Flight, February 1930
THE BERLINER-JOYCE COMMERCIAL MONOPLANE
A SHORT while back flight tests were carried out with a new commercial cabin aeroplane produced by the Berliner-Joyce Aircraft Corporation of Baltimore, U.S.A., and designed primarily to incorporate
a new wing arrangement, giving greatly improved range of visibility for machines of this type, i.e., totally enclosed.
The B-J machine is a two-place high-wing - or, perhaps one should say, "not-so-high-wing" - monoplane equipped with a Kinner 113 h.p. 5-cyl. radial air-cooled engine. Improved vision has been obtained, in the first place, by mounting the wing a little below the top of the fuselage, level with the pilot's eyes. The wings are also cut away at the roots, so that, with a slight movement of his head, the pilot is able to obtain a view in all directions. Secondly, large windows are provided all round the cabin,, at the top as well as the sides and front. The cabin is, in fact, rather more like a conservatory!
The wings are of wood construction with fabric covering, having box spars of spruce with mahogany plywood webbing, reinforced with stiffeners at each rib point. The ribs are of modified truss construction built up of spruce and plywood; a test rib, weighing only 8 ozs., carried a gross load of 427 lbs. without fracture. Compression members are of wood and over-strength swaged tie rods are employed. The wings are externally braced from the fuselage by streamline struts of chrome molybdenum tubing having a unique truss arrangement which allows for small-sized members and for supporting the spars at multiple points, thereby reducing concentrated spar stresses.
All wing fittings are of steel, the spars being reinforced at fitting points. Forward of the front spar a covering of sheet duralumin extends top and bottom from the spruce leading edge back to the spar, so that this portion of the wing is practically of tubular construction. The tail surfaces of ample proportions and high aspect ratio, are of steel tube fabric covered, and are rigidly braced by streamline struts Friese type ailerons are employed, and the horizontal stabilizer is adjustable during flight from the pilot's seat.
The fuselage is built up of welded c-m steel tubing throughout on the Warren truss system, eliminating the use of wire bracing. In the vicinity of the cabin the fuselage is of generous dimensions, allowing freedom of movement and easy entrance and exit by way of two large doors. Forward side and door windows are of safety glass, and the side windows can be opened. Both seats are removable, and provision is made for seat-pack parachutes. A luggage compartment is provided behind the rear seat. Dual control is fitted, the rear one being removable when not required.
The engine mounting is of simple rugged design and is readily detachable by means of removable tapered pins. The machine has been designed to take engines of higher horsepower if required. Petrol is carried in two 15-gallon tanks in the wings, and is fed to the engine by gravity. Each tank is provided with a gauge, visible from the pilot's seat.
A non-axle landing gear is fitted, the wheels being carried by V-struts sloping out from the fuselage and connected to streamline oleo struts attached to the wing struts directly above the wheel. Bendix wheels and brakes are used, while a pivoted tail-wheel, equipped with pneumatic tyre and oleo absorber, is also fitted.
The actual performance of the B-J commercial monoplane with full load, obtained with calibrated instruments and data reduced to N.A.C.A. Standard Atmosphere, is as follows :- High speed, 150 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 49 m.p.h.; climb, 600 ft. per min.; service ceiling, 13,000 ft.; absolute ceiling, 15,000 ft.