Spartan (Великобритания). Самолеты ранних типов
На заводе в Хэмпшире, Южная Англия, Оливер Симмондз спроектировал и построил в 1928 году прототип двухместного биплана Simmonds Spartan с мотором Cirrus HI мощностью 95 л.с. Всего построили примерно 50 таких самолетов, почти половину из которых продали за
пределы Великобритании. На самолеты ставили различные моторы мощностью от 80 до 120 л. с.
Самолеты выпускались компанией "Simmonds Aircraft Ltd", но успех Spartan привел к тому, что в 1930 году реорганизованная фирма получила название "Spartan Aircraft Ltd".
Flight, September 1928
New Light 'Plane
As a new entry in the light 'plane market the Simmonds "Spartan" claims individual attention for certain attempts at originality. The primary objective of Mr. Simmonds, its designer, has been the adaptation of interchangeability as far as possible on the ordinary two-seater light biplane. He has succeeded in an interesting degree. All the wings are interchangeable, so is the rudder with either of the elevators, and vice versa, so is the fin with either outer section of the tail plane (which is designed in three sections) and vice versa, and finally, all the main bracing wires are of the same size and length.
The first machine of this type, G-EBYU, has the wings fitted with the interplane attachments on both surfaces specially to reveal the maximum reduction in performance, but on a standard machine produced on the Simmonds' system the wings would only have fittings on one side and washer plates in the usual manner on the other. This would mean an increase of three or four miles an hour in speed. In the King's Cup Race the Spartan No. 1, flown by Flight-Lieut. S. N. Webster, had not the advantage of this increase, as Mr. Simmonds elected to demonstrate on a minimum rather than a maximum basis of efficiency.
The top speed of the machine has been put at 103-105 m.p.h. and stalling speed at about 37 m.p.h. With a passenger and pilot and average luggage it has been flown at 38 m.p.h. On touching the deck it pulls up very quickly. The chassis is of the split-axle type with considerable travel. There is a side entrance to each cockpit and considerable luggage space. The locker behind the pilot's cockpit can accommodate lengthy objects such as golf clubs. An A.D.C. "Cirrus Mk. III" engine has recently been installed, which has increased the performance to the figures mentioned above. A Fairey metal airscrew is fitted.
Its flying qualities have been favourably reported on by Flight-Lieut. Webster, Flight-Lieut. Swoffer, and Flying Officer H. W. R. Banting, instructor of the Isle of Purbeck Club. The latter has reported that the long-travel undercarriage prevents the machine from a premature launch by a small ridge, and through the spreading of the wheels when landing, it produces a brake effect, resulting in a quick pull up. For example, the machine was landed on the wheels only at 85 m.p.h. and came to a stop after approximately 80 yards.
The skid is connected with the rudder, which gives greater control when taxying, and a spring in the connection between rudder and skid allows rudder control to be tested when the skid is immovable without strain on the controls. An absence of vibration is noticed in flight and the machine is light on the controls, whilst visibility from both cockpits is considered very good.
The petrol capacity is the usual 20 galls., with the tank fitted in the top centre plane. Gap struts are of steel, but wooden construction is employed generally. The wing section is, of course, thick, and [the span is 28 ft. 7 in. The machine is designed for an aerobatic certificate of airworthiness at 1,680 lbs., but the service weight is likely to be in the neighbourhood of 1,400 lbs. The wings fold back, each merely requiring a locking pin to be withdrawn. Behind a light car the Spartan has been towed at 25 m.p.h.
Production of this type is likely to follow, but one is not at liberty at the moment to speak freely of the plans. It is naturally considered by the producers that it can be produced at considerably less cost than usual. Drawing office charges can be reduced owing to the vast reduction in the number of different parts. Similarly, the cost of jigs and tools can be reduced, whilst it has already been found that in the construction much time is saved owing to none of the parts being handed.
It has been mentioned that the new Isle of Purbeck Light Plane Club may use a "Spartan" machine. Four aerodromes are to be founded in Dorset, so that the club may operate over a wide area. It is thought, too, that agricultural interests may be served in the county with the use of light 'planes.
On September 3 the machine was demonstrated by Mr. Simmonds and Capt. N. Stack at the Croydon aerodrome. The latter performed some very low stunting, revealing the manoeuvrability of the "Spartan" in all the conventional ways.
Flight, July 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
SIMMONDS AIRCRAFT, LIMITED
ALTHOUGH established less than a year ago, this firm has already attained a position of importance in the British aircraft industry, at least as far as civil aircraft is concerned, and more particularly aircraft for private use, training and similar functions. In this respect Mr. O. E. Simmonds, the founder and technical director of the firm, has established what is undoubtedly a record in that, in spite of the short period of its existence, the firm already has its standard type of machine in quantity production, while at least two variations or sub-types are about to become standardised. And it is significant that to all intents and purposes the production type of machine is identical with the original "prototype."
The question that will naturally be asked is why this instant success has been attained. The reply, briefly, is that, in addition to possessing flying qualities equal to those of other two-seater light aeroplanes, the Simmonds "Spartan” possesses features never hitherto incorporated in any aeroplane in this or any other country. Mr. O. E. Simmonds was the first designer to realise that the normal aeroplane, evolved from generations of types so to speak, requires a number of spares out of all proportion to the structural necessities of the machine. He reasoned something like this: The motor car of to-day does not, for example, require to carry four spare wheels. Then why should an aircraft - a biplane - need four separate and distinct spare wings; a top starboard plane, a bottom starboard plane, a top port plane and a bottom port plane? That, we think, was how the fundamental idea underlying the design of the "Spartan" first took form. Later on the same principle and the same line of argument was followed to its logical conclusion, and the modern "Spartan" requires rather less than half a dozen spare components!
Beginning with the wings, Mr. Simmonds solved the fundamentals of the problem by making use of a symmetrical biconvex wing section. Obviously such a section is exactly alike whether placed the "right way up" or "upside down." Needless to say, however, the problem was not as simple as that. There was still the question of suitable wing fittings which would allow one spare wing to be used in any of four positions: starboard top or bottom, port top or bottom. After studying the problems for a time, Mr. Simmonds evolved a set of wing fittings which would accomplish this. More than that, he managed so to arrange his biplane cellule that the inter-plane struts in front and rear bay are the same; the lift wires in both bays are the same, and so forth. So far, the incidence bracing wires have defeated him, but here it is a question of either having two standard lengths of incidence wires or one length and some form of an adaptor. Of the two alternatives the two lengths of incidence wires was preferred.
Having succeeded in reducing the number of spares for the wings, Mr. Simmonds turned his attention to the rest of the machine. In the tail, for example, one component is standardised to serve as the vertical fin or as one end piece of the tail plane. The elevator flap, symmetrical in section like the main wings, can be used not only on port or starboard side, but is identical with the rudder as well.
There still remained the undercarriage. Choosing the "split" type, one wheel, with its tripod support, is made to serve for either port or starboard side, so that the agent stocking "Spartan" parts need keep in stock one-half of an undercarriage only.
It might be argued that if a private owner of an aeroplane makes a bad landing and has to write to the makers for a new starboard bottom plane, for example, it matters little whether that plane is identical with the other three planes on the machine. While that is more or less true to-day, it should be remembered that very shortly there will be agents all over the country who stock light 'plane spares, and when that time comes, the advantage of having to carry but a few spares will be obvious. Moreover, in the case where one firm, or company standardises one type of machine (National Flying Services have recently standardised two types, of which one is the "Spartan") it will quite evidently simplify matters if the number of necessary spares is small So that the advantages of the Simmonds system of interchangeable parts is likely to increase as time goes on.
We have dealt at some length with this feature of interchangeability because we believe that the extent to which it has been carried in the Simmonds "Spartan" is still not fully realised generally. And with that we may turn to a description of the actual types to be exhibited at Olympia.
As the standard "Spartan" is the basis, so to speak, of all the Simmonds types, this will be dealt with first. It is a two-seater biplane fitted normally with the "Cirrus III" engine, which develops 95 h.p. The fuselage is of the "box" type, with a light internal framework covered with plywood. The "Spartan" fuselage is built in two sections, the forward one extending from the engine to just aft of the rear cockpit, and the rear section from the cockpit to the sternpost. The two halves are joined with external fishplates, and can readily be detached from each other. In case of damage to the fuselage, one-half (forward or rear portion as required) only need be replaced.
The biplane wings are, as already mentioned, of bi-convex symmetrical section, with spindled I-section spruce spars and wooden ribs, covered with fabric. All components are built on jigs to ensure interchangeability. Ailerons are hinged to all four wings, and the aileron controls are so arranged that when the wings are folded there is no slacking off of the control cables, which are situated externally under the lower wings, where are also placed the cranks, etc. The design of the rear spar fittings must have been a difficult problem in view of the necessity for hingeing the upper and lower wings at this point, but the fitting evolved is neither expensive nor clumsy. All wings are built with a detachable section in the leading edge, near the wing tip. The object of this is that when a purchaser desires his machine fitted with the Handley Page automatic slots, these can be attached to any standard wing without the need for any structural alteration whatever, merely by bolting the slot mechanism on as complete units. When slots are not desired a plain section of leading edge is bolted on instead.
In the tail the system of interchangeability is also utilised to the fullest extent, the fixed tailplane consisting of a short-span centre-section secured to the fuselage, and of two end pieces attached to the centre-section by fishplates, each of these end pieces being identical and interchangeable with the vertical fin. The rudder is similarly identical with and can be interchanged with either of the two elevator flaps.
The undercarriage consists of two tripods, each carrying a wheel, and comprising a bent axle, a radius tube and the telescopic shock-absorbing leg. The fittings on the various members of the undercarriage are such that the same three components can be used on either port or starboard side of the machine, i.e., there is no need for "left hand" and "right hand" parts.
The two cockpits are roomy and the seats very comfortable. Large doors on the starboard side facilitate access to the cockpits without "gymnastics," and each cockpit is equipped with controls and a complete set of instruments. Behind the rear cockpit is a large luggage locker, the upper part of which extends aft inside the deck fairing so as to provide a space for golf clubs, guns, fishing rods, or similar lengthy articles.
The "Cirrus III" engine is mounted on a steel tube structure in the nose of the fuselage, separated from it by a fireproof bulkhead, and the petrol tank forms the centre section of the top plane. A large petrol gauge in the underside of the tank is visible from both cockpits and indicates the amount of fuel in the tank. The normal petrol capacity is 20 galls., but if desired this can be increased to 30 galls.
The main dimensions and areas of the Simmonds "Spartan" are as follows: length overall, 23 ft. 11 in.; wing span, 28 ft. 7 in.; overall height, 9 ft. 3 in.; folded width, 9 ft. 5 in.; total wing area, 240 sq. ft.
The tare weight of the machine is 930 lbs. Although with normal load the "Spartan" will usually have a gross weight of about 1,300 lbs., the machine is built to strength factors which make it permissible to stunt it at a gross weight of 1,680 lbs. In other words, the certificate of airworthiness covers this weight for "aerobatics." For special long-distance flights the "Spartan" may be loaded up to 2,200 lbs. gross weight (when the C. of A. docs not, of course, cover aerobatics "). This will represent a petrol load sufficient for a range of approximately 3,000 miles.
At normal load the wing loading is 5-8 lbs./sq. ft., and the power loading 14-7 lb./h.p. When loaded up to the "aerobatics" C. of A. gross weight of 1,680 lbs., these figures become 7 lbs./sq. ft. and 17-7 lbs./h.p. respectively. At normal load the performance is as follows: maximum speed at sea level, 100 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 80 to 85 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 40 m.p.h.; average initial climb, 5,000 ft. in 10-5 minutes; run to take-off, 90 to 110 yards; landing run, 50 to 70 yards. Range on normal tankage, 320 miles; petrol consumption at cruising speed, 16 miles per gallon.
In addition to the standard "Spartan" two-seater training machine, a coupe two-seater landplane will also be shown. The main difference between this and the standard machine is the addition of a special top or "roof." This cabin top extends right from the top longerons and leaves plenty of room inside. It is provided with sliding windows in the sides, as well as with sliding windows in the two doors.
Finally, Simmonds Aircraft, Ltd., will exhibit a three-seater "Spartan," the power plant of which is a "Hermes" engine. This machine is not a mere conversion of the standard two-seater, but has been specially constructed with a slightly longer front-portion fuselage, but for the rest composed of standard "Spartan" components. The aft cockpit is the normal, but the front cockpit is considerably longer than in the two-seater machine, and an ingenious arrangement of the seats permits the two passengers either to look forward or sit facing each other. A cross bar hinged at one end and having a catch at the other separates the two passengers, and when swung aside permits of easy access to the forward seat. If the machine is used as a two-seater, the forward part of the cockpit can be covered with an easily removable top carrying a windscreen.
Except for the overall length, which is slightly greater than the corresponding dimensions in the two-seater, the three-seater "Spartan" has the same dimensions and areas. The tare weight is 940 lbs., and the gross weight within the "aerobatics" C. of A. is, as before, 1,680 lbs. The load can be made up as follows : tare weight, 940 lbs.; pilot, 160 lbs.; two passengers, 320 lbs.; luggage, 80 lbs.; petrol (20 galls,), 150 lbs.; oil (3 galls.), 30 lbs.; gross weight, 1,680 lbs. The wing loading is 7 lbs./sq. ft., and the power loading 14-6 lbs./h.p.
The following performance figures are quoted: top speed at ground level, 107 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 90 to 95 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 44 m.p.h.; climb to 5,000 ft. in 10 minutes; ceiling, 16,000 ft.; range at cruising speed, 300 miles.
Flight, April 1930
AIRCRAFT FOR THE PRIVATE OWNER
SIMMONDS AIRCRAFT, LTD., of Southampton, have built in the Spartan an aircraft which, though it appears more or less the same as several other light aircraft, has at the same time a very radical difference, and this is its interchangeability. The wings have been specially designed so that any wing will fit in any position. This has been achieved by using a wing section having both upper and lower surfaces of equal curvature and by careful design of the wing root fittings. The advantage of this is that where, say, a club is using several of these machines for training purposes, or where a dealer carries spares of these machines for ready use, there is no need to have four different kinds of main planes as the one standard type will be ready for use as a spare for any of the four positions.
But the ingenuity of Mr. Simmonds did not stop at the planes, and was extended to the tail unit as well, and here we have the vertical fin so designed that it can also be used for either end of the tail plane, and the elevators are identical with the rudder.
To revert to the main planes again, we find that the interplane struts are exactly the same, as are also the flying and landing wires. The incidence bracing has so far defeated the designer's powers of simplification, but possibly by means of some simple form of adapter it will be found that one length of wire can be used.
In the undercarriage the same idea has been carried on, and here we have one wheel with its compression leg, radius rod and axle serving for either port or starboard sides.
One would naturally think that a very great deal must have been sacrified in order to obtain this interchangeability, but this is not the case, and though, like all new aeroplanes, the Spartan has had its share of teething troubles, it is generally accepted to be a very good flying machine.
Two main types are being marketed, and both may have the Cirrus-Hermes or Cirrus III engine. The former is the standard two-seater open cockpit type, while the latter has had the fuselage slightly enlarged and the front cockpit has been arranged to take two passengers. A door is fitted in the side of the fuselage for access to this cockpit, and as can be seen in the lower photograph, the passengers sit one in front of the other. The rear cockpit also has its door, and behind it is situated a very roomy luggage locker, which has been designed long enough to carry comfortably such things as golf clubs, fishing rods, or guns.
Very rapid advance was made with the production of the Spartan when the factory was first started, so much so that orders very much overran the supply, but more recently considerable outside financial interests have come in to the firm, and during the coming season we may expect to see the Spartan in evidence wherever men fly, its obvious advantages having already appealed to many owners.
Flight, November 1932
Spartan Aircraft, Limited
Cowes, Isle of Wight
ASSOCIATED with Saunders-Roe, Ltd., in that Sir Alliott V. Roe and Mr. John Lord are directors of both firms, Spartan Aircraft, Ltd., has developed from the firm originally started by Mr. O. E. Simonds, M.P. (who is now no longer connected with it), and several interesting types of aircraft for the private owner have been produced. Of these we have space to refer to but two.
The Three-Seater Mark II
This is the latest development of the earlier three-seater built by this firm, and the accommodation is so arranged that the pilot occupies the front seat, with the passengers behind him. In this way not only does the pilot obtain a splendid view forward over the inverted Hermes II engine (Gipsy III and Hermes IV as alternative), but the passengers are in a better position for getting in and out. The machine is of simple straightforward construction, and is an equal-span biplane. When fitted with the Hermes IV engine the data are:
Length o.a 26 ft. 3 in. (7,9 m.)
Wing span 28 ft. 10 in. (8,8 m.)
Wing area 240 sq. ft. (22,3 m'.)
Tare weight 1,150 lb. (522 kg.)
Fuel 170 lb. (77 kg.)
Oil 20 lb. (9 kg.)
Useful load 340 lb. (154 kg.)
Gross weight 1,680 lb. (762 kg.)
Maximum speed 107 m.p.h. (172 km./h.)
Cruising speed 95 m.p.h. (153 km./h.)
Landing speed 44 m.p.h. (VI km./h.)
Rate of climb 750 ft./min. (3,8 m./sec.)
Range 260 miles (418 km.)
These figures refer to the machine when loaded to the "Aerobatic" weight. For "Normal" category the gross weight becomes 1,850 lb. (839 kg.) and the useful load 510 lb. (231 kg.). The performance is not greatly inferior to that of the 1,680 lb. machine.
Well-known modern light 'plane: Simmonds "Spartan."
The Simmonds' "Spartan" in low flight over Croydon Aerodrome on September 3, when it was demonstrated by Mr. O. E. Simmonds and Capt. N. Stack.
ONE AVIATES AT BRISTOL: Mr. Bartlett is here seen flying two machines (but not at the same time). When the Bristol Club's "Moth" got a little tired, the Simmonds "Cirrus-Spartan".
SIMMONDS 2-SEATER "SPARTAN" ("Cirrus III").
THE "SPARTAN CIRCUS" IN AFRICA: "Snap" from the Cape taken on the occasion when the Circus (which is composed of Mr. Oscar Garden, Capts. E. D. Ayre, J. King, E. D. Cummings, Mr. John Tranum and Mr. C. E. F. Reilly) now touring Africa, visited the Cape Town Airport. One of the three "Hermes-Spartans" belonging to the Circus.
THE "SPARTAN CIRCUS" IN AFRICA: "Snap" from the Cape taken on the occasion when the Circus (which is composed of Mr. Oscar Garden, Capts. E. D. Ayre, J. King, E. D. Cummings, Mr. John Tranum and Mr. C. E. F. Reilly) now touring Africa, visited the Cape Town Airport. The picture shows John Tranum, with revolver, as aerial cowboy astride the "Spartan."
This front view of the "Spartan" light 'plane in flight shows in particular the split axle.
A Spartan 3-seater (Gipsy II) flying over Southampton Water.
SOME OTHER COMPETITORS: (5) Flight-Lieut. C. S. Staniland, on the Simmonds "Spartan" (in the air), who was "missing" after leaving Blackpool. J. D. Irving's "Gipsy Moth" in the foreground.
SOME OTHER COMPETITORS: (1) F./O. R. W. Jackson, on J. Parkinson's Simmonds "Spartan" ("Cirrus III").
THE SPARTAN: In the race are entered two with Hermes II and two with Cirrus III engines.
FIRST DELIVERY. A Simmonds "Spartan" (85 h.p. "Cirrus III") light 'plane, the first to be delivered to National Flying Services, Ltd. It is painted in the N.F.S. colours of orange and black.
Capt. N. Stack, the A.D.C. Aircraft test pilot, taking off in Mr. Mase's Cirrus-Spartan at Croydon to give an exhibition flight. The building behind is the Aerodrome Hotel.
Two views of Simmonds "Spartan" ("Cirrus" Mk. III) fitted with Fairey metal airscrew, which is distinctive for its interchangeability of wings, of rudder with elevators, and of fin with tail plane sections.
"FORTY MINUTES": Some of the Competitors - Nos. 21 (Widgeon III Genet II), 20 (D.H.Moth Gipsy I), 18 (Widgeon III Gipsy I) and 14 (Spartan Hermes II) - refuelling at Heston on the first lap.
The start of the first heat for the Race at Skegness: (Left to right) "Avian," "Cadet," "Avian," "Spartan," "Widgeon" and Autogiro - the last, in its first race.
FIRST ARRIVAL AT HOOTON: Flt.-Lt. Gibbons has his Spartan (Hermes II) refuelled. He was away again before one-half of his competitors arrived from Sherburn.
The Simmonds "Spartan" is unusual, in that the wings are so designated that the same spare wing can be used on either side and as top or bottom plane.
Lieut.-Col. L. A. Strange, D.S.O., M.C., D.F.C. (right) and Mr. H.W.R Banting, at the Tempelhof aerodrome. Berlin, with the Cirrus-Spartan in which they flew non-stop from London in 7 hrs. 10 mins. and back in 6 hrs.
Mr. O. E. Simmonds, the designer of the Simmonds' Spartan ("Cirrus" Mk. III), who is also a qualified pilot.
Mr. Frank Mase introducing Lady Bailey before the ceremony in a brief speech which praised Lady Bailey's aviation accomplishments.
A SPARTAN GROUP: (left to right) Mr. C. Cook, Mr. Fred Simmonds, Mr. C. Staniland, the Simmonds test pilot (in the cockpit), and Miss V. Withers.
The Simmonds "Spartan" Light 'Plane, "Cirrus" Engine.
SIR ALAN COBHAM TRIES A NEW MOUNT: Sir Alan Cobham gave a fine exhibition of skilful piloting on the Simmonds "Cirrus-Spartan" at Croydon on December 11, in a high and very gusty wind. Sir Alan expressed himself as delighted with the airworthiness and "robust feeling" of the Spartan in the air
Cellon Dope meets all requirements - it is used for Service Machines, Civil Air Lines and light Aeroplanes, a fine example of which is shown here. "Spartans," built by Simmonds Aircraft, Ltd., are used in many foreign countries, and they are always, of course, doped with CELLON, which gives unvarying satisfaction under the most varying conditions.
SIMMONDS 3-SEATER "SPARTAN." ( A.D.C. "Hermes.")
A WINNER AT SKEGNESS: Lt. Col. L. A. Strange about to take off in the new "Spartan II" (Hermes II B).
Three-seater "Spartan" ("Hermes IIB") of Lt. Col. L. Strange. A trinity which won the Isle of Thanet Cup.
A new version of that excellent aircraft for joy-riding - the Spartan 3-seater - which was seen at Heston during Henly's Rally on Saturday, June 4.
Spartan "3-Seater" ("Gipsy II").
The Simmonds Stand: "Spartan" two-seaters and three-seaters are shown. The coupe could not be got ready in time for the Show.
The new long-span Simmonds Spartan with the new car-type engine cowling.
FIRST IN FIRST ROUND: Fl.-Lt. Gibbons (Spartan), the first back at Heston on the first round of the King's Cup.
The winning "Spartan" 3-seater landing at Skegness after its excellent race.
FROM SOUTH AFRICA: The three-seater Spartan ("Hermes II"), with Messrs. Duk and Store aboard, of Aero Services (Pty.), Ltd., Wynberg, South Africa. This machine was originally taken out to South Africa by Mr. John Tranum, and after a period of hard work was sold to its present owners, who have since had consistent and good service from it.
ONLY A "SPARTAN" WOULD ATTACK THE "HEYFORD": With a gunner above and a gunner below, in a rotatable turret, the new Handley Page night bomber is well defended. On this occasion the "Heyford" was piloted by Sqd. Ldr. T. England and the "Spartan" by Capt. Cordes.
Landing the Hermes II "Spartan" for operation with the East Greenland Air Survey.
CHRISTENING CEREMONY OF SIMMONDS "SPARTAN" PRODUCTION TYPE: In the picture on the left is Mr. O. E. Simmonds, Chairman (left), and his co-director, Lt.-Col. L. A. Strange, D.S.O., M.C., D.F.C. On the right, The Mayor and Mayoress of Southampton (Mr. and Mrs. Pugh) are trying the comfortable and spacious cockpits of the Simmonds "Spartan" (A.D.C. "Cirrus" Mk. III), Mr. Simmonds being alongside. Below is the Mayoress about to perform the christening ceremony in the usual way in the Company's Woolston works, on December 31, when a large number of guests were present.
The Hon. Lady Bailey christening the Simmonds "Cirrus-Spartan" light 'plane "The All Black" at Croydon Aerodrome on April 19. In this machine Mr. Frank Mase will attempt a solo flight to New Zealand shortly.
Mr. Andrews' "Spartan" (Gipsy II), No. 24, had a neat engine cowling, the passenger's cockpit covered over, the pilot s fairing raised, and a very small windscreen (106-32 m.p.h.)
A SPARTAN SPARTAN: The first Spartan to be fitted with skis, in Norway.
A SPARTAN IN SWEDEN: This Spartan ("Hermes II") is used by Wideroe's Flyveselskap of Oslo for flights up to the mountains. It is shown fitted with skis, and Lt. A. Wideroe is seen attending to the skis for his own undercarriage.
FROM FIJI: A Spartan (Hermes II) seaplane which Mr. Gordon Fenton has operated in the Fiji Islands for over 500 hours without any untoward events.
FULL MEASURE: Col. Strange with an enthusiastic load in his 3-seater Spartan.
The first passengers taken up at Cramlington were piloted by Miss Pauline Gower. She has worked with the Hospitals Air Pageant ever since the start in April. Dorothy Spicer, her ground engineer, is seen helping two passengers into their "Spartan" three-seater (Hermes II).
Spartan Ingenuity: The front cockpit of the three-seater Simmonds "Spartan" has a very clever seating arrangement whereby the front passenger may sit either facing forward or facing aft. The back-rest is hinged in such a way as to be capable of being swung upwards out of the way, as is also the middle windscreen. When the machine is used as a two-seater, a special cover is provided which covers the front part of the cockpit. If desired a slightly longer cover can be fitted, which completely covers the cockpit opening and may be used if the machine is flown solo.
Ample room for two persons is provided in the rear cockpit of this, the latest version, of the Spartan 3-seater.
In this general view of Croydon Aerodrome under wintry conditions are the many machines which brought their owners to greet Lady Bailey. They include Capt. G. de Havilland's Coupe-Moth, Mr. G. A. R. Malcolm's Gipsy-Moth and Lt.-Col. L. A. Strange's Simmonds "Spartan." Also in the picture, which was taken from a "D.H." Moth piloted by Capt. A. S. White, are the "Daily Mail" "Geraldine" (D.H.61) and Alpha-Avian.
The interplane strut fittings on the Simmonds "Spartan" are all of one type, and can be used in all the various positions.
The hinge on the top rear spar, jury strut and fittings on the "Spartan."
The "Spartan" elevator is operated from a lay shaft via external cranks and push-pull tube.
In the "Spartan" tail the outer ends of the tail plane are identical with the fin, and each elevator flap is interchangeable with the rudder.
Undercarriage leg attachment and wing locking pin arrangement on the Simmonds "Spartan." On the right, details of spar and rib construction.
Simmonds "Spartan" Cirrus III Engine
(3 Seater) Simmonds "Spartan" Cirrus III Engine