London / A.27
Летающая лодка, двухмоторный цельнометаллический биплан с двухкилевым оперением. Двигатели установлены на верхнем крыле. Самолет был создан в КБ фирмы "Саундерс Роу" под руководством Г. Ноулера как развитие типа А.7 ("Северн"). Особенностью конструкции являлась
возможность перевозки громоздких грузов на верхней части фюзеляжа. Опытный образец лодки А.27 вышел на испытания в апреле 1934 г. Серийное производство гидросамолетов "Лондон" освоили на заводе "Саундерс Роу" в Ист-Коувсе в апреле 1936 г. Крылья в собранном виде поставлялись фирмой "Боултон-Пол". Всего выпустили 48 экз.
Экипаж - 5-6 чел. Двигатели - в зависимости от модификации. Вооружение 3x7,69, бомбы до 1500 кг (нормальная нагрузка - 900 кг).
"Лондон" состоял на вооружении британских ВВС с октября 1936 г.
Выпускались две модификации:
- "Лондон" I с моторами "Пегасус" III в многогранных капотах, впоследствии все самолеты этого типа доработали под стандарт типа II;
- "Лондон" II с моторами "Пегасус" X в круглых капотах, строились с ноября 1936 г.
С декабря 1937 г. проводилась модернизация самолетов с установкой дополнительного наружного бензобака на фюзеляже.
С конца 1936 г. лодки "Лондон" поступили в эскадрильи Берегового командования в метрополии, с 1938 г. их разместили также на Мальте. С сентября 1939 г. они начали патрулирование Северного и Средиземного морей. В Гибралтаре машины этого типа базировались до конца 1941 г. Использовались как разведчики и самолеты ПЛО.
Производство "лондонов" прекратили в мае 1938 г. Из строевых частей в Англии эти летающие лодки изъяли в апреле 1941 г., на вооружении учебных подразделений они состояли до июня 1942 г.
Моторы, количество х мощность:||2х 960 л. с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||10880 кг
Максимальная скорость:||250 км/ч
Практический потолок:||6070 м
Saro A.27 London
После выпуска министерством авиации спецификации (технического задания) R.24/31 на патрульную летающую лодку компания «Saunders-Roe» разработала самолет A.27 London. Он имел такую же конфигурацию, как A.7 Severn (описан в отдельной статье), отличаясь несколько меньшими размерами. Новая летающая лодка первоначально была оснащена двумя радиальными ПД Bristol Pegasus III no 875 л.с. (652 кВт). После проведения испытаний был выдан заказ на 10 самолетов London Mk I, первый из которых был поставлен в 1936 году. За ними последовали 20 самолетов варианта London Mk II, отличавшихся в основном более мощными двигателями Pegasus X.
Считавшиеся уже полностью устаревшими, лодки Saro London Mk II хорошо зарекомендовали себя на начальном этапе Второй мировой войны. Оснащенные парой 915-сильных (682 кВт) ПД Pegasus X, A.27 London развивали эксплуатационную скорость 159 км/ч и могли патрулировать на протяжении 5,2 часа с боевой нагрузкой 907 кг. Последним подразделением, использовавшим эти самолеты, была 202-я эскадрилья в Гибралтаре, сменившая их на Consolidated Catalina в 1941 году.
Saro A.27 London Mk II
Тип: патрульная летающая лодка
Силовая установка: два радиальных ПД Bristol Pegasus X мощностью по 1055 л. с. (787 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 1905 м - 249 км/ч; потолок 6065 м; нормальная дальность полета 1770 км
Масса: пустого 5035 кг; максимальная взлетная 8346 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 24,38 м; длина 17,31 м; высота 5,72 м; площадь крыла 132,38 м2
Вооружение: три 7,7-мм пулемета Lewis в носовой и средней стрелковых установках и до 907 кг обычных или глубинных бомб
Flight, February 1934
A NEW SARO FLYING BOAT
2 Bristol "Pegasus" Engines
TO the ''family'' of flying boats designed and built by Saunders-Roe, Ltd., of East Cowes, Isle of Wight, has quite recently been added yet another, identified for the present as the 24/31. This boat is an all-metal production incorporating the Saro features which have proved so successful in previous machines. The hull plating shows the usual fore-and-aft corrugations with which one has become familiar in the "Clouds," "Windhovers" and "Cutty Sarks." The machine is, however, a biplane, resembling somewhat an earlier type of service flying boat, the A.7, but incorporating the experience which the firm has accumulated since the designing and building of that machine.
As the Saro 24/31 has been built for the Air Ministry, and is a military type, no performance figures may be given, but it is thought that long non-stop flights from one base to another in the British Empire are among the objects for which the machine was designed.
The very excellent photograph, taken by Mr. Beken of Cowes, which we publish on this page, shows that the Saro 24/31 has its two Bristol "Pegasus" engines mounted close under the top plane in a position where the airscrews are as far removed from spray as possible. The hull shows the usual flat, tumble-home sides of Saro boats, and the underwater portion has two steps of pronounced straight-vee formation. Lateral stability on the water is ensured by wing-tip floats. The flat-sided hull is very roomy and provides comfortable living accommodation for the crew. The machine has been designed to operate as a self-contained unit and carries its own dinghy and anchoring gear. Access to the interior of the hull is through a door in the side, so that the operation, of boarding the machine while it is at moorings is greatly facilitated.
Ahead of the wings, and sheltered by a raised roof with windows of unbreakable glass, is the pilot's compartment, from which a good forward view is obtained, while the engines can always be seen from the compartment.
The tail consists of a monoplane tailplane and elevator, and of two fins and rudders, placed at the extreme ends of the horizontal tailplane. The rudders have horn balances and are operated by servo rudders carried on outriggers.
No performance figures may be published, but it is permissible to state that the gross weight of the machine is a little over 8 tons.
Flight, March 1936
FOR OPEN-SEA RECONNAISSANCE
The Saro London General-purpose Flying Boat: Robust Construction and Low Maintenance: Simplicity the Keynote of Design
LATEST of a long “family” of flying boats, the London now being built at the Cowes works of Saunders-Roe, Ltd., is a general purpose twin-engined type in which robustness, low maintenance cost, simplicity of construction and seaworthiness were aimed at rather than a maximum of performance. The Air Ministry specification to which this machine was built called for these features, and the prototype machine passed its tests without difficulty. The production machines are now coming along, the work having been somewhat delayed by the necessity to build a new large erecting shop at East Cowes, Isle of Wight, before production in quantities could be undertaken. The huge shed is now completed, and the necessary reorganisation of the works is well on the way to completion, so that the machines should be emerging at very short intervals during the immediate future.
In its general design the Saro London follows the practice established by British flying boat designers for a number of years, and is a twin-engined flying boat with the two Bristol Pegasus III engines mounted on the leading edge of the top plane, a position which gives the airscrews a maximum water clearance, so that it is only in exceptional conditions that they are not clear of water spray. The hull is of usual two-step type with vee bottom, but an innovation, from the hydrodynamic point of view, is the arrangement of the rear step, which is of less beam than the main hull at that point, so that a fore-and-aft step is between the chine of the step and the chine of the hull proper. In the London the hull beam is considerable, even towards the stern, in order to give a maximum of accommodation for crew, gear, and equipment. On the other hand, the rear step itself should not, for purposes of water performance, be too wide, and the particular step arrangement chosen was an outcome of these considerations.
For several years it has been the practice of Mr. H. Knowler, Saunders-Roe chief designer, to use straight-line hull frames. This form is the simplest possible to manufacture, and has the further advantage that panel beating of portions of the hull planking is avoided. A plain vee bottom is, however, apt to be "dirty," as the water is thrown high into the air unless deflected by suitable shaping of the hull. Some years ago most British flying boat hulls had curved vee bottoms, the vee at the keel being gradually flattened out as the chine was approached. The resulting curvature of the bottom planking called for a certain amount of shaping, and Mr. Knowler evolved a simpler way of achieving the same results. Instead of the straight lines of the bottom frames pointing towards the chines, he pointed them towards a line some six inches inboard of the chine; where this straight line cut the horizontal through the two chines he ran horizontal planking, which served to keep down the water, just as the curved bottoms of earlier hulls had done. The vee bottom was, of course, still sufficient to give the desired absorption of shock when alighting.
Having evolved this straight-line type of framing for the hull, the Saunders-Roe designers did not wish to spoil the resulting simplicity of construction by introducing internal longitudinal stringers such as are commonly used in the construction of flying boat hulls. The stringers require a good deal of riveting to the hull planking, and it they are kept continuous from stem to stern the frames have to be cut out to accommodate them. If this is not done it becomes necessary to interrupt the stringers where they cross the frames, and gussets then have to be used for attaching stringers to frames. The scheme ultimately evolved was to form corrugations in the planking itself, spaced some six inches apart. By the stiffness which they introduced these corrugations took the place of riveted-on stringers, and a structure involving a minimum of riveting resulted. For relatively slow aircraft the extra drag caused by the corrugations running fore and aft in the planking is probably of little consequence. When we come to build flying boats with a speed of more than 200 m.p.h. the corrugations will most likely disappear, as will also the projecting rivet heads used at present, which will give place to flat-headed rivets lying flush with the planking.
The method of finishing off the ends of the corrugations in the planking of Saro boats is interesting. Where these corrugations intersect the chines, for instance, the actual corrugations are cut off a little short of the edge of the sheet, and a cap formed by pressing is riveted over the corrugations, as shown in the sketches. In landplane work it might be permissible merely to “bash” the ends of the corrugations flat. Such was, indeed, the practice of Junkers designers for many years. In flying-boat work, however, a water-tight joint has to be made, and this is attained by the Saro designers in the manner explained.
Alclad is the material used throughout the Saro London hulls, and light alloys are used throughout the construction except for some highly stressed wing fittings. The wings for the Londons are being manufactured by Boulton Paul, of Norwich, and the wing construction is similar to that used in some Boulton Paul aircraft, with spars formed from "locked joint" tube booms surrounded by "open" tubes having flanges for riveting to the flat sheet spar webs. The details of the wing construction are similar to those used in the tailplane, which are illustrated by a sketch.
Accommodation inside the hull of the London is almost luxurious, according to military standards. Provision is made for living on board, and comfortable bunks are provided in the compartments, as well as a cooking stove on which meals can be prepared. When not in use the bunks and bedding are stowed in one of the aft compartments.
The defensive armament of the London includes three gunners' stations: one in the extreme bows, one in the extreme stern, and one aft of the wings. The bow compartment of the hull, in addition to marine gear, also contains the bomber's station. A hinged door in the nose opens forward and upward, thus giving him a free view for using his sight.
A bulkhead with a sliding door separates the bow compartment from the pilots' cabin. Side-by-side dual control is provided, the two pilots' seats being mounted on raised platforms, with a lower level gangway between them. The controls on the starboard side are arranged to be unshipped when not in use.
Aft of the pilots' cabin is the officers' ward room, with two bunks on the starboard side. On the port side is the navigator's table and equipment, a large window giving light and view.
Next comes a large compartment with bunks for the crew. On the forward bulkhead is, on the starboard side, the engineer's instrument panel, and on the port side the wireless equipment with table and chair for the operator, as seen in the view above.
Behind the crew's cabin is the middle gunner's post, with a firing step which also serves as a work bench and is equipped with a vice. Here also is the cooking stove and cupboards for food, cutlery, dishes, etc.
A stowage space for bunks, bedding, spare airscrews, etc., follows, and a narrow and inevitably somewhat low gangway leads to the gunner's position in the extreme stern. From the firing step the rear gunner obtains a very wide range of view and fire, the only obstruction being the two fins and rudders. From the middle gunner's position, however, these "blindspots" are readily covered.
The placing of the petrol tanks in the top centre-section leaves the entire hull available for accommodation, and almost every cubic foot of the space is taken into use, either during flight or when the boat is at moorings.
Load and Performance
When fitted with the Bristol Pegasus III engines the Saro London has a tare weight of 11,100 lb. The normal fuel and oil load is 4,472 lb., and the military load 2,728 lb., giving a normal gross weight of 18,300 lb. The machine is, however, stressed for and will take off at a gross weight of 22,000 lb., which, of course, represents an overload. The normal range at a cruising speed of 115 m.p.h. is 1,100 miles, but with an overload of petrol this can be extended to 1,740 miles. The maximum speed at 6,560 ft. is 135 m.p.h.. and the service ceiling is 14,760 ft. The take-off time is 18 seconds, and the initial rate of climb 1,000 ft. /min.
Этот камуфлированный Saro London служил в 240-й эскадрилье Берегового командования британских ВВС. В 1940 году это подразделение действовало в составе 15-й авиагруппы из Странраера на юго-западе Шотландии. Для увеличения продолжительности полета на фюзеляже установлен дополнительный топливный бак.
The Saro "London" Open-sea Reconnaissance and Coastal Patrol Flying-boat (two Bristol "Pegasus" engines).
The SARO LONDON, fitted with two “Bristol” Pegasus engines, is a twin-engined flying boat designed for open-sea reconnaissance and coastal defence. Constructed by Saunders Roe, Ltd., the London has accommodation for a crew of six - two pilots, a navigator, an engineer, a rigger and a wireless operator, and it carries a very full equipment, including wireless. Standard equipment of the Royal Air Force. A flight of five of these machines, in formation, is on its way to Australia, on a goodwill visit.
There will be at least three squadrons of Saro "Londons." These are very sturdy boats with two 690 h.p. "Pegasus III's."
SARO LONDON. Used for many years by the R.A.F. and on active service during the early part of the war, the Saro London Mk. 2 was a twin-engined open-sea reconnaissance flying-boat biplane. The motors were Bristol Pegasus X supercharged radials of 1,000 h.p. each. First Londons were produced in 1934. There was a gun- and bomb-aimers' position in the nose and further gunners' positions amidships, and in the tail of the hull. Span was 80 ft.; length 56 ft. 6 in.; all-up weight 18,400 lb.; and top speed 155 m.p.h. at 6,560 ft.
FOR OPEN SEA RECONNAISSANCE: The SARO A.27 flying boat is fitted with two Bristol "Pegasus" engines.
SAUNDERS ROE LONDON: Flying boat (two Pegasus X engines - 875 h.p. each at 6,250ft.); span, 80ft.; gross weight, 22,000 lb.; max. speed, 155 m.p.h. at 6,250ft.
Лодки London Mk II отличались более мощными ПД Pegasus X с круглыми кольцевыми капотами (вместо многоугольных) и четырехлопастными винтами (вместо двухлопастных). Впоследствии все самолеты London Mk I были доработаны до стандарта варианта Mk II.
A formation of Saro 'London' FLYING BOATS (Bristol Pegasus Engines) of No. 201 (Flying Boat) Squadron R.A.F. flying over Southampton Water.
A Saro London II with Bristol Pegasus X engines.
THE Saro A.27 Flying Boat (Pegasus Engines), illustrated herewith is now in production for the British Air Ministry. Besides the Service type Flying Boats, Saro products include a range of Amphibians adaptable for practically every requirement of civil or service aviation.
Saro R.24/31 (two Bristol "Pegasus" III).
TRAINING CRUISE: Camera impression by one who took part in the recent training cruise of No. 204 (G.R.) Squadron to Malta. Two of the boats, returning to England;
Two Mark I Londons in the air.
Saro "London" Flying-boats of No. 204 (G.R.) Squadron, R.A.F., over Plymouth. This Squadron flew to Australia and back in 1938.
Saro “London” flying boats of 204 Squadron leaving Plymouth at the start of their flight to Australia. These aircraft are fitted with two Bristol Pegasus X Engines and have a range of 1,500 miles.
SARO LONDONS OF No. 204 SQUADRON ARRIVING AT SYDNEY ON 26th JAN. 1938 IN CONFORMITY WITH THE SCHEDULE AFTER THEIR FLIGHT FROM PLYMOUTH
Two glimpses from the windows of a London II of No. 201 (G.R.) Squadron which intercepted the Blue battle fleet. In the lower picture the four destroyers have just broken away from the battle formation, and the London was about to determine their new bearing.
TRAINING CRUISE: Camera impression by one who took part in the recent training cruise of No. 204 (G.R.) Squadron to Malta. H.M.S. Glorious with attendant destroyer from 3,000 ft;
FLYING BOATS: One of the most interesting events of the Display was the "fly past" of flying boats. Three of them are shown here - the Saunders-Roe R.24/31 (two Bristol "Pegasus") (left); the Short R.24/31 (two Rolls-Royce "Goshawk") (centre); and the Supermarine "Scapa" (two Rolls-Royce "Kestrel"), all of the open-sea reconnaissance multi-seater type. This photo was taken from another of the flying boats, the Blackburn "Perth" (three Rolls-Royce "Buzzard"), during rehearsals at Felixstowe.
This somewhat surrealistic impression at Ipswich suggests that the Albatross is trying to climb on to the airport roof to escape the militant attentions of the Sunderland and London (flying), Skua and Lysander.
The Saro London distracts attention from the ceremonial proceedings as it scrapes along below the cloud base to open the flying display.
The flying boats: In the vee, left to right, are the Vickers-Supermarine "Scapa" and "Stranraer," Short "Sarafand" and "Singapore III," and Saro "London"; bringing up the rear is the Saro "Cloud" (Short "Knuckleduster" ???)
Visitors from the seas: the Saro London, two Short Singapore IIIs (centre) and the Supermarine Stranraer.
SALT SEA SAILORS: Bristol Pegasus-engined Saro London flying boats of No. 204 (G.R.) Squadron, complete with long-range tanks, exercising in Plymouth Sound, whence they are due to take off to-day on a 30,000 mile flight to Australia and back. They will take part in the 150th Anniversary Celebrations in Sydney.
The moorings at Calshot. A Saro London of No. 201 Sqn. has just landed, while two more Londons and three Supermarine Scapas are moored out. The Scapas belong to the training squadron.
A London has just alighted and is taxying up to its moorings.
The transparent covering over the pilots' cockpit in the London gives great comfort in flight, and in particular it avoids the chance of shipping water when taking off, which was a bugbear to the crews of some earlier flying boats.
"Лондон" II на якоре в Плимуте, 204-я эскадрилья, 1937 г.
"Лондон" II с дополнительными бензобаками, установленными на фюзеляже, 204-я эскадрилья, начало 1938 г.
TRAINING CRUISE: Camera impression by one who took part in the recent training cruise of No. 204 (G.R.) Squadron to Malta. Refuelling at Gibraltar from 50 gall, drums by means of the boat's auxiliary engine. Note the extra long-range tank.
On June 2nd four British military nursing sisters were flown non-stop from Calshot to Gibraltar to assist in tending the wounded from the German cruiser 'Deutschland'
ANOTHER OPEN-SEA RECONNAISSANCE TYPE: The Saunders-Roe R24/31 (two Bristol "Pegasus" engines), in which the A.O.C. Coastal Area recently flew to Pembroke Dock for the start of the Singapore flight.
Going down the slipway - a picture which gives a good idea of the rear gunner’s cockpit and of the clear field of fire which is obtained from it between the twin rudders and fins.
A GOOD CRUISE: The London flying boats of No. 204 (F.B.) Squadron at Malta, on their recent cruise from Plymouth to the Mediterranean.
SO FAR, SO GOOD: The five London flying boats of No.204 (G.R.) Squadron on the River Hughli below Calcutta. They are on a cruise to Australia.
A general view of the Londons at their moorings off Tayport; there is also a Singapore III. In the background is the Tay Bridge, and Dundee lies on the opposite shore.
CAPITAL: "London" is the type-name of the Saunders-Roe general purpose flying boat now in production for the R.A.F. This picture shows the first machine "off the line" on the new Saro slipway at Cowes. The engines of the "London" are 690 h.p. Bristol Pegasus III moderately supercharged radials: the top speed is 136 m.p.h. Extreme performance was not aimed at, but rather seaworthiness coupled with versatility. It is understood that this particular machine is likely to visit the Stockholm Show.
The first of the new Saro "Londons"
The Saro London has two 690 h.p. Pegasus IIIs and is now going into service.
A Saro "London" In the huge doorway of the erection shops. Slipway in foreground
On the grand scale - a Saro London in the 140 ft. - wide doorway of the main erecting shop at Cowes;
Saro London, variously fitted with 690 h.p. Pegasus IIIs and 850 h.p. Pegasus Xs.
Looking across the Medina estuary to West Cowes
The Main Shop devoted to erection of machines
The interior, with partially built Londons amid the erecting scaffoldings.
Saro Londons, Lerwick (right) and R2/33 (left) under construction.
Subsidiary shops are laid out for progressive "line" production of components.
The navigator in a London of No. 201 Sqn. uses his camera from the forward gun position. The photograph was taken over Montrose from the second pilot’s seat during the recent manoeuvres. A new form of suiting having “built-in” silk harness and floatation equipment, including a small sparklet-type compressed air bottle is used by the Squadron.
The front gunner's compartment also contains the bomb sight and bomb releases, ammunition and marine gear.
The middle gunner's compartment, which is also the kitchen and pantry. The firing step serves as a work bench. Note the vice.
The rear gunner commands a wide field of fire, including vertically downwards. His cockpit is in the extreme stern and between the spars of the tailplane.
Comfort for the crew of the Saro London. This compartment lies between the kitchen and the officers' wardroom. The wireless operator's chair can be seen on the right of the picture.
TRAINING CRUISE: Camera impression by one who took part in the recent training cruise of No. 204 (G.R.) Squadron to Malta. The navigator of one of the four Londons - P/O. Hyde - at work;
SARO "LONDONS" OVER GIBRALTAR returning to England on a non-stop flight upon the completion of co-operation exercises with the Fleet.
SARO "LONDONS" returning to their base at Oban during a training cruise along the Scottish coast
The hull of the Saro London. Straight-line frames are used, those in the rear portion, and the sides of those in the front part, being of "Z" section, and the rest of channel section. The planking is corrugated or fluted to avoid the use of riveted-on stringers. Note the neat pressed caps used to cover the ends of the corrugations. Details of the construction of the rear step are shown below.
In the Saro London flying boats a somewhat unusual type of planking is used. Instead of riveted-on stringers, the planking itself has widely-spaced corrugations. This construction makes for simplicity.
The tailplane of the Saro London has spar booms of the Boulton Paul "locked joint" tubular type. The cut-out near the rear spar is for the stern gunner.
Another and slightly different type of construction is used in the Saro London biplane flying boat.
Another Saro time-saver: One of the trunnions on which large components, such as wings, are supported in order that they may be instantly turned over to any required angle.
The layout of the steel erecting scaffolding described by the author.