Focke-Wulf A 16, A 17, A 29 и A 38 Mowe
В 1927 году появился A 17 Mowe, представлявший собой улучшенный и несколько увеличенный A 16. Каркас фюзеляжа изготовлен из стальных труб, обшивка в районе кабины выполнена из фанеры, остальная часть фюзеляжа обшита тканью. При экипаже
в два человека самолет мог перевозить восемь пассажиров. Крыло - деревянной конструкции с фанерной обшивкой. На прототипе стоял не закрытый капотом 420-сильный (313 кВт) звездообразный мотор Gnome-Rhone Jupiter 9Ab. В 1928 году самолет передали в "Norddeutsche Luftverkehr", затем его эксплуатировала "Lufthansa", которая заказала еще 10 серийных машин с рулями направления увеличенной площади и мотором Siemens Jupiter мощностью 480 л. с. (358 кВт) - самолеты обозначались A 17a. Один самолет с дизельным мотором Junkers Jumo 5 мощностью 520 л. с. (388 кВт) обозначался A 17c.
A 26: конверсия одного A 17a в летающую лабораторию для испытания двигателей, выполненная "Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur Luftfahrt" в Берлине
A 21: один самолет для аэрофотосъемки/картографирования с большими вырезами в бортах фюзеляжа, первый полет выполнил в 1927 году, оснащен мотором BMW V1 мощностью 450 л.с. (336 кВт)
A 29: в 1929 году "Focke-Wulf" представила новый вариант A 17 с двигателем BMW VI мощностью 650 л.с. (485 кВт); четыре построены для "Deutsche Lufthansa", один для "Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule", где использовался в качестве учебного для подготовки гражданских пилотов
A 38: четыре A 38 построены для "Deutsche Lufthansa" в 1931 году; фюзеляж получил новый каркас из стальных труб, обтянутых полотном, рассчитан на перевозку 10 пассажиров, двух пилотов и радиста; усилено шасси, костыль заменен на колесную хвостовую опору; изначально ставился мотор Siemens Jupiter мощностью 400 л.с. (298 кВт), но позже на всех четырех аппаратах поставили моторы Siemens Sh.20a мощностью 500 л.с. (373 кВт), самолеты получили обозначение A 38b
Flight, October 1928
Berlin Aero Show 1928
The Focke Wulf "Moewe"
In common with not a few German aircraft firms, the Focke Wulf Flugzeugbau of Bremen have developed their large commercial aircraft from smaller types previously in use during the period when Germany was prevented by the Inter-Allied Commission from producing and operating machines of more than a certain limited size and power. Thus the largest machine on this stand, the "Moewe" type A.17a, is a direct development of previous small "feeder line" types of machines, the general outline of which the "Moewe" retains. The "tail-first" type which this firm produced last year is not represented at the Show, but it is of interest to learn that the type will be proceeded with experimentally, as it is held that the accident which resulted in the death of Dr. Wulf last year was of a nature which might have befallen any type of machine, and not necessarily a result of the tail-first arrangement. We were informed on the Focke Wulf stand that the new "Ente" may be expected in about six months' time.
However, this is by the way. The subject that concerns us at present is the "Moewe." "Wirtschaftlichkeit" - or, in other words, economy in operation - was the first consideration of the designer of the machine. In his view - a view, by the way, which is not universally shared in England - economy is to be obtained by a high ratio of paying load to engine power. In the "Moewe" this ratio is represented by a pay load in the form of eight passengers for a single engine of 480 h.p. (geared "Jupiter").
The machine is of "mixed" construction in that the fuselage is a welded-steel tube structure, while the cantilever monoplane wing is an all-wood structure in which the three-ply wing covering is employed to stabilise the internal wing skeleton, and thus takes part of the load imposed on the wing. The fuselage is fabric-covered except for the cabin portion, which has three-ply walls in order to deaden the engine noise, and the engine mounting, which is covered with aluminium sheet.
It has always been a feature of the Focke-Wulf machines that the cabin floor is raised but slightly above the ground. This feature has to a large extent been retained in the "Moewe," in which a small tubular step is all that is required for entering and leaving the cabin. The latter has six wicker seats arranged in two rows, one along each side of the cabin, and a small sofa seat for two against the rear wall. A door in the forward wall communicates with the pilot's cockpit, which is placed ahead of the leading edge of the wing and protected by a large wind-screen. Dual controls are provided as in most large German commercial machines, so that either two pilots or one pilot and a navigator who can act as occasional pilot may be carried.
The undercarriage is the type now so popular in Germany, in which a Vee of steel tubes projects laterally from the sides of the fuselage and carry the wheel axle, while a third strut runs to the wing. This latter strut is sometimes arranged as a telescopic member, but in the "Moewe" it is solid, the springing being obtained by rubber cords passing over a cross-piece on the top of this strut and anchored inside the wing profile. A fairly wide wheel track is provided in this manner, although British designers might object to imposing landing shocks thus direct on to their wing structure. The arrangement does not, however, appear to give any trouble in actual use.
The engine used in the "Moewe" A. 17a is a geared "Jupiter" mounted on a steel tube structure. The petrol (500 kg. = 1,100 lbs.) is carried in two tanks in the leading edge of the wing, and direct-gravity feed is employed.
The main dimensions of the "Moewe" are: Length, o.a,, 13 m. (42-7 ft.); wing span, 20 m. (65-6 ft.); wing area, 62-5 sq.m. (673 sq.ft.). Tare weight, 2,450 kg. (5,380 lbs.); permissible load, 1,550 kg. (3,410 lbs.); total loaded weight, 4,000 kg. (8,800 lbs.); maximum speed, 201 km. h. (125 m.p.h.); cruising speed, 175 km./h. (108 m.p.h.); landing speed, 90 km./h. (56 m.p.h.); climb to 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 6-6 mins.; ceiling, 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.); range, 800 km. (500 miles).
Flight, August 1931
FOCKE-WULF A38 "MOWE”
DESIGNED and built by the Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau, of Bremen, Germany, the A38 "Mowe" is a development of former well-known Focke-Wulf types, such as the A17 "Mowe," of 1927, and the somewhat later A29. The new machine has been designed especially with Deutsche Luft Hansa requirements in view, and the first four machines of the type are on order from that company.
A single-engined high-wing cantilever monoplane, the A38 "Mowe" is designed for a crew of three and 10 passengers, but if desired the cabin equipment can be removed and the machine used for carrying freight. The wing is, as in previous Focke-Wulf, of Zanonia form, which has been found to give quite remarkable lateral stability up to very high angles.
Compared with previous "Mowe" models, the following alterations have been made: The fuselage layout has been changed so that the cabin no longer communicates directly with the cockpit but is separated from it by a luggage compartment, which has a door in the side and one giving access to the cockpit, so that the crew can get on board without going through the cabin. The engine mounting is now so arranged as to give a certain amount of springing for damping vibrations. The rudder and elevators are made of steel tube, so that wood is now only used in the main wing and the tail plane. The tank arrangement has been altered, and the undercarriage has been redesigned and the wheels fitted with brakes.
The wing construction is identical with that of earlier Focke-Wulf machines, with two box spars of wood and a covering of plywood.
In the construction of the fuselage use is made of steel tubes, joined by welding, and the covering over the greater portion is doped fabric. The cockpit is placed immediately behind the engine bulkhead, and below and ahead of the leading edge of the wing. Triplex windscreens and windows afford protection for the crew. Behind the cockpit is the luggage compartment, which has a capacity of some 2 1/2 cubic metres (88 cu. ft.). A door in the rear wall communicates with the cabin, which has a length of 4.5 m. (14 ft. 9 in.), a width of 1.5 m. (4 ft. 11 in.), and an average height of 1.7 m. (5 ft. 7 in.). When the machine is used as a freight-carrier, the whole of the cabin space is available, while part of the interior of the wing roots can also be used for the stowage of goods. Behind the cabin is a lavatory, the door of which is so arranged that when the machine is on the ground nearly all of the lavatory space becomes available for entering and leaving the cabin.
An undercarriage of the "split" type is used. The telescopic legs are anchored at their upper ends to the wing, and springing is by compression rubber blocks. Wheel brakes are fitted, and instead of the tail skid there is a castor-action tail wheel with Goodyear low-pressure tyre.
The engine fitted as standard on the A38 "Mowe" is a Siemens "Jupiter" of 500 h.p., with propeller reduction gear. Other engines, such as the BMW VI or the Siemens Sh.20, can be fitted if desired. The petrol tanks are housed in the leading edge of the wings, and have a capacity of 400 litres (88 gallons) each. Normally the tanks are not filled to capacity, but carry in all some 110 gallons (55 gallons each), which gives a range of 465 miles (about 4 1/2 hours). If the tanks are filled the range is correspondingly increased, but the pay load reduced. Fuel supply to the engine is by direct gravity feed.
From the fact that the Everling "High-speed Figure" has a value of 18.3, it is seen that the minimum drag is fairly low, while the ratio of gross weight to tare weight is 1.63, which is about normal for a machine of this type, certainly not exceptionally high for a machine with a relatively high wing loading.