings, where the field of fire is exceptionally clear.
The total loaded weight of the "Southampton" is 14,300 lbs. (6,500 kgs.), and clearly the disposable load can be arranged in any way suitable to the purpose of the machine. When used as a bomber the "Southampton" carries the following load: Crew of four, 720 lbs. (327 kgs.); armament and military equipment, 2,130 lbs. (968 kgs.); 300 gallons of petrol, 2,220 lbs. (1,000 kgs.); 22 gallons of oil, 220 lbs. (100 kgs.). Total load, 5,290 lbs. (2,405 kgs.). When the machine is used for reconnaissance the load is composed as follows: Crew of five, 900 lbs. (410 kgs.); armament, etc., 1,130 lbs. (514 kgs.); 400 gallons of petrol, 2,960 lbs. (1,345 kgs.); 30 gallons of oil, 300 lbs. (136 kgs.); total load, 5,290 lbs. (2,405 kgs.). For bombing the range has been reduced to enable 1,000 lbs. (455 kgs.) of bombs to be carried. Fitted with two Napier "Lion" engines, using 0-65 pints of petrol per horse-power per hour, the "Southampton" has the following officially observed performance: Maximum speed at sea level, 107-7 m.p.h. (173 km./h.); rate of climb at sea level, 610 ft./min.; ceiling, 14,000 ft. (4,260 m.); minimum speed, 56 m.p.h. (90 km./h.); optimum cruising speed, 85 m.p.h. (137 km./h.); range at cruising speed (400 gallons of petrol), 680 miles (1,100 kms.).
The Supermarine "Southampton" could, of course, be converted into a commercial machine, when, by allowing for a crew of two, wireless instruments, marine gear, seating, etc., 800 lbs. (364 kgs.), there would be a disposable load of 4,490 lbs. (2,040 kgs.) that could be arranged in any combination desired; as, for instance, 400 gallons of petrol, range 680 miles (1,100 kms.); duration, 8 hrs.; number of passengers with luggage, 6. Or, petrol, 300 gallons; range, 510 miles (820 kms.); duration 6 hrs.; and 10 passengers. Or, 200 gallons of petrol, range 340 miles (550 kms.); duration, 4 hrs.; and 14 passengers. These figures are all based upon a cruising speed of 85 m.p.h. (137 km./h.). This is for a total loaded weight of 14,300 lbs. (6,500 kgs.). For long-range work it would be permissible to "overload" the machine up to a total loaded weight of 15,700 lbs. (7,140 kgs.), when, by reducing the weight of crew, armament, etc., the range would be greatly extended.
Flight, July 1928
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON”
Two Napier "Lion" Engines
ONE of the most successful British flying-boats of modern times is the "Southampton" designed and built by the Supermarine Aviation Works, Ltd., of Southampton. A flight of these machines, manned by British Royal Air Force personnel, is now on a protracted cruise to Australia. The machine is produced both with wooden hull and with metal hull. The latter is considerably lighter than the former, and has the additional advantage of absence of water soakage.
The normal "Southampton" is designed for a total useful load of 5,290 lb. (2,400 kg.), the composition of which can be varied within the total according to whether the machine is intended for bombing or for reconnaissance. If it is desired to use the machine for long-distance flights, carrying but a crew of two or three, with the rest of the disposable lo'ad in the form of fuel, a very great range is provided.
The Boat Hull. - The metal hull is built entirely of Duralumin, with the exception of fittings made of stainless steel. All Duralumin parts are given the anodic treatment to enable them to resist corrosion. The hull is of the two-step type, and is so located and proportioned as to prevent "porpoising." Lateral stability on the water is by Duralumin wing-tip floats. When the machine is used for bombing, a crew of four can be carried, while for reconnaissance this may be increased to five. The hull construction is such that there are no obstructions inside, and as the tanks are mounted under the top plane, the whole hull is clear for stowing the load carried, moving about, &c.
Wings. - Of biplane arrangement, the wings are of equal span and chord, with the gap between them equal to the wing chord. The centre section of the wing structure is built up in the form of a Warren girder, an arrangement which lends itself admirably to the installation of the power units.
Engine Installation. - The engine mountings are separate units carried on the lower centre-section plane. They can be removed without interfering with the main wing structure. The radiators and oil tanks are removed with the engine units, and all engine instruments are mounted on the engine bearers. The petrol system is by gravity feed only, the two petrol tanks being hung under the top centre-section.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOLENT”
Three Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" Engines
To the Supermarine Aviation Works, Woolston, Southampton, belongs the credit of being the first British firm to produce a three-engined torpedo-carrying flying-boat capable of carrying a 1,500-lb. (682-kg.) torpedo slung on each side of the hull. The machine, which has been christened the "Solent," has recently completed its tests, and no difficulty was experienced in dropping the torpedoes one at a time, the aileron control being sufficiently powerful to overcome the weight of one torpedo mounted some way out from the centre.
The Boat Hull. - Of all-wood construction, the hull of the "Solent" is of the type which has become known as a "Linton Hope," i.e. with a main structure approximately circular in cross-section, and the steps and chines built-on. As in all modern British flying boats, there are two steps, and the planing bottom has the form of a rounded Vee. The internal framework consists of light frames and timbers, with numerous light stringers running fore and aft. The planking is laid on in a fore-and-aft direction, and is of mahogany.
The two torpedoes, supported under the lower centre section, are provided with gear for winding, so that they can be wheeled under the wings while the machine is on a slipway, or taken out in a launch and hauled up on to the racks without the use of any extraneous equipment.
When carrying the two torpedoes the "Solent" carries fuel for 3 1/2 hours' flight, but by leaving off the torpedoes and completely filling the tanks the endurance is increased to 11-2 hours and the range to 950 miles (1,530 kms.).
Wings. - Arranged as an equal-span, equal-chord biplane, with a back-sweep of several degrees. Of wood construction, fabric covered, with the normal two-spar arrangement. Ailerons fitted to both top and bottom planes. Lateral stability on the water is provided by two wing-tip floats.
Tail. - Large monoplane horizontal tail plane, with smaller one between rudders, used for trimming. There are three fins and rudders, with horn balances.
Engine Installation. - The three "Jaguar" engines are mounted in the gap, and are carefully streamlined. The two large petrol tanks are in the top plane, slightly off the centre line, and provide direct gravity feed, so that there is no petrol in the hull.
Flight, July 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
SUPERMARINE AVIATION WORKS, LTD.
As a result of the purchase, some months ago, of the Supermarine Aviation Works by Vickers (Aviation), Ltd., the two firms are now practically one, with Supermarine's looking after the maritime side and Vickers after the aeroplane side. This division is probably not intended to be an absolutely rigid and unalterable one, but with the accumulated experience of 15 or 16 years of specialising on marine aircraft, it may be assumed that in the great majority of cases the Southampton designing office will deal with marine types. It is logical that, on the other hand, Vickers (Aviation), Ltd., should devote their energies to aeroplanes of all types and classes, their experience of which dates back to the early days of flying in Great Britain. The two firms thus united are both among the pioneer aircraft companies of Great Britain, and the combination should be a very powerful one. At Olympia the two firms will naturally exhibit their aircraft together, but for the sake of easy reference we have thought it preferable to deal with the exhibits separately.
Supermarine's will, it is hoped, exhibit two complete marine aircraft: One of the metal "Southampton" flying-boats with Napier "Lion" engines which made the 27,000 miles' R.A.F. Far East Flight, and the other the Supermarine S.5 with Napier racing engine which won the Schneider Trophy for Great Britain in 1927, and which, in 1928, gained the British high-speed record of 319-57 m.p.h. .
The Supermarine "Southampton" is a twin-engined five-seater reconnaissance flying-boat, and is the standard machine of this type used by the Royal Air Force. Similar machines have been supplied to the Royal Australian Air Force, the Imperial Japanese Navy, and the Argentine Navy. In 1927-28 four metal-hulled "Southamptons" of the Royal Air Force flew from Plymouth to Singapore, thence around the continent of Australia, and back to Singapore, a distance of some 27,000 miles. This formation flight was carried out without serious trouble of any description.
The hull of the metal "Southampton" is built almost entirely of duralumin, the only exception being certain highly-stressed fittings, which are made from stainless steel. As regards hydrodynamic design, the "Southampton" metal hull differs slightly from the older type wooden hull in its lines. This applies mainly to the sides of the hull, which have a less pronounced curvature between deck and chines than had the wooden hulls. Although the effect (which is probably relatively small) is hydrodynamic and aerodynamic, the cause must be sought in structural considerations. The more flat-sided form is necessarily a good deal easier to produce in metal, and as far as we have been informed, the metal hull is certainly not less good either on the water or in the air than was the wooden hull. The step arrangements and disposition and the up-swept stern portion remain practically identical. One very great advantage of the metal hull is, of course, the total absence of water soakage, which in a hull of this size may easily amount to some 300 lbs. or even more. Apart from this, the weight of the duralumin hull is, in itself, smaller than the dry weight of the wooden hull, so that one way and another it will be realised that the use of metal hulls on the "Southamptons" has been very well worth while. One difficulty of duralumin hulls, that of corrosion, appears to have been successfully overcome in the "Southampton" type of hull. Anodic treatment is some protection, but a good paint is probably at least as good, and possibly better. On the Far East Flight surprisingly little corrosion took place, as visitors to Olympia will be able to see for themselves, the hull of the "Southampton” exhibited being one of the actual four machines which made the flight.
Structurally, the metal "Southampton" hull is of interest on account of the form of construction employed. The fore and aft members, or stringers, run through from bows to stern, the frames being cut to accommodate them. The duralumin skin or planking is riveted to both frames and stringers. With this form of construction the planking is not called upon to resist longitudinal bending loads to as great an extent as in hulls where the stringers stop short at the frames. On the other hand, presumably, the frames themselves must be slightly weakened by being cut, although this can fairly easily be made up by local strengthening.
As exhibited at Olympia, the "Southampton" will have an all-metal superstructure, whereas on the Far East Flight it was fitted with the older type composite construction wings. The metal wings have spars and ribs of duralumin, but are, of course, fabric covered. In arrangement, the wings are of equal span and chord, and without stagger. Top and bottom centre-sections are of equal span, interconnected by vertical struts at their ends, and with four sets of struts in the form of a letter "W" when viewed from the front, in between which are mounted the engines.
The tail unit consists of a monoplane tail plane and elevator, with three vertical fins mounted on top of the tail plane and carrying three balanced rudders.
The standard "Southamptons" are fitted with two Napier "Lion" engines, supported on steel strut mountings, which are complete units independent of the wing bracing members. A large variety of other engines can be fitted if desired. Bristol "Jupiters" and French Lorraine Dietrich engines have already been so fitted, while a design is now in progress in which Armstrong Siddeley "Jaguars" are employed. The Rolls-Royce "F" type engines can also be used.
Fuel is carried in two main tanks slung under the top centre-section, the capacity being 500 gallons. Subsidiary petrol tanks each of 50 gallons capacity can be fitted under the wing roots if the machine is required for long-distance work.
The accommodation in the "Southampton" is as follows: In the bows is the cockpit for gunner and bomber. This is provided with a Scarff ring for machine guns. Behind are two cockpits for the pilots, arranged in tandem, with dual controls. The after pilot also has a complete navigation equipment. Below the wings is the wireless compartment, which communicates with two staggered cockpits, aft of the wings, each equipped with Scarff gun ring.
Main dimensions of the "Southampton" are :- Length o.a., 49 ft. 8 in.; wing span, 75 ft.; wing area, 1,426 sq. ft.; overall height, 18 ft. 7 in.
The tare weight is 8,760 lbs., and the gross weight (normal load) 14,600 lbs., giving a wing loading of 10-25 lb./sq. ft and a power loading (with Napier "Lion" engines) of 15-5 lb./h.p.
Brief performance figures are :- Full speed, 108 m.p.h. landing speed, 52 m.p.h.; climb to 5,000 ft. in 10 mins. Ceiling, 14,000 ft. Range, 800 miles with normal quantity of fuel.
Flight, November 1932
The Supermarine Aviation Works, Ltd.
FOUNDED in 1913 by Mr. Noel Pemberton Billing, the Supermarine works are now a part of the Vickers (Aviation) group, but its traditions as seaplane designers and constructors are being maintained, and marine aircraft form the bulk of the firm's productions. Flying-boats have always been Supermarine's speciality, but it must not be overlooked that the firm has shown its ability to produce fast racing craft as well by designing and building no less than four Schneider Trophy winners! That, surely, is a unique record. The last of the Schneider winners, the S.6B with Rolls-Royce "R" engine, in addition to winning that classic race, also established, piloted by Flt. Lt. Stainforth, a world's speed record of 655 km./h. (407 m.p.h.).
The Supermarine "Southampton" flying-boats have seen long and useful service, not only in British home waters, but also abroad. The latest version, the "Southampton" Mark II, is fitted with two Rolls-Royce Kestrel engines, and evaporative cooling is employed, so that this machine is in every way up to date.
Principal particulars of the "Southampton" Mark II are :-
Tare weight 9,014 lb. (4 088 kg.)
Crew (5) 1,000 lb. (454 kg.)
Fuel 3,496 lb. (1 586 kg.)
Oil 213 lb. (97 kg.)
Military load 1,127 lb. (511 kg.)
Gross weight 14,850 lb. (6 735 kg.)
Maximum speed 117-5 m.p.h. (189 km./h.)
Cruising speed 90 m.p.h. (145 km./h.)
Alighting speed 54 m.p.h. (87 km./h.)
Service ceiling 13.300 ft. (4 053 m.)
Duration 10 1/2 hours
Range 945 miles (1 521 km.)
The Supermarine Aviation Works are at present constructing an attractive private venture marine aircraft which will be available in both service and civil form. At present the firm prefers not to disclose any particulars.
The Supermarine "Southampton" at rest on the water.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": The "Southampton," which is fitted with two Napier "Lion" engines, has now gone into quantity production, but at present no details concerning it may be published.
The Supermarine "Southampton" about to alight.
Capt Henri Biard takes the first production Southampton I, N9896, for its maiden flight, March 1925.
The first production Supermarine Southampton, N9896, made its first flight in the hands of Henri Biard on March 10, 1925. After passing its tests at the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment, the type was put into production, the RAF’s No 480 (Coastal Reconnaissance) Flight receiving its first examples a mere six months later.
The Supermarine "Southampton" in the air: This machine is capable of flying and manoeuvring with one of its Napier "Lion" engines stopped.
THE LATEST SUPERMARINE FLYING BOAT: The "Southampton," fitted with two Napier "Lion" engines, is of typical Supermarine lines, but has three fins and three rudders, although the horizontal tail is of monoplane type
THE HAMPSHIRE AIR PAGEANT: Event 3, Flying boat v. Land 'plane. Three Supermarine "Southampton" flew over the aerodrome
EVENT 4. FLYING-BOATS: Five Supermarine Southampton (Napier Lions) flying-boats of No. 201 Squadron flew over the aerodrome in formation. One dropped out and flew low past the Royal Enclosure, to give us a "close-up" (on the left).
The Coastal Area: Five Supermarine Southamptons from Calshot visit Hendon.
Perfect timing. Five Supermarine Southamptons of 201 Squadron arrive from Calshot and pass over the aircraft park at the 1930 pageant. The Royal box is in the background, on the left.
Two Supermarine "Southamptons" off Cromer: The machine in the background is alighting, while that in the foreground is already moored.
THE SERVICE SCANDINAVIAN CRUISE: The one of the four R.A.F. flying-boats which are taking part in a cruise round Scandinavia. The Supermarine "Southampton" (two Napier "Lions");
A FLYING-BOAT ON THE NORFOLK BROADS: This photograph shows a Supermarine "Southampton" which recently alighted on Oulton Broad. This is believed to have been the first time in history that a flying-boat has alighted on and started from one of the Broads. In front of the "Southampton" may be seen one of the 24-ft. Brooke 30 m.p.h. "Seacars" ordered for use by the R.A.F. in connection with the Schneider Trophy Contest.
AIR MINISTER'S CHANNEL CRUISE: This week Sir Samuel Hoare is making a cruise of (inspection to the Channel Islands, Scilly Islands, &c, in one of the new Short all-metal "Calcutta" flying boats with "Jupiter" engines. The "Calcutta" is seen at the moment of departure, while in the foreground is the Supermarine "Southampton"-Napier which is escorting the Air Minister on his cruise.
A Batch of Supermarine "Southamptons" at mooring off Cromer.
CRUISE OF THE "SOUTHAMPTONS": The two Supermarine flying-boats, Napier "Lion" engines, arriving at the Cattewater seaplane station, after their successful flight of nearly 7,000 miles.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": Note the clean running of the machine, reference to which was made in the paper read by Mr. Simmonds. The engines are Napier "Lions."
Supermarine "Southampton" (Two Napier "Lion" engines). One of the remarkable facts about the "Southampton" was that it was designed and constructed in 7 1/2 months and immediately went through its official tests without a hitch, and then became a standard type to the R.A.F. Hardly were they in Service use when they undertook a cruise round the British Isles, and were officially praised for their performance. The "Southampton" carries no petrol in the hull, the main tanks being supported under the top 'planes, which gives unusual freedom for the crew in the hull, and even space to sling hammocks. Attached to Coastal Area.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": Three-quarter front view of the machine on the slipway. This photograph also gives a good idea of the somewhat unusual arrangement of the interplane struts. The Napier "Lion" engines are mounted on struts independent of the wing structure and can be removed without interfering with the wing bracing.
A Supermarine Southampton filling up from the new Bowser pit at Hythe.
Fuelling a Supermarine "Southampton" in front of the works.
ON THE SLIPWAY: Airmen are receiving instruction in mooring tackle.
METAL CONSTRUCTION: These photographs show the first of the Supermarine Southamptons to be fitted with an all-metal hull. This is of slightly different shape and is claimed to weight some 500 lbs. lighter than the corresponding wooden hull. By the time the water soakage is taken into consideration, the difference in weight becomes even more pronounced, and the saving is reflected in either greater useful load or an increased range. The two engines are Napier "Lions."
OFF FOR THE NORTH SEA: A Supermarine "Southampton" (two Napier "Lions") taking off under the Forth Bridge to search for the Fleet.
Большинство Southampton Mk I, принадлежавших британским ВВС, были доработаны до стандарта Mk II (на снимке), получив более эффективный металлический корпус.
The Great Flying-Boat Cruise: One of the four R.A.F. Supermarine "Southampton" metal flying-boats - each with two Napier "Lions" which, under the command of Group Capt. H. M. Cave-Browne-Cave, are flying to Australia.
THE R.A.F. FAR EAST CRUISE: A Supermarine "Southampton" alighting.
The spirit of James Cook - Southamptons S1149 and S1151 climb away from Plymouth Sound on the first leg of their epic 11-month journey to Australia via Singapore, on October 17, 1927. With Supermarine’s S.5 floatplane racer having won the Schneider Trophy for the UK the previous month, the manufacturer’s reputation was burnished further by the prospect of another major achievement in the conquest of the air.
The Air Ministry initially ordered the wooden-hulled Southampton Mk I "off the drawing board" in August 1924, the first production example making its first flight on March 10, 1925. An anodised light-alloy metal hull was developed for the Mk II, the first of which was S1149, seen here, and which, in company with S1150, S1151 and S1152, served with the FEF.
Southampton II S1149 took part in the famous 1927 Far East Flight.
With its single stripe visible just forward of the rear hatch, S1149 pushes on under the power of its pair of 500 h.p. Napier Lion VA “broad arrow”-configuration 12-cylinder engines. The FEF Southamptons’ fuel tanks were increased to 250 Imp gal each and the oil tanks to 18 Imp gal each, in order to provide the longest possible range.
SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": Reconnaissance Flying-Boat, with two Napier "Lions."
The FEF arrived in Melbourne on June 29, 1928, and S1149 is seen here overflying the nearby RAAF base at Point Cook
Single-striped S1149 at anchor during one of the Flight’s open-water stops. In contrast to the RAF’s standard bare-metal Southamptons, the hulls and wingtip floats of the FEF machines had a white varnish applied to their hulls, and one was given an enamel finish developed by Rylard, the British narrowboat paint specialist.
Domestic chores along the way were the responsibility of each crew, and Livock’s Southampton is seen here with the crew’s sleeping bags hung out for an airing from its interplane wires during the Flight’s stop on the Tigris at Hinaidi, near Baghdad, in November 1927, during the Flight’s five-month cruise from the UK to Singapore.
With pith helmets - otherwise known as sola topees - very much the order of the day, work is undertaken on Far East Flight Southampton S1149, recognisable by virtue of its single stripe on the bow and fuselage aft of the trailing edge. The other FEF aircraft were marked as follows: S1150, two stripes; S1151, three stripes and no stripes at all for S1152.
The residents of Melbourne queue for an opportunity to view the cockpit of Sqn Ldr Livock and Flt Lt Maitland’s aircraft, S1149, by means of a specially constructed wooden bridge. After a thorough overhaul at Melbourne, each of the Southamptons was given a 30min test flight in the week before their departure for Victoria.
The FEF’s Southampton Mk Ils were specially modified for the long-range flight, incorporating increased-capacity tinned-steel fuel tanks (instead of light-alloy), larger oil tanks and an increase in radiator surface. Here S1150 is seen before departure wearing two stripes.
THE ROYAL AIR FORCE FLYING-BOAT CRUISE: One of the Supermarine-Napier metal-hull flyingboats, as employed in this Far East flight, flying over the land between Akyab and Rangoon.
Southampton S1150 - two stripes - over the Burmese coast between Akyab and Rangoon, described in the Flight’s Log as “picturesque, rugged and well wooded, with many rivers and bays which appeared suitable for emergency alighting places”. On the leg from Bombay to Mangalore on December 27, the Flight undertook a search for the wreck of the Jayanti, a steamer that had sunk in a cyclone on November 12. Unfortunately, no trace of the vessel was seen.
THE R.A.F. FAR EAST CRUISE: Two views of the Supermarine "Southampton" twin-Napier flying-boat in flight.
After a bumpy flight from Port Swettenham through thunderstorms over the Johore Straits, the Flight arrived at Singapore in light rain at 1705hr local time on February 28, 1928, before being brought ashore over the next few days. Here a landing party prepares to haul S1150 on to dry land at Singapore for overhaul and repainting.
The R.A.F. FAR EAST CRUISE: Three views of one of the four Supermarine "Southampton" twin-Napier-engined metal hull flying-boats which are making a flight to India and Australia. The beaching trolley shown in the photographs will not be carried on board, but will be sent forward for use where beaching is planned.
THE R.A.F. FLIGHT TO THE FAR EAST: Three views of the Supermarine "Southampton" metal hull flying-boat on the water. The engines are Napier "Lions."
Bearing three stripes, S1151 shows off its undersurfaces while in flight. Fuel supply to the Napier Lion engines was by gravity feed from the upper wing tanks, clearly visible here, obviating the need for petrol lines to be accommodated within the hull - although a pump was later fitted for moving fuel to the overhead tanks from a sump located amidships.
On September 15, 1928, the FEF arrived back at Singapore, where they were hauled ashore and given a major inspection and overhaul, the Napier Lion engines being replaced on all except S1149, which was dismantled and returned to the UK for a much more detailed inspection. On November 1 the Flight set off again, with S1127 replacing S1149, on a "minicruise" around South-east Asia.
The four Southamptons moored on the Tigris at Hinaidi, where the FEF stayed during November 6-10. The Flight’s Log records that on November 8, “King AH [Faisal I] and his Prime Minister inspected the flying-boats, and the King was taken for a short flight over Baghdad in S1151, ” during which he “expressed great pleasure”.
With Sydney Harbour Bridge under construction in the background, the four Southamptons of the FEF make the most of their sheltered moorings at Farm Cove in Sydney Harbour. The Flight arrived in Sydney on August 1, 1928, and stayed until August 11, when they took off, circled in formation, and departed for Brisbane.
The Southamptons of the Far East Flight remained at Singapore, where they underwent another major inspection and overhaul, until late April 1928, when they were rolled out ready for the next stage of their epic aeronautical adventure, which would see them continue on through the Dutch East Indies to circumnavigate Australia.
Undergoing a thorough overhaul, cleaning and repainting, S1152 is seen here on the beach at Karachi on December 10, 1927. Four days later, the Southamptons were inspected by the Air Officer Commanding, India - Air Vice-Marshal Sir Geoffrey Salmond - who joined Cave-Browne-Cave and Sawyer aboard S1152 for the 475-mile flight south to Bombay on December 15.
S1152 was another machine of the Far East Flight, whose aircraft later formed 205 Squadron, based at Seletar, Singapore.
THE ROYAL AIR FORCE FLYING-BOAT CRUISE: Some of the non-paying passengers (barnacles) being scraped off the hull of one of the flying-boats at Trincomali, Ceylon.
Blistering barnacles - literally. After arrival at Trincomalee, Ceylon, on January 12, the Southamptons were taxied in turn the following day to shallow water in front of the naval sick quarters and secured to a small pier there, at which point the crew and some locals set about removing the troublesome barnacles and weeds.
Three of the Flight’s four Southamptons moored at one of the European stops, possibly Phaleron Bay in Athens, where, according to the Flight’s Log, “the winds were light northerly”, on which the flying-boats “rode quite safely and comfortably”. The next stop was Aboukir in Egypt, where routine inspections were completed.
Southampton S1152 - with no stripes - undergoes engine maintenance, probably during one of the stops in the Middle East. This view shows the engines’ increased-area radiator surfaces, nearly 50 per cent bigger than on standard UK-based Southamptons; this increased area kept the coolant to a maximum temperature of 76°C.
SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON" FLYING BOAT NAPIER LION ENGINES.
AT ZERO HOUR: At noon on Friday five "Southamptons" of Nos. 210 and 201 (F.B.) Squadrons left their moorings at Port Edgar and started off on long reconnaissance.
THE SQUADRON LEADER: Sqd. Ldr. C. G. Wigglesworth, A.F.C., commanding No. 201 (Flying Boat) Squadron, leading a formation of Supermarine "Southamptons" (2 Napier "Lions") over the Solent.
ON THE SLIPWAY: A "Southampton" is being launched
Units of the Marine Craft section, Calshot, go out to bring ashore the personnel of "Southamptons."
The Marine Section at Mount Batten. In front is a motor dinghy. The large craft is a semi-Diesel pinnace. Behind that is a Brooks "Stand-by," to attend at taking-off and landing. Furthest away is a twin-screw refueller.
When outboard engines score: A Supermarine "Southampton" flying-boat, about to take members of the Italian Schneider Team over the course, is called upon to do some manoeuvring on the water to avoid the Cowes-Southampton steamer and a yawl off Calshot.
AS SEEN FROM THE "Do.X": The "snap" taken by Col. The Master of Sempill: two "Southamptons" moored off Calshot
THE PRINCE WITH THE SCHNEIDER TEAMS: Just taking off on board a Supermarine "Southampton" for a flight over the Schneider course. The Prince will probably watch the Contest from Sir Henry Segrave's speed boat "White Cloud."
Picture of "Southampton" of No. 204 (Flying Boat) Squadron taking off in Plymouth Sound.
Picture of "Southamptons" of No. 204 (Flying Boat) Squadron taking off in Plymouth Sound. The breakwater can be seen ahead.
Picture of "Southamptons" of No. 204 (Flying Boat) Squadron taking off in Plymouth Sound.
CRAFT OF THE SEAPLANE TRAINING SQUADRON: The machines from left to right are Fairey "Seal," Avro "Tutor," Saro "Cloud," Hawker "Osprey" and Supermarine "Southampton."
THE R.A.F. BALTIC CRUISE: The four Supermarine "Southamptons" of No. 201 Squadron at Stockholm.
No. 204 (Flying Boat) Squadron.
Three "Southamptons" (two Napier "Lion" engines) of No. 204 (Flying Boat) Squadron in formation off the Devon coast.
BY THE VENTNOR LANDSLIP: Five Supermarine "Southamptons" IIs of No. 201 (Flying Boat) Squadron based at Calshot in excellent formation following the steep southern coast of the Isle of Wight, seen late in 1933.
"PER MARE, PER TERRAM." THE "SOUTHAMPTONS" OF NO. 204 (FLYING BOAT) SQUADRON ARE NOT IN THE LEAST AFRAID TO FLY ACROSS LAND.
OVER THE BEAULIEU RIVER: Airmen alone can see the number of S loops made by this very tidal river as it makes its way through the New Forest.
LANDING IN FORMATION: No. 201 (F.B.) Squadron displays its smartness in alighting.
A. "Southampton" attacked from the rear by a "Bulldog," as seen from another boat of No. 204 (Flying-Boat) Squadron.
"FORMATING": The Vickers Supermarine "Scapa" photographed from a "Southampton."
"Bulldogs" of No. 54 (Fighter) Squadron attacking a "Southampton." This photograph shows the view from the front cockpit of the flying-boat. Above the tail plane is one "Bulldog" turning to break away after attacking, while another can be seen below diving out of range.
No. 54 (Fighter) Squadron, flying Bristol "Bulldogs" ("Jupiter" engines), rallying after an attack on the "Southamptons" (Napier "Lion" engines) of No. 204 (Flying-Boat) Squadron. One fin and rudder of a flying boat appears to the left of the picture.
The Supermarine flying boat with new power plants. The ordinary Southampton, but with two Rolls-Royce "Kestrels."
ON A CRUISE: The tourist who wanders in May round the coasts of Great Britain, and particularly of Scotland, seldom fails to sight the four "Southampton" flying boats of No. 201 (F.B.) Squadron, sometimes at Oban, sometimes at Stranraer, and sometimes in the Firth of Forth. No. 201 F.B.S. is the only unit in Home waters which possesses four flying boats. The "Southamptons" will soon be replaced, possibly by the Saro A.27 "London."
The four Southamptons of the FEF on the newly completed concrete slipway at RAF Seletar in Singapore after their arrival in February 1928. Although the new base was not yet finished, much of the native mangrove swamp had been cleared and a hangar and several “attaps” - matting huts on stilts - had been constructed.
Officers and Airmen of No. 204 (Flying Boat) Squadron.
NO. 201 (FLYING BOAT) SQUADRON: A group of officers and airmen under the wings of a Supermarine "Southampton" in one of the sheds at Calshot.
The Supermarine Southampton I N218, powered by two Napier Lions. The type was the standard coastal reconnaissance type of the RAF and was in service from 1925 until 1937.
Southampton N218 is seen here as a Mk III with two 485 h.p. Bristol Jupiter VIII engines. It has also been fitted with Handley Page slots on the leading edge of the upper wing.
N251 displays its Saunders-Roe A14 stainless steel hull, from which the London originated.
STEAM COOLING: A Supermarine "Southampton" (two Rolls-Royce "Kestrel") has been fitted experimentally with steam cooling, which accounts for the small size of the radiators.
Southampton Mk IV S1122, originally a Mk II, fitted with a pair of 525 h.p. Rolls-Royce Kestrel IIMS engines for evaluation, is seen at Felixstowe in June 1936.
Under the Australian Flag: A Supermarine "Southampton" with Napier "Lion" engines recently delivered to the R.A.A.F. This machine is able to fly with one of its two engines stopped.
Supermarine Southampton A11-2 prepares to leave with two parachutists positioned on special platforms on the lower wing tips.
Another view of the Southampton A11-2 off Point Cook.
Supermarine Southampton A11-2 photographed just before the parachutists were yanked from their perches, high above Point Cook.
Enormous interest was shown by the Australian public in the Far East Flight. The illustration shows some of the 8,000 visitors inspecting one of the Supermarine Metal Constructed "Southampton" Flying Boats at close quarters.
"SOUTHAMPTONS" FOR AUSTRALIA: These photographs show the first of the Supermarine "Southamptons" built for the Royal Australian Air Force. Two of these machines, fitted with Napier "Lion" engines will be sent out by steamer, and will join up with the Far East Flight now proceeding. The Australian machines are similar to those of the Far East Flight, except for the fact that they have wood hulls
"SOUTHAMPTONS" FOR THE ARGENTINE: Acceptance tests have just been carried out with the first Lorraine-engined Supermarine flying-boats ordered for the Argentine Naval Air Service, Commander Zar and Lieut. Portillo observing the tests officially.
ARGENTINE GETTING UP-TO-DATE EQUIPMENT: One of the batch of Supermarine "Southampton" flying-boats now being delivered to the Argentine Navy on test over Southampton Water: 1, the machine being launched down the slipway at Hythe. 2, removing the beaching trolley. 3, taxying in a stiff wind and rough sea. 4, hauling the beaching trolley ashore.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": This type of flying-boat, fitted with Napier "Lion" engines, is used extensively for Coast Defence. The type also has some very long cruises to its credit, such as from England to and around Australia and on to Singapore.
The first of eight service type "Southamptons" (Lorraine engines) to the order of the Argentine Naval Air Service.
One of the Argentinian Southamptons, bearing the distinctive anchor emblems underwing and powered by 450 h.p. Lorraine engines.
Typical type used by the Royal Australian Air Force: Supermarine Southampton (wooden construction).
One of the Argentinian Southamptons, bearing the distinctive anchor emblems underwing and powered by 450 h.p. Lorraine engines.
FOR THE ARGENTINE: The Torpedo Boat Destroyer Flotilla Leader "Mendoza," built to the order of the Argentine Government by J. Samuel White and Co., Ltd., Cowes, and one of the "Southampton" twin-engined (Lorraine) flying-boats built by the Supermarine Aviation Works, Ltd., Southampton, also for the Argentine Government. On her official trials the "Mendoza" attained a mean speed of 38-93 knots - a record speed for a vessel of her class.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON" IN THE ARGENTINE: On March 21 the Prince of Wales and Prince George flew from Buenos Aires to Montevideo in one of the eight Argentine Navy "Southampton" flying-boats. Our picture shows a group taken on the occasion of the first trial flights with one of these machines at Puerto Belgrano last August and includes, from left to right - the Paymaster and Doctor of the Air Station, Lt. Aumann, Lt. Lepnace (pilot), Comdr. Monti, Mr. B. Powell (Supermarine Aviation Works, Ltd.), Comdr. R. Fitzsimon, Comdr. Jensen (Chief of Air Station), Lt.-Comdr. Cappers, and Lt. Mason Lugones.
Japan Air Transport’s metal-hulled Southampton II J-BAID.
The illustration shows a Supermarine "Solent" - Jaguar Engines.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOLENT" AIR YACHT: Two views of the Supermarine flying-boat, fitted with three Armstrong Siddeley "Jaguar" engines, which - as previously reported in FLIGHT - the Hon. Ernest Guinness chartered for a cruise over the Irish Lakes. It was specially fitted out as an aerial yacht, and was piloted by Capt. H. C. Baird.
NEW THREE-ENGINED TORPEDO-CARRYING FLYING-BOAT: The Supermarine "Solent," which is driven by three Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" engines, carries two 1,500 lb. torpedoes, slung one on each side of the hull.
A NEW FLYING BOAT FOR THE R.A.F.: The Supermarine-Jaguar "Southampton" Mark X has been built to the order of the Air Ministry at the Supermarine Works of Vickers (Aviation) Ltd. Note that the machine is about to take off on two engines only.
"ON HER STEP": The Supermarine-Jaguar "Southampton" Mark X getting away. Note the clean running.
The Supermarine flying boat with new power plants. The Southampton Mark X with 3 Bristol "Jupiters."
The three-engined Southampton Mk X of 1930, N252, had a stainless steel hull. It is seen here in 1930 with 520 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley Panther IIA engines, having previously been flown with 490 h.p. Jaguars and 595 h.p. Jupiters.
The Supermarine Machines: In the foreground the S.5 racing seaplane mounted in a very effective attitude. Behind it the "Southampton" flying-boat, which has made a flight of 27,000 miles.
BEACHING CHASSIS OF SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON." On the left the chassis is shown in the down position, while on the right it is shown at the top of its travel. .
One of the wing-tip floats of a "Southampton." Note the pronounced Vee bottom.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": Two views of the cantilever tail, illustrating how little the field of fire is interfered with by the tail.
THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": Photographs of a tail plane, main 'plane, and rudder in skeleton.
The centre section of a Supermarine "Southampton," showing the mounting of the two Napier "Lion" engines.
View inside a main petrol tank of the "Southampton," showing baffle plates.
Hull in skeleton form of the Supermarine "Southampton" Flying Boat, showing method of building up frame on a deep keel of Duralumin plate.
HULLS FOR THE SUPERMARINE "SOUTHAMPTON": Note the staggered cockpits for the rear gunners.
View of the hull from Supermarine Southampton N9899, containing no less than a million screws. The badly damaged rear section is clearly seen. Ex 210 Squadron, it was used as a houseboat at Felixstowe for many years, so its survival is something of a miracle.
The Great Flying-Boat Cruise: Our picture shows one of two all-metal Supermarine "Southampton" flying boats that are being shipped to the East in connection with the R.A.F. Far East flight. It - that is, the hull - is being transported by road, in a neat little packing-case, from Southampton to the London Docks. The wings and other fittings are disposed of separately, in extra suit cases!
"SOUTHAMPTONS" FOR TURKEY: Loading the first two Supermarine "Southampton" flying boats on to the S.S. Polo. The Westcott & Laurance Line were able to deal with the largest case, which measured 49 ft. and weighed 9 1/4 tons with its own gear. The cases are of metal and are so designed that they can be taken to pieces and returned in a small rectangular shape.