Oxford / AS.10
Военный учебно-тренировочный, транспортный и санитарный самолет. Двухмоторный моноплан деревянной конструкции с убирающимся шасси. Создан в КБ фирмы "Эйрспид" под руководством X. Тилтмэна на базе пассажирской машины AS.6E "Энвой" III (экипаж 1 чел. и 8 пассажиров, ДальшеMore>>>
серийно строилась с 1935 г.). Самолет AS.10, ставший опытным образцом "Оксфорда", впервые поднялся в небо 19 июня 1937 г. Серийное производство развернули с ноября 1937 г. "Оксфорд" строился на заводах "Эйрспид" в Портсмуте и Крайстчерче, "Де Хевилленд" в Хэтфилде, "Персивэл эйркрафт" в Лютоне, "Стэндард моторз" в Ковентри. Всего выпущено 8568 экз. (по другим источникам - 8586 экз.).
Число мест - 3 - 6 (в зависимости от варианта). Вооружение 1x7,69 (ставилось только на части машин модификации I), бомбы до 70 кг (полевые переделки до 225 кг).
"Оксфорд" состоял на вооружении в Великобритании (ВВС - с ноября 1937 г., морской авиации - с июня 1942 г.), Новой Зеландии - с лета 1938 г., в Австралии, Египте, Иране, Канаде, Португалии, Родезии, Турции, Южно-Африканском Союзе - с 1940 г., в частях ВВС армии США и "Свободной Франции" - с 1942 г.
Серийно выпускались следующие варианты:
- "Оксфорд" I с моторами "Чита" X, учебно-тренировочный, экипаж - 3 чел., часть самолетов с вооружением 1x7,69, бомбы до 70 кг, экспортный вариант именовался AS.42;
- "Оксфорд" II, учебный и транспортный, без турели и бомбодержателей;
- "Оксфорд" V (AS.46) с моторами R-985-AN6 для экспорта в Канаду и Родезию.
Британские Королевские ВВС с конца 1937 г. использовали "Оксфорд" для обучения пилотов многомоторных машин, штурманов, радистов и воздушных стрелков. С лета 1940 г. их стали применять и как легкие транспортные самолеты, в первую очередь для перевозки высшего командного состава и государственных чиновников в метрополии. Позднее "оксфорды" эксплуатировали подобным образом и в других регионах. Как транспортные обычно служили самолеты модификации II, но применялись и другие, в т.ч., и типа I с вооружением. Часть машин выпустили в специальном санитарном исполнении. В мае 1941 г. "оксфорды" учебного центра в Хаббании (Ирак) во время мятежа Рашида Али бомбили и обстреливали позиции иракских войск.
Морская авиация Великобритании использовала эти самолеты только в учебных целях - для подготовки радистов и штурманов.
В других странах "оксфорды" в равной мере являлись и учебными, и транспортными. В Новой Зеландии в 1942 г. их оснастили подвеской глубинных бомб и они патрулировали побережье в поисках японских подводных лодок. Части ВВС армии США, базировавшиеся в Англии, получили несколько "оксфордов" для местных перевозок. Как транспортные их эксплуатировали и французы.
Вместе с "оксфордами" для военных перевозок применялись и реквизированные гражданские "энвои". Британские ВВС имели их в составе "Королевского звена" (спецподразделения для перевозки высших должностных лиц государства) и транспортных частей в Индии. В середине 1930-х гг. выпустили небольшие серии военного варианта "Энвоя" для ВВС Великобритании и Южно-Африканского Союза (последние с вооружением 2x7,69, бомбы до 70 кг). Обыкновенные гражданские "энвои" использовали ВВС Финляндии (типа AS.6E) и морская авиация Японии (типа AS.6K).
Производство военных "оксфордов" прекратили в июле 1945 г., вместо них по конвейеру пошли модернизированные пассажирские AS.65 "Консул".
После войны значительное количество машин, ставших лишними, продали, в том числе и за границу. Греческие ВВС применяли "оксфорды" как связные, транспортные и санитарные самолеты в ходе гражданской войны в 1948 - 1949 гг.
Американцы сдали переданные им "оксфорды" в июле 1945 г. Британская авиация сняла их с вооружения в 1954 г.,
Моторы, количество х мощность:||2x355 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||3447 кг
Максимальная скорость:||293 км/ч
Практический потолок:||5945 м
Airspeed AS.10 Oxford
В 1936 году фирма "Airspeed" приняла участие в конкурсе, объявленном Министерством авиации, по созданию двухмоторного учебного самолета по спецификации (техническому заданию)Т.23/36. Проект был создан на базе удачного самолета AS.6 Envoy.
Прототип AS.10 совершил первый полет 19 июня 1937 года, а уже в ноябре была поставлена партия из шести серийных машин. Четыре машины получила Центральная летная школа RAF, а еще два - 11-я летная школа. Oxford сохранил конструкцию своего предшественника. Изменениям подверглась силовая установка и внутренняя компоновка кабины. Кроме того, на Oxford Mk I была установлена турель Armstrong Whitworth с одним 7,7-мм пулеметом для обучения воздушных стрелков.
Во время Второй мировой войны Oxford выпускался в больших количествах и широко использовался для подготовки авиаторов в рамках Имперской тренировочной программы (Empire AirTraining Scheme, EATS). В стандартной конфигурации он был трехместным, но наряду с сиденьями курсанта и инструктора на нем предусматривались рабочие места для обучения воздушного стрелка, бомбардира, штурмана и радиста. На всех серийных машинах было установлено сдвоенное управление, что позволяло использовать их в качестве учебно-тренировочных. Когда снимался комплект управления второго пилота, то на освободившемся месте мог разместиться в лежачем положении бомбардир. Учебные дымовые бомбы размещались в нишах центроплана. Также кресло второго пилота можно было откатить назад и поднять прикрепленный к борту фюзеляжа с помощью петель столик для тренировки штурманов. Повернутое назад кресло позади места второго пилота предназначалось для радиста. Кроме того, самолет мог оснащаться непрозрачным колпаком, позволявшим проводить обучение полетам по приборам.
Самолеты модификаций Oxford Mk I (общего назначения, для подготовки бомбардиров и стрелков) и Oxford Mk II (для обучения пилотов, радистов и штурманов) были оснащены двигателями Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X, мощностью по 375 л. с. Oxford Mk V, предназначенный для тех же задач, что и Oxford Mk II, оснащался парой моторов Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-6 Wasp Juniors, мощностью по 450л.с. На Oxford Mk III, построенном в единственном экземпляре, стояли моторы Cheetah XV мощностью по 425 л. с. Oxford Mk IV, предназначенный для тренировки пилотов, так и не был построен. В порядке эксперимента один Oxford Mk II оснастили рядными моторами жидкостного охлаждения de Havilland Gipsy Queen, мощностью по 250 л. с. Кроме того, на один Oxford Mk I установили специальное шасси McLaren, основные стойки которого могли смещаться при взлете и посадке на определенный угол, в зависимости от силы ветра. А еще одну машину оборудовали двухкилевым оперением для проведения испытаний на штопор.
Вторая мировая война создала огромный спрос на эти самолеты, использовавшиеся не только RAF, но и странами, участвовавшими в подготовке авиаторов по программе EATS. Несколько машин достались ВВС "Свободной Франции". Подразделения американских ВВС в Европе получили небольшое количество Oxford в рамках "обратного ленд-лиза". Много машин переоборудовали в санитарный вариант. Британские ВМС также использовали Oxford, сформировав в 1942 году 758-ю эскадрилью для обучения "слепым" полетам.
Фирма "Airspeed", выпустившая 4961 Oxford, не могла в полной мере удовлетворить спрос на эти самолеты. Поэтому к их постройке были привлечены другие компании: "de Havilland" (построила 1515 машин), "Percival Aircraft" (1360) и "Standard Motors" (750). В общей сложности было построено 8586 самолетов этого типа. Последнюю машину "Airspeed" выпустила в июле 1945 года. Oxford использовались в летных школах RAF до 1954 года. После войны много этих машин было поставлено голландским ВВС.
Airspeed AS.10 Oxford Mk V
Тип: трехместный учебный самолет
Силовая установка: два мотора воздушного охлаждения Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-6 Wasp Junior, взлетной мощностью по 450 л. с. (335,5 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 325 км/ч на высоте 1250 м; скороподъемность у земли 610 м/мин; время набора высоты 3050 м - 6 минут; потолок 6400 м; дальность полета 1127 км
Масса: пустого снаряженного 2572 кг; максимальная взлетная 3269 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 16,26 м; длина 10,52 м; высота 3,38 м; площадь крыла 32,33 м
Flight, April 1937
UP FOR SCHOOLS
The Airspeed Oxford: A Twin-engined Trainer for the Service
"OXFORD" is the name chosen for the Airspeed twin-engined, advanced training monoplane now in large-scale production for the R.A.F. Essentially, the machine resembles the Envoy, and its military or "Convertible" variation, but it incorporates a number of innovations, notably in the nose portion, where greater width permits dual control.
Not only will the Oxford be an admirable intermediate type for the training of pilots destined to fly high-performance multi-engined machines, but its layout permits instruction and practice in navigation, gunnery and bombing. An Armstrong-Whitworth gun turret is fitted.
The engines of the production Oxford will be Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IXs, rated at 310 h.p. at 6,000ft. (350 h.p. maximum). These units will be of the newest type, adapted to drive De Havilland variable-pitch airscrews.
The first production Oxford should soon be flying.
Flight, June 1938
The Airspeed Oxford with Two Cheetah X engines : Flying Qualities and Layout : Quantity production
AS the Expansion Scheme began to swing into its stride the Air Ministry decided to order a large number of twin-engined monoplane trainers which would reproduce to a large degree the characteristics of contemporary high-performance first-line machines. The type chosen was the Airspeed Oxford, which, apart from functioning as a transitory medium for flying instruction (including instrument flying), was designed to provide for instruction in navigation, night flying, wireless, direction finding, gunnery, and vertical photography. Incidentally, it would make a first-rate general-purpose machine, or could be used for over-water reconnaissance.
The manufacturers were fortunate in having behind them constructional and operational experience with the Envoy, upon which the design of the Oxford was based. Planning the Convertible Envoy in its military form also helped pave the way for the new machine.
Before very long Oxfords will be in production not only at the Airspeed Portsmouth works, which have already delivered a useful number, but at the De Havilland and Percival plants.
For a good many years it has been the habit of civil pilots and of transport pilots in particular to jeer at the flying equipment in, and general layout of, military aeroplanes. In the days when such jeering was really justified the powers that be probably felt that such things as v.p. air-screws, retractable undercarriages, flaps, and, for that matter, proper blind-flying instruments, were neither necessary nor desirable in military machines. During the past year or two things have been changing, but, even so, there has been a good deal to criticise, at least in the flying equipment of a great many modern types.
It would probably not be an exaggeration to say that in the Airspeed Oxford a really modern array of controls and instruments has been planned in complete detail and, as a whole, almost for the first time. This is only right and proper since the Oxford is intended primarily as a twin-engined trainer in which pilots who are eventually going on to the modern type of aeroplane will learn how to make the best use of all the equipment which they are likely to find in such a type. The planning of the control cabin itself is such as would please even the pilots who are familiar with some of the much-praised American transport aeroplanes. In fact, if production considerations permitted, the Oxford, in suitably modified form, would make an excellent training machine for the use of probationary pilots in the larger transport operating companies. The only items which are missing in the present-production Oxfords are those relating to the blind-approach technique. No doubt later machines of the same type will be suitably equipped for such approach practice when more Service aerodromes have been supplied with the necessary ultra-short-wave beacons and marker beacons - presuming these to be standard.
Recently we had a chance of flying with Mr. G. B. S. Errington, the Airspeed test pilot, on an acceptance test flight. During the course of this flight the machine was put through all its normal paces, and it was interesting to realise that it was one straight from the factory, and, consequently, a representative example of production. It had not previously been flown at all, yet the corrections to be made were few and of a minor nature. For instance, the machine flew right wing low, so that aileron tab adjustment would be necessary, and one of the engines was not giving quite full boost.
One’s first impression on entering the pilot’s compartment is that the view, in practically all essential directions, is as nearly perfect as possible, and a great deal better than that to which one is accustomed in the ordinary civil aeroplane. The roof extends well to the rear of the seats, so that with the tail down it is possible to scan the rear sky properly before taking off. The screen itself is entirely unobstructed, the two large side windows can be slid open, and there are small sections which can be opened without unreasonable draught for use in bad weather conditions. The only blind spots are those inevitably made by the engine cowlings.
With the fore-and-aft trimming wheel (which is mounted on the starboard side of pleasantly sensitive and approximately a neutral given full throttle, lifts its own tail and, on a smooth aerodrome, would quite well fly itself off. Once the machine is properly on the move there is little or no swing, and this, it appears, can be held on the rudder alone. For the take-off the automatic mixture control lever is set at the rear of its gate to provide an over-rich mixture for, say, two minutes during the take-off and climb. At 1,000ft. the lever is moved to a central position, which provides a "normal" automatic mixture, and the rest ol its travel is designed primarily for use at considerable altitudes. The pilot is, therefore, relieved of the necessity for continuous mixture adjustment. The effect of moving the lever forward to the normal position is rather similar to that of changing airscrew pitch. The initial batch of Oxfords, at least, are fitted with fixed-pitch airscrews, though there is a lever below and to the left of the control bank all ready for v.p. or c.s. control. Beside this latter lever are two others operating the undercarriage and flaps respectively; these are actuated by hydraulic jacks, the power for which is provided by a pump driven by the starboard engine. This engine also drives an air compressor for the braking system and a vacuum pump for the gyroscopic instruments, while the port engine drives an electric generator. Also on the main control bank are levers for carburettor temperature adjustment and for the twin landing lights mounted in the port wing, while at the base of the bank there is a trimming crank for rudder bias adjustment which, apart from its normal uses on a long flight, goes a considerable way towards relieving the rudder pressure if it is necessary to fly at any time on one engine alone.
The flaps, an indicator for the position of which is mounted beneath an hydraulic pressure gauge in the centre of the dashboard, are not normally used for the take-off. Though a fifteen-degree position shortens the run to a slight degree, the additional drag after the take-off outweighs this small advantage.
The normal full-power take-off boost figure is about 2 1/2 lb., the engines being moderately supercharged to provide maximum cruising power at about 8,000ft. In case of an emergency the throttles can be moved past a wired-up section of their gates. In this position the engines are giving much more than their normal rated horse-power at ground level. The maximum speed at rated altitude is 192 m.p.h. On this particular machine, with one engine slightly down in performance, the indicated speed at this height was 170 m.p.h., which, corrected for altitude (7,000ft.) means that the machine was flying at 185 m.p.h. or so.
The controls appear to be everything that they should be, and the aileron control in particular is a good deal more pungent than is usually expected in comparatively large aeroplanes; their effect is equally vigorous at comparatively low gliding speeds, and does not seem to differ one way or the other when the flaps are in the fully down position. Students of airflow will find a singularly interesting effect on the Oxford, this effect showing that the change of flow caused by the flaps is noticeable not only around the fuselage but several feet above it. The wireless aerial whistles or is silent, as the case may be, when the flaps are up or down. The flaps steepen the approach quite sufficiently to simplify approach judgment, but not so much that the hold-off and landing needs to be made in one swift, firm movement. From a speed of about 75 m.p.h. there is quite a useful period during which the machine's height above the ground can be adjusted before the final stall.
Needless to say, the Oxford is equipped with the standard Service blind-flying panel, incorporating an A S.I., a sensitive altimeter, an artificial horizon, a directional gyro, a rate of climb indicator and the necessary turn indicator. Incidentally, the modern vertical velocity, or rate of climb, indicator is extremely quick in action, and that in this particular Oxford appeared to have a lag of rather less than two seconds. One of the ingenious little details of the control layout is the arrangement of the rudder pedal adjustment for the first pilot. The pedals themselves can be brought towards or away from the pilot by the simple means of turning the cylindrical pads with the feet.
In the bomb-aimer’s compartment, if so it can be called, there is an additional instrument panel incorporating an A.S.I., an altimeter and a watch, while on the electrical panel on the port side of the fuselage there is an additional altimeter. The second pilot’s part of the main dashboard carries essential flying instruments, including a second compass. This seat is normally taken by the navigator trainee, and it can be moved sufficiently far back on its runners to enable the occupant to make use of a chart board and navigating instruments. Elsewhere in the fuselage there is accommodation for these instruments and, additionally, for a tail drift-sight.
The radio equipment (which may be assumed to be of the Marconi A.D.77/6872 type), mounted behind the centre section, is of the normal two-way type, with the equipment mounted vertically in a single frame, the operator facing rearwards. Above and behind this seat is he hand-turning gear for the loop aerial. The detachable handle for this is used for rotating the aerial in order to obtain bearings, or, when placed in another socket, retracts the loop into a recess in the roof. When retracted, the loop is quite flush with the top of the fuselage.
Among the many uses of the Oxford is that of blind-flying training, and a special hood has been devised for use over the first pilot's seat. When exended, this hood completely cuts out all view except that of the instruments themselves, and it can be folded backwards and swung sideways so that it is completely out of the way when not in use.
CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT
COMPREHENSIVE jigging has permitted creditable rapidity of construction, though the output of the Airspeed factory, which has not yet reached its peak, is not for publication at Air Ministry request.
The fuselage of the Oxford is a typical Airspeed semi-monocoque with spruce longerons and stiffeners beneath the plywood covering. The joint between front and rear sections is made at the rear bulkhead; an interesting point is the special reinforcement of the forward bulkhead to withstand the shock in the event of the machine turning over during landing.
The fuselage sides are made on separate jigs alongside each other.
One requirement of training machines for the Royal Air Force is the ability to be transported easily by road when dismantled. Consequently, the wing of the Oxford is in three parts. It is, of course, a stressed skin ply-covered structure with spars which have spruce flanges and three-ply webs. The spars are positioned on one jig, others being provided for positioning the leading and trailing edges. The three-piece ribs have braced webs and spruce booms. The sturdy centre-section is of similar construction to the outer panels. There are interesting drilling jigs for the centre-section spars with a system of colouring for the various sizes of holes to be drilled. The spars are positioned by horizontal and vertical datum lines.
Split flaps extend from aileron to aileron, and are normally operated hydraulically by pressure from an engine-driven pump, though for emergencies there is a hand-operated pump.
The Tail Unit
The elevator is fabric-covered and is built up from a wooden spar and ribs. The fin is of similar construction, the fin post being built into the fuselage and faired with fabric covering and spruce stringers. Aerodynamic and mass balances are provided for the rudder. Although the skin of the main planes is applied at 45 deg., this measure is not considered worth while for the tailplane.
The retractable undercarriage is of Airspeed design, and features a broken radius rod mechanism acting on a braced twin oleo leg chassis and retracting rearward into each nacelle. Although actuation is normally by an engine-driven pump, manual gear is provided to pump the wheels down in the case of engine failure.
The brakes on the Avery wheels are operated pneumatically by a lever on each control column. Normal movement of the rudder gives differential action by means of the Dunlop relay system. A B.T.H. compressor is driven from the right-hand engine, and maintains a pressure of 200 lb. /sq. in. in a reservoir in the centre section. There are two main fuel tanks, each of 49 gallons capacity, between the centre-section spars; they are interconnected with two auxiliary tanks each holding 29 gallons. Fuel is drawn by the engines from the main tanks, the auxiliary tanks feeding into the main ones by gravity. Oil is carried in two tinned steel tanks (84 gallons each) in the engine nacelles. An oil-cooler of Airspeed design and Gallay construction is used, the cooler being integral with the tank. Cooling air is taken through an inlet inside the engine cowling and conducted by a pipe to the tank of the cooler.
The standard power plant of the Oxford is two Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X seven-cylinder air-cooled radials geared 1:1 and with a supercharger gear ratio of 6.5:1, giving a normal output of 340 h.p. at 2,300 r.p.m. and 7,000ft. Maximum and take-off powers are respectively 350 h.p. at 2,425 r.p.m. and 7,500ft. and 375 h.p. at 2,300 r.p.m. The engines are designed to use the size 2,000-De Havilland variable-pitch airscrews, though these are not yet available in quantity. Machines now being delivered have wooden airscrews. Constant-speed De Havillands can be accommodated.
Welded steel construction is used for the nacelles, which are attached to the centre section at four points by means of Lord rubber insulated joints.
Claudel Hobson’s "M"-type carburettors with variable datum boost control and automatic mixture control are
specified. The control pedestal has two throttle control levers and one lever for adjusting mixture strength. This has three positions: "Automatic weak," "automatic rich" and "over-ride."
When rapid accelerations are expected, the lever is put in “automatic rich”; the “automatic weak” position is for economical cruising. For take-off the “over-ride” position is used, this actuating an enrichment jet to prevent detonation and to keep the engine at a safe temperature. Electric starters, auxiliary hand-turning gear and dual engine-driven fuel pumps are specified. The port engine drives a 500-watt generator, and its twin is responsible for the pump for the hydraulic system, the compressor for the brakes and the vacuum pump for the blind-flying instruments.
The equipment includes piping, with attachments and mountings for three oxygen regulators, a flowmeter, three bayonet unions and three high-pressure oxygen cylinders of 750 litres capacity.
When the Williamson camera is installed in place of the wireless, remote electrical control is arranged for the pilot and bomb aimer.
Provision is made for the installation of a gun turret in the upper portion of the fuselage. This, for the time being at least, is of the Armstrong Whitworth manually operated type, which accommodates a single Lewis gun. Sixteen 11 1/2 lb. practice bombs are carried internally in the centre section. Two bomb-release switches are installed - one for the pilot and one at the bomb-aimers’ station. The pilot has control of the selector and jettison.
A protected tube behind the first pilot's seat is used for firing the Very pistol through the floor. Other tubes are provided in the rear fuselage for two parachute flares released by remote control from the cockpit.
The question of inspection has been very carefully studied, suitable panels being provided below the pilot's cockpit for access to the flying controls, hydraulic gear and electrical leads, and in the outer wing panels for inspection and control.
Five Oxfords are being delivered to the Royal New Zealand Air Force for advanced training and general-purpose work. Other countries are showing marked interest, though the demands of the expansion scheme limit the possibilities for the machine in the export market.
Twin-engined Advance Trainer
Two Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X Engines - 350 h.p. (max.) at 7,500ft.
Span 53ft. 4in.
Length 34ft. 6in.
Height 11ft. 1in.
Max. rate of climb at sea level 1,340 ft./min.
Max. speed sea level 169 m.p.h.
Max. speed, 8,000ft. 192 m.p.h.
Cruising speed at 5,000ft. 100 m.p.h.
Fuel consumption at 10,000ft. (62 1/2 % power) 13.4 gal./hr./engine.
Service ceiling 23,550ft.
Single-engine ceiling 6,000ft.
Endurance (2,100 r.p.m., 10,000ft.) 5 1/4 hr. + 1/4 hr. at full throttle.
Flight, November 1939
Britain's Military Aircraft
A Survey of Our Service Machines
THE main resources of the Airspeed concern are now concentrated on the production of Oxford twin-engined military trainers.
The Oxford, although based on the design of the successful Envoy transport machine, which was at one time one of the fastest civil types in the world, is, from the military viewpoint at least, an entirely new design. It was planned to meet the requirements of an Air Ministry specification for a twin-engined trainer incorporating the majority of features common to modern multi-engined military aircraft.
Structurally, the Oxford is a fine example of what can be done with wood. The wings are made in three sections to facilitate transport and repair. The centre section carries the two Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X seven-cylinder radial engines, the retractable undercarriage and the main fuel tanks. On the sharply tapered outer panels and beneath the fuselage are split trailing edge flaps.
Of semi-monocoque wooden construction, the fuselage has a ply covering applied at an angle of 45 deg. to the datum line. Separating the cabin from the pilot’s cockpit is a specially reinforced bulkhead for taking the loads of an overturn landing.
In the cockpit the instruments are mounted on two panels. The blind-flying panel carries a sensitive altimeter, an airspeed indicator, a rate of climb indicator, an artificial horizon and directional gyro and a turn and bank indicator.
For gunnery training a manually-operated turret similar to that fitted on the earlier types of Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bombers is fitted. This will accommodate a Lewis, a Vickers K, or a Browning gun. In the bomb well there is accommodation for sixteen 8 1/2 lb. practice bombs, though racks can be supplied for carrying eight 12 kg. or two 100 kg. bombs.
Fittings for wireless, navigational, photographic and oxygen equipment are provided and there is stowage for a Very signal pistol which fires through a protected tube behind the pilot's seat. Aft of the gun turret is provision tor two parachute flares.
With fixed-pitch wooden airscrews the Oxford attains a maximum speed of 192 m.p.h. at 8,000ft., and will cruise at 164 m.p.h. at 10.000ft., flying at a gross weight of 7,500 lb. Dimensions are: Span, 53ft. 4in.; length, 34ft. 6in.; and height, 11ft. 1in.
Also in production for the R.A.F. at the Airspeed works is the Queen Wasp wireless-controlled target machine. This is a biplane with sharply tapered wings and fitted with an Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah engine. When operating as a target the machine is usually fitted with a float undercarriage, though wheels can be used if desired.
Airspeed (1934), Ltd., The Airport, Portsmouth.
The Airspeed "Oxford" Advanced Training Monoplane (two 375 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Cheetah X" engines).
The prototype Oxford, L4534, during its appearance at the RAF Pageant at Hendon in June 1937. Note the “New Type” number on the nose and mid-fuselage.
FOR MULTI-ENGINE TRAINING: The Oxford, a military development of the Airspeed Envoy, made its bow to the public at Hendon on Saturday. It provides for general training in the flying of the larger types of aircraft, in gunnery, in bombing, photography and other duties.
The flaps of the Oxford are used only for the approach and landing. The air-heater muff can be seen in this view
FOR TEACHING DOMINION DEFENCE: Two of the five Airspeed Oxfords recently ordered by New Zealand have been assembled and flown at Auckland. Mr. W. Locke, of Airspeeds, is seen (right) after the assembly test flights. The Oxfords will be attached to the F.T.S. at Wigram, the South Island headquarters of the R.N.Z.A.F.
Mr. G. B. S. Errington, chief test pilot to Airspeed, Ltd.
ADVANCED TRAINER: An Airspeed Oxford (two Siddeley Cheetah X) of No. 11 F.T.S., Wittering, flying with “feet down.”
AIRSPEED OXFORD: Advanced trainer (two Cheetah X engines - 350 h.p. each at 7,600ft.); span, 53ft.; gross weight, 7,300 lb.; max. speed, 185 m.p.h. at 7,500ft.
The Airspeed Oxford twin-engined trainer demonstrates its agility at Martlesham.
A pleasant impression of one of the new Airspeed Oxfords acquired by the Royal New Zealand Air Force.
Two modern trainers; The De Havilland Don with a single D.H. Gipsyking engine and the twin-engined Airspeed Oxford. Both machines are being flown by Martlesham test pilots.
Three of the first production Oxfords with No 11 FTS, Wittering, Northants, in March 1938. Note the dorsal turret on L4544.
The standard R.A.F. twin-engine trainer, fitted with Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X engines
Factory-fresh Oxford I L4576.
The standard Royal Air Force twin-engined trainer, the Airspeed Oxford, flying above Portsmouth Airport. In addition to the large number going into service in Great Britain, Oxfords are also being supplied to New Zealand.
4 FTS Airspeed Oxford P1945 en route from Habbaniya on a pattern-bombing raid. The eight 20lb bombs may be seen clearly in the wing centre section. This Oxford was struck off RAF charge in June 1941.
The Airspeed “Oxford” as delivered to the Royal Air Force and the Dominions, powered with Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X engines.
The Airspeed Oxford twin-engined trainer resembles first-line military types not only in handling characteristics, but in appearance.
The Airspeed Oxford - probably the finest machine of its kind in the world.
Learning to keep formation. Airspeed Oxfords are used to train pilots in flying twin-engined bombers.
Oxford Mk I L4543, from the first batch, up from Portsmouth in March 1938.
"Оксфорд" I в музее в Сейфорде, декабрь 1963 г.
Airspeed Oxford NM672 of 22 Army Co-operation Unit at Santa Cruz in the summer of 1946.
Oxford Is L4541-L4544 at Portsmouth, awaiting delivery to No 11 FTS.
A group of Airspeed Oxford twin-engined advanced trainers (two Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X engines).
The picture was taken in July 1952 and shows the Auster 6s and Tiger Moths of the Army Light Aircraft School in the foreground. In the background can be seen the Spitfire LF XIVs of No 288 Sqn and several Oxfords.
Oxfords of No 3 FTS, South Cerney, in 1938.
Another group of Mk Is of No 3 FTS.
The Flight photograph was taken in June 1938, and shows a selection of aircraft then flown by the Central Flying School at Upavon, all bearing the CFS crest on their fins. They are, front to rear, Avro Anson K6163, Airspeed Oxford L4537, Hawker Hart Trainer K5863, Avro Tutor K3303 and Hawker Fury K8238.
Anson 1 K6163, from the first production batch, is seen here on strength with the CFS in company with Oxford L4537 and Hart Trainer K5863.
Camouflaged Oxfords of 3 FTS in July 1939.
Airspeed Oxfords were used for multi-engined training. This quartet is being flown by pilot officers of the Intermediate Training Squadron at South Cerney, Gloucestershire, in 1939.
The Airspeed Oxford II Advanced Training Monoplane (two Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X engines).
Самолеты Oxford, служившие в британских ВВС, использовались для решения широкого круга задач, основной из которых была подготовка штурманов и радистов. Все эти самолеты несли стандартный коричнево-зеленый камуфляж на верхних поверхностях.
The sole Oxford III, P1864, was used by Armstrong Siddeley as a development aircraft for the Cheetah XV engine.
Oxford Mk V EB666 at work in Canada.
Pictured over Saskatchewan, Canada in September 1942 is Airspeed Oxford AS680 of 35 SFTS. Built in 1941, this Oxford was delivered direct to Canada.
Another view of 35 EFTS Oxford AS680 flying over Saskatchewan in September 1942.
Oxford II BM684 was one of a batch of 150 built under licence by Percival Aircraft.
Oxford IIs P8833 and P8832 were equipped as ambulances.
Marking progressive steps of training at AST, three examples of the organisation’s standard training aircraft fly in formation while up from Hamble circa 1952-53. Leading from the front is Chipmunk G-AMUC, one of more than 40 operated by AST, followed by Airspeed Oxford G-AITF (formerly ED290, one of four acquired by the organisation during 1947-50) and bringing up the rear is Douglas C-47B G-AMSW, acquired by AST in May 1952.
With a large unprefixed serial this photograph of an S.A.A.F. Oxford T.2 might well be taken for an R.C.A.F. machine, but in actual fact its roundel centre of orange would have would have proved its true identity.
Oxford I MP425 was built by Standard Motors and from May 1947 served with Air Service Training at Hamble as G-AITB, later moving to Perth with Airwork, retiring in 1961. It was acquired by the RAF Museum and given a painstaking restoration to the colours it wore with 1536 Beam Approach Training Flight. Displayed briefly at the Newark Air Museum (illustrated), it is now on show in the RAF Museum.
NZ2156, one of 297 for the Royal New Zealand Air Force.
Another RNZAF Oxford, NZ2124, delivered under the Empire Air Training Scheme.
Its flying life ended, an Oxford serves as an instructional airframe.
Percival-built Oxford Mk I HM831 with roundels and tail flash painted out and civilian registration G-AMFL crudely painted in. The codes are of the Fighter Command Control and Reporting School, the aircraft being ‘demobbed’ in October 1950. Initially purchased by Airspeed, it was not converted to Consul status and gravitated to Israel in 1952.
Scottish Aviation’s Oxford II G-AHDZ seen against the obvious backdrop of Croydon. Built by Percival ED190, it operated out of Prestwick from 1946 until being sold in France in July 1954 as F-BBIU.
Airspeed Oxford V prototype.
The Airspeed Oxford V Advanced Training Monoplane (two 450 h.p. Pratt & Whitney Wasp-Junior engines).
Oxford Mk V AS592 served in the UK as a development aircraft. One of the two intakes fitted to each Wasp Junior cowling can be seen.
Oxford Mk V AS592, powered by Pratt & Wasp Juniors, was used as a development aircraft.
MIXED GRILL IN CANADA: The Canadian type of De Havilland Tiger Moth, the Fairey Battle, North American Harvard, Westland Lysander and Airspeed Oxford are all in use in the R.C.A.F. and are represented in this group. The Lysander is built in Canada but the Battles and Oxfords were imported from England.
With Oxfords awaiting conversion in the background, Consul VR-TAU on the compass circle at Portsmouth prior to delivery to United Air Services of Tanganyika in mid-1948. Built as Mk I Oxford EB974 at Portsmouth in 1942, it served only with 116 Squadron in the anti-aircraft gun calibration role. It was registered as G-AJWY for the Consul conversion.
Some of the C.F.S. instructors. Names, left to right, are : Flt. Lt. P. A. Hunter, Flt. Lt. H. W. Marlow, Flt. Lt. P. E. Drew, Flt. Lt. J. S. McLean, Flt. Sgt. D. A. Upton, Flt. Lt. F.D. Stephenson, Flt. Lt. R. L. Wilkinson, Sqn. Ldr. D. D’Arcy Greig, D.F.C., A.F.C. (Chief Flying Instructor), Sgt. J. C. Wheeler, Flt. Lt. F. W. C. Shute, Flt. Sgt. R. W. Jarred, Flt. Sgt. A. R. Glading, Flt. Lt. H. W. Mermagen, Flt. Sgt. J. O. Barnes, Flt. Lt. P. S. Salter, Flt. Sgt. R. E. Kirlew, Flt. Sgt. T. A. Newton, Flt. Sgt. S. J. Mansell, Flt. Sgt. P. C. Price, Flt. Sgt. W. Corden, Flt. Sgt. L. F. Humphrey.
Flying Officers A. H. Fairweather and B. C. Andrew, of British Columbia, with an Airspeed Oxford at Camp Borden.
A British quartet impressively grouped: the Speed Spitfire, Hurricane, Oxford and Wellington.
THE AIRSPEED OXFORD FITTED WITH ARMSTRONG SIDDELEY CHEETAH X ENGINES COWLED WITH FAIRING RINGS by NORTHERN AIRCRAFT & ENGINEERING PRODUCTS Itd.
Motive power: One of the two Cheetah Xs (375 h.p. each for take-off) of the Airspeed Oxford. Later models will have D.H v.p. airscrews.
Burmese Oxford conversion under test, with the ‘B Condition’ markings G-22-11 in 1949. Hardpoint stations can be discerned under the wing, but it does not appear to have the machine-gun ‘pods’ under the centre section. It is thought perhaps six aircraft were delivered to Burma with the Consul nose and armament but lacking the turret.
One of several ex-RAF Oxfords for the Burma Air Force, fitted with two forward-firing .303 machine guns, eight 25lb (11-3 kg) rocket projectiles and an Armstrong Whitworth dorsal turret with a Lewis gun. They were flown out to Burma in the late autumn of 1949.
Oxford I AS504 was tested with a pair of Gipsy Queens in 1940.
An Airspeed Oxford which is being used as a flying test-bed for two 500 h.p. Alvis Leonides engines.
Airspeed Oxford MP425/G-AITB awaits its turn for restoration.
Airspeed Oxford G-AITB is being restored at the RAF Museum’s outstation at Cardington after many years in storage. Work is currently concentrated on the centre-section ply skin.
An ATA maintenance hangar "somewhere in England" in 1942. Behind the Lockheed Hudson are a Hurricane, Demon K4411, an Oxford, Master W8905, an Argus, a Tutor, a Havard and the tail of an Anson. All were used either for the training or movement of ATA pilots.
THE OXFORD BOAT: Airspeed Oxford twin-engined advanced trainers being shipped to the Royal New Zealand Air Force base at Hobsonville for assembly. They are the first of five ordered Thirty Vickers Wellingtons are scheduled for later delivery.
In the works: Applying the plywood skin to a fuselage side in its jig.
A view showing the small triangular DV (Direct Vision) window in an Oxford, in the open position. The author was involved with, amongst other things, the testing of this window.
The cockpit roof of the Oxford is of exceptionally good design to permit unobstructed view in all essential directions. In this view the remaining sections of Perspex moulding are seen being put into place and sealed with Bostik compound.
Percival-built Oxford I ED290 became G-AITF with Air Service Training at Hamble and later served with Airwork at Perth, before going to the RAF Museum. Exchanged for a Lockheed Ventura with the South African Air Force Museum, G-AITF is undergoing restoration to flying condition at Port Elizabeth.