Whitley / A.W.38
Средний бомбардировщик, двухмоторный цельнометаллический моноплан с двухкилевым оперением и убирающимся шасси с хвостовым колесом. Экипаж 5 человек. Спроектирован в КБ фирмы "Армстронг-Уитворт" под руководством Дж.Ллойда. Опытный образец самолета впервые поднялся
в воздух 17 марта 1936 г. Серийное производство на заводе "Армстронг-Уитворт" в Ковентри началось в феврале 1937 г. Всего выпущено 1824 экз., из них 1678 бомбардировщиков. "Уитли" поступил на вооружение ВВС Великобритании в марте 1937 г.
Основные серийные модификации как бомбардировщика:
- "Уитли" I с моторами "Тайгер" XI, вооружение 2x7,69, бомбы до 680 кг;
- "Уитли" II с моторами "Тайгер" VIII, вооружение 4x7,69, бомбы до 1590 кг;
- "Уитли" III с увеличенным бомбоотсеком, бомбы до 2500 кг;
- "Уитли" IV с моторами "Мерлин" IV, увеличенный запас горючего, бомбы до 3200 кг;
- "Уитли" IVA с моторами "Мерлин" X;
- "Уитли" V с вооружением 5x7,69, антиобледенительной системой.
Существовали также противолодочные и транспортные варианты.
С сентября 1939 г. "Уитли" сбрасывали листовки над Германией, с марта 1940 г. осуществляли ночные бомбардировки (в широких масштабах - с мая), в т.ч. в августе - налет на Берлин. В июне 1940 г. провели бомбежку Генуи и Турина. Последний массированный налет с участием "Уитли" состоялся в апреле 1942 г., после чего самолеты передали в учебные подразделения. Однако весной и летом их вновь привлекли к налетам на Кёльн, Эссен, Бремен и другие города Германии. "Уитли" был снят с производства весной 1943 г. Как учебный и транспортный самолет использовался до 1945 г.
Моторы, количество х мощность:||2x1145 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||15209 кг
Максимальная скорость:||370 км/ч
Практический потолок:||7925 м
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.38 Whitley (UK)
Most extensively built of all Armstrong Whitworth aircraft was the Whitley heavy bomber, designed to meet the British Air Ministry specification B.3/34. More than 1,800 were produced. Selected for production off the drawing board in 1935 the prototype flew for the first time on 17 March 1936. The second prototype and 34 Mk I production aircraft which followed were all powered by two 592.5 kW (795 hp) Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX radial engines. Mk IV, V and VII Whitleys, which followed later, had Rolls-Royce Merlin engines - these conferring considerably improved performance.
Whitleys began to enter RAF service in the early months of 1937 and by the outbreak of war in 1939 were well established in the bomber squadrons. Being slower than the contemporary Handley Page Hampden and Vickers Wellington they were classed as night bombers. They were a vital component of Bomber Command operations until their withdrawal from front-line service in 1941. Achieving some of the major milestones of the war, the Whitley was responsible for the first widespread leaflet raids over Germany, in September 1939; the first bombing raid on Germany, in May 1940; the first bombing raid on Italy, in June 1940; and the first paratroop operation over Southern Italy, in February 1941. After its withdrawal from front-line service with Bomber Command the Whitley was converted for use as a general reconnaissance bomber and put into service by Coastal Command. In another converted form it was used to train the first British airborne troops and to take them into action for the first time, in a flight from England to Southern Italy. At the end of the war the type was still in service for training and other miscellaneous duties. (A full description of the type appears in the 1945-46 Jane's.)
Data (Whitley V): Engines two 801.5 kW (1,075 hp) Merlin Xs Wingspan 25.6 m (84ft 0in) Length 22.10 m (72 ft 6 in) Max T-O weight 12,790 kg (28,200 lb) Max level .speed 367 km/h (228 mph) Combat range 2,414 km (1,500 miles) Armament five 0.303 in machine-guns, plus up to 3,175 kg (7,000 lb) of bombs
Flight, November 1939
Britain's Military Aircraft
A Survey of Our Service Machines
FOR some time the extensive production facilities of the Armstrong Whitworth works have been used for the large-scale production of Whitley twin-engined bombers.
From the original Mark I version with Siddeley Tiger IX radial engines this type has been developed into the Whitley V, which, like the Mark IV, mounts liquid-cooled Rolls-Royce Merlins.
The cantilever wing of the Whitley is built round a box spar which has vertical corrugated walls and, top and bottom, span-wise corrugations. The outer panels are slightly tapered and have a marked dihedral angle. Extending from aileron to fuselage on each side are hydraulically operated trailing-edge flaps. The ailerons are of the Frise type.
Unusual in that it tapers little in depth, the fuselage, like the wing, is constructed in three sections. Structurally, it is a metal monocoque with smooth sheet covering riveted to the stringers, the latter being supported by hoops.
The tailplane is set low on idle fuselage and carries two braced fins set well inboard from the tips.
In both Merlin and Tiger versions the undercarriage retracts forward into the engine nacelles. There are three main fuel tanks, two in the wing and one in the fuselage.
The crew is normally five and there are power-operated gun turrets in the nose, amidships and in the tail. The midships position takes the form of a retractable "dustbin" which is rotatable through 360 deg. Bombs are stowed in the centre section of the wing and in the fuselage, the doors to the bomb cells being retained in the closed position during flight by spring loading.
Marks II and III are fitted with a pair of two-speed supercharged Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VIII fourteen-cylinder air-cooled engines on welded steel-tube mountings.
Performance, figures for the Whitley V may not be quoted, but the Mark IV version has a top speed of 245 m.p.h. The Whitley III with Tiger VIII engines, which deliver 1,610 h.p. (combined) for level flight at 15,000ft., is capable of 215 m.p.h. at that height, the cruising speed at the same altitude being 177 m.p.h. on 66 percent, power. Dimensions are: Span. 84ft.; length, 69ft. 3in.; height, 15ft.; and wing area, 1,323 sq. ft. Empty the machine weighs 15,750 lb., the gross weight being 24,000 lb. The good handling characteristics and the low stalling speed of 59 m.p.h. makes the Whitley very suitable for night (lying.
Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, Ltd.. Whitley, Coventry.
Whitley I, II, III
The first prototype Whitley I, K4586. It later became a ground instructional aircraft serialled 7070M.
A NEW "HEAVY." The Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley (two Tiger engines).
The prototype Whitley, K4586, seen during its first public appearance at the RAF Display at Hendon on June 27, 1936.
With two 795 h.p. Tiger IXs the new Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber has a fine performance for a machine of its size.
Первый опытный экземпляр "Уитли". На самолете установлены пулеметные турели раннего образца с педальным приводом. Снимок 1936г.
METAL-CLAD, Stressed skin, V.P. airscrew, flaps and retractable undercarriage are features of the new A. W. Whitley.
The prototype Whitley, K4586, showing well the two 795 h.p. supercharged Armstrong Whitworth Tiger IX engines and the newly introduced three-blade two position de Havilland propellers.
A HENDON DEBUTANT: The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber is likely to make its first public appearance at the R.A.F. Display on June 27. Its engines are two 790/880 Tiger IXs.
The prototype Whitley, K4586, was relegated to an instructional airframe as 7070M after test work was completed.
The leisurely passage of the ancient Farman over the new types park. In the foreground the Merlin in the Hawker F.36/34 is being run up. The Whitley heavy bomber is seen in the centre.
The shape of wings to come. Monoplanes fill the new types park at the 1936 pageant.
Britain's biggest air liner is equipped with Siddeley engines cowled with fairing rings by Northern Aircraft & Engineering Products, Ltd. In the background of the photograph is the “Whitley” bomber, also fitted with our cowlings.
It is obvious that the Whitley is related to the A.W.23 bomber transport.
Whitley II K7222 with turret positions faired over.
This view of the Whitley I K7211 shows the wide chord wings to advantage. This Whitley became one of the three prototype Whitley IVs and was re-engined with Rolls-Royce Merlins. K7211 flew with Nos 58 and 10 Sqns before being lost in the English Channel on January 23, 1939.
The sixth production Whitley 2, K7222, here seen before installation of gun turrets.
Whitley I K7209 later became one of three Whitley IV prototypes. Early Whitleys were delivered minus nose and tail turrets, though most aircraft received these rather necessary items at a later date.
The Armstrong Whitworth "Whitley" Heavy Bomber (two Armstrong Siddeley "Tiger" engines).
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley is a very sound and well-defended type in the heavier category
K7191, the ninth production Whitley I. Note the absence of dihedral on the outer wing panels.
The Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley (two Siddeley Tigers)
Whitley I K7191, from the initial production batch, served with Nos 10 and 166 Sqns.
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley is a heavy bomber with two Siddeley Tiger engines, which, in later models, have two-speed superchargers
HIGH SPEED, LONG RANGE, HEAVY LOAD: The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, ordered in large quantities for the R.A.F. The engines of this machine, which Flt. Lt. Turner-Hughes recently flew for Flight's photographer, are at present 795 h.p. Siddeley Tiger IXs, and D.H. v.p. airscrews are fitted.
Первыми серийными машинами Whitley были самолеты версии Mk I со звездообразными моторами Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX мощностью 810 л.с.(604 кВт).
Один из первых серийных "Уитли" в период заводских испытаний. На самолет уже нанесен военный камуфляж и опознавательные знаки, но еще нет буквенных идентификационных кодов. Снимок 1938г.
ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH "WHITLEY" Two 790 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Tiger" engines
ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH WHITLEY II and III: Bomber (two Tiger VIII engines 760 h.p. each at 12,750ft.); span, 84ft.; gross weight, 21,660 lb.; max. speed, 215 m.p.h. at 15,000ft.
MAN-MADE MIMICRY: The A.W. Whitley, with the new camouflage scheme, melts into the landscape.
The Armstrong Whitworth "Whitley" Heavy Bomber (two Armstrong Siddeley "Tiger" engines).
TAKER - AND TAKEN: This snapshot was taken from an Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. In the Avro Commodore, flown by Flt. Lt. Reynell, is Flight's chief photographer, and they are just manoeuvring into position to secure the striking close-up picture.
AT CLOSE RANGE: An Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber photographed from a machine flying close alongside. The pilot of the Whitley was F/O. E. S. Greenwood, the assistant A.W. test pilot.
Another view of the echelon, taken from in front. This formation is less difficult in twin-engined aircraft than in single-engined types, where the pilot seldom has such a good view forward and down.
An echelon of four Whitleys. Note the almost-retracted wheels.
ON HER BEAM ENDS: Flt. Lt. Turner-Hughes demonstrates the manoeuvrability of the Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber. It. can be seen that the camera was aimed almost vertically at the ground.
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, with two Siddeley Tiger engines, is in the heavy bomber class and of modern design.
"Уитли" I из состава 10-й бомбардировочной эскадрильи.
The first aircraft had not been with the squadron a week before station workshops were called upon to make a set of 6ft ladders to serve this entry point. The photograph of a visiting MkIII, K8947 at Linton in early 1939 shows both entry ladders in position. This aircraft was a rarity at the time as all three turrets were fitted and the ventral is seen drooping a little.
View of the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley which show its general proportions and the gun turrets in the nose.
An impressive line-up of some of the Whitleys of No. 10 B.S. on Dishforth Aerodrome.
The pilots, officers and airmen, of No. 10 (B) Squadron: Wing Comdr. S. Graham, M.C., the CO., has his hands crossed in front. On either side are his two flight commanders, Sqn. Ldr. T. S. Horry, D.F.C., A.F.C., on his right, and Sqn. Ldr. E. B. Steedman on his left.
Some of the airmen of No. 10 B.S. Warrant Officer A. C. Townsend, sitting in the centre of the front row, wears an observer's wing on his tunic
THREE MEN AND A DOG ... The A.W. test team which put the Whitley through its paces for Flight's photographer (left to right): F/O. E. S. Greenwood, Flt. Lt. C. K. Turner-Hughes, and Flt. Lt. R. C. Reynell. To finish the quotation would cast most unjust aspersions on the Whitley's undercarriage.
Whitley II K7243 with Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound 21-cylinder three-row radial engines installed.
The Deerhound-engined Whitley in the test hangar at Badington.
The Deerhound installation in the Whitley.
A hitherto unpublished photograph of the Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound engine.
Whitley I K7208, the first of the type to be fitted with Merlin engines.
Первый прототип "Уитли" с двигателями "Мерлин".
The Armstrong Whitworth "Whitley" Mk.IV Heavy Bomber (two Rolls-Royce "Merlin" engines).
MERLIN-POWERED: An Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber fitted experimentally with two Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. The installations are graced with all the latest advances, including ejector-type exhaust pipes. It may be that the engines are Merlin Xs, which give 1,040 h.p. at 2,500ft. and 965 h.p. at 13,250ft. “Maximum” figures are somewhat higher.
Fitted with Merlin 4s, K7209 was one of three Whitley Is converted to prototype Mk. 4s.
The Mark IV and V Armstrong Whitworth Whitleys are having Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. With the two-speed supercharged units the top speed should be over 250 m.p.h.
The new versions of the Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley, (Marks IV and V) have Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in place of the radials of the earlier Marks. The Whitley IV is shown without its nose and tail gun turrets.
The Rolls-Royce-Merlin-powered Armstrong Whitworth Whitley IV on test near the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Martlesham Heath.
A Merlin-engined Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bomber as now in service with the Royal Air Force.
A FASTER WHITLEY: An example of the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber, now in service with Siddeley Tiger engines, has been fitted with Rolls-Royce Merlins of higher power. The new machine, as shown, has temporary fairings over nose and stem gun positions.
A Merlin installed in an Armstrong Whitworth Whitley IV bomber. This aircraft is a standard type in the R.A.F.
An example of the nose radiator position. The Whitley IV has Rolls-Royce Merlin IV engines.
An example of a modern ducted cooling installation - one of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in an Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley IV.
A Mk. 4 (K9025) . The Mk. 4A had a slightly larger carburetter air intake - immediately forward of the undercarriage doors - than that on the Mk. 4.
Whitley V prototype was N1345, first of nearly 1,500 Mk.Vs and the most extensively produced version of the bomber, with a 15in longer fuselage and powered by Merlin X engines.
"Уитли" V в варианте ночного бомбардировщика.
Two production Whitley Mk . Vs (N1372 KN-O of 77 Squadron and Z6S77 EY-F of 78 Squadron) illustrating the different camouflage styling of 1940-41. Later Whitleys were unique among R.A.F. bombers with their soot-black finish overall.
Paratroops under training at Ringway in October 1941. The nearest Whitley is N1422.
Where are they now? It’s April 1940 and this Whitley crew is about to set off on a leaflet-dropping raid from RAF Driffield. If you recognise any of these men, or know that any of them survived the war, please let us know.
Whitleys setting out from RAF Driffield on yet another leaflet raid, on April 27, 1940.
A composite photograph of a 1945 portrait of Leonard Cheshire and leaflet-dropping Whitleys pictured at RAF Driffield in April 1940.
Whitley V T4336 being refuelled between operations, spring 1941.
A Whitley takes off and heads out on a leaflet raid.
A trio of Whitley IIIs of 102 Sqn up from RAF Driffield in March 1940.
Another view of three 102 Sqn Whitley IIIs on a reconnaissance flight from RAF Driffield in March 1940. The squadron operated Whitley Vs from November 1939 until February 1942, by which time Halifax IIs were already taking over.
A trio of Whitley Vs of No 102 (Ceylon) Sqn based at RAF Driffield, photographed in April 1940.
A possible candidate for the lower component of a piggyback bomber may have been the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, which, despite its somewhat lumbering appearance, had sufficent performance to be able to undertake the carrier role. This Whitley V, N1532, operated with Nos 77 and 78 Sqns until it ditched in April 1940.
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley Mk V.
Whitley Mk. 5 (T4149) with the G suffix removed. Note the underwing RATOG containers.
Committed to producing large numbers of Whitleys (Mk.V illustrated), Armstrong Whitworth’s had to find another site to undertake to complex process of building Ensigns.
Этот Whitley Mk V из 78-й эскадрильи целиком окрашен в черный цвет, как и другие машины, принимавшие участие в ночных рейдах на Германию в первые месяцы войны. Самолеты из 78-й эскадрильи участвовали в первом налете на Берлин.
Бомбардировщик Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. Нос этого летящего на высокой скорости самолета опущен необычно низко.
Whitley Mk. V Z6640 of No ?? Sqn, based at RAF Middleton St George during 1941, coded EY-Y.
Конец 1941 года. Снимок сделан хвостовым аэрофотоаппаратом G.42, установленным на Whitley Mk V Берегового командования. Сброшенная самолетом глубинная бомба взрывается на пути подлодки.
Paratroops risk the “Whitley kiss” as they drop through the hole.
Whitleys in use for intensive paratroop training, 1941. In the picture the pilot ’chute on the left is unfurling the parachute of a supply canister.
Whitleys in use for intensive paratroop training, 1941.
Sticks of paratroops drop from Whitleys during a 1942 demonstration.
В 1943 году бомбардировщикам Whitley поручили буксировку планеров. На снимке Whitley Mk V из 21-й учебной авиагруппы, тянущий планер Horsa над авиабазой Брайз-Нортон. Whitley буксировали планеры только в учебных полетах, а в боевых вылетах для этого применялись бомбардировщики Halifax.
A Whitley V towing an Airspeed Horsa troop glider in mid-1943.
A Whitley towing an Airspeed Horsa. Designed as a long-range night bomber, the Whitley was relegated to glider towing work but was not used operationally. Most were used at No 21 Heavy Glider Conversion Unit at RAF Brize Norton. Brian Field became quite a dab hand at flying the Christchurch-based Whitley used for initial towing of early Horsas.
Имевший скорость полета всего 320 км/ч, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley становился легкой добычей для пилотов Bf 109 и Bf 110.
A Whitley V of No 51 Sqn landing at Driffield in October 1940.
The Whitley played an important role as a glider tug from 1941. The example here, seen landing over a line of Airspeed Horsas, is Whitley V BD661.
After initial towing trials behind a 4 1/2-litre Bentley, an Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bomber took over as the tug. A full-size reproduction of the Rotabuggy, made by the Wessex Aviation Society, may be seen in the Museum of Army Flying at Middle Wallop.
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley Civil Freight-carrier (two Rolls-Royce Merlin X engines).
Similarly Whitley V BD360 flew with BOAC as G-AGCF.
Whitley (бортовой код G-AGDY) версии Mk V с двигателями Merlin - одна из 13 машин авиакомпании BOAC, летавших на Мальту и в Швецию в 1942-1943 годах.
G-AGDY formerly BD386, one of 15 Armstrong AW.38 Whitley 5s used by BOAC, some of which were used on the Scandinavian run for a brief period. Due to their poor performance and poor weight lifting abilities they were hastily withdrawn.
Used by BOAC as a freighter during 1942/3, Whitley V BD386 flew with the civil marks G-AGDY.
The King inspects machines of the Bomber Group. Above him towers the nose of a Harrow, and behind can be distinguished a Whitley, Wellesley and Blenheim.
The King is seen leaving an Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bomber
OUTPUT: Typifying the high-speed bomber carrying a comparatively light load and the slower "heavy-weight" type, the Bristol Blenheim and the Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley (shown) are both key types in the expanded R.A.F.
An Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VIII installed in an Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley bomber.
Welding the engine mounting of an Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bomber with British Oxygen company’s equipment.
Production: A corner of the wing shop at Baginton, showing spar boxes being assembled in their jigs.
Whitley mainplanes during construction at Baginton during the winter of 1939.
A 500 yards’ stretch of yet another part of England. Armstrong Whitworth Whitley V wings on the jigs.
A photograph of Whitley heavy bomber main spar assembly
Some constructional features of the Whitley. On the left is the retractable undercarriage. Note the mounting of the oil tank in the leading edge. Right: the leading edge next to the engine mounting; it carries the petrol tanks, shaped to fit the curvature.
Erecting Merlin-engined Whitley Vs. The photograph shows sub-assemblies laid out in approximately the position they will occupy on the machine.
The Whitley production line at Baginton with Mk. I K7185 of No 10 Sqn in the foreground. All the aircraft are seen during final assembly and are early Tiger-powered Whitleys.
Erecting Merlin-engined Whitley Vs. The picture shows the enormous erecting shop, which is a companion to the wing shop on the previous page.
The Whitley's nose turret with Plexiglass chin extension for the bomb aimer.
Retractable power-operated ventral turrets, housing twin .303 Browning machine guns, were installed only in Whitley Mk IIIs.
More armament: General Milch and Air Chief Marshal Sir Edgar Ludlow-Hewitt lead the party past the tail turret of an A. W. Whitley.
Whitley стал первым британским бомбардировщиком, оснащенным тяжелым оборонительным вооружением. На нем установили хвостовую стрелковую башню с четырьмя пулеметами, которая поворачивалась с помощью педального привода (машина на снимке оснащена еще и фотопулеметом). Начиная с версии Mk IV, на Whitley ставили башни с моторным приводом.
At the end of 1940 the Whitley was used for training air gunners, firing Brownings from the rear power-operated turret or the mid-under turret at drogues.
The Nash and Thompson tail turret of the Whitley V before installation of its four .303 Browning machine guns.