Miles M.20
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1940

Прототип одноместного истребителя
Miles M.20

   Самолет M.20 разрабатывался согласно спецификации F.19/40 по созданию "чрезвычайного" истребителя, сформулированной в период больших потерь традиционных истребителях в британских ВВС. M.20 спроектировал Уолтер Кэпли. С целью ускорения производства самолет имел цельнодеревянную конструкцию. Крыло - цельное. Силовая установка включала мотор Rolls-Royce Merlin XX. Вся силовая установка была выполнена взаимозаменяемой с силовой установкой истребителя Beaufighter II.

   Приборное оборудование кабины было сделано, как на самолете Master.
   От проектирования и постройки прототипа до первого его полета прошло всего 65 дней.
   Первый полет M.20 с мотором Merlin XX и вооружением из восьми 7,7-мм пулеметов (возможно увеличение количества пулеметов до 12) выполнил 14 сентября 1940 года. Сражения за Британию завершились раньше, чем британские ВВС исчерпали свои "запасы" истребителей Hurricane и Spitfire, поэтому потребность в M.20 отпала. Однако спецификация N.1/41 на одноместный истребитель палубного базирования побудила построить второй прототип, отличавшийся основными опорами шасси и коком винта. После этого дальнейшие работы по программе прекратили.


   Miles M.20

   Тип: прототип одноместного истребителя
   Силовая установка: один мотор Rolls-Royce Merlin XX мощностью 1460 л. с
   Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 6218 м - 555 км/ч; начальная скороподъемность 975 м/мин; практический потолок 10 000 м; дальность 1931 км
   Масса: пустого 2663 кг; пустого снаряженного 3519 кг; максимальная взлетная 3629 кг
   Размеры: размах крыла 10,54 м; длина 9,35 м; высота 3,81 м; площадь крыла 21,74 мг
   Вооружение: восемь 7,7-мм пулеметов Browning
View of the Miles M.20/2 in its early form, bearing the B Conditions identity U9.
The Miles M-20 Single-seat Fighter (Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engine).
In its original form the M.20/2 had the tailplane leading edge in line with the rudder hinge. The Merlin XX installation was similar to that in the Beaufighter II and Lancaster I, permitting easy interchangeability.
В отличие от других британских истребителей (прежде всего Spitfire) M.20 спроектирован в расчете на быстрое и простое производство. Шасси выполнили неубираемым.
The first Miles M.20 in its original markings; it later carried the serial number AX834.
View of the Miles M.20/2 in its early form, bearing the B Conditions identity U9.
The M.20’s bubble canopy was ahead of its time, as was its high wing loading.
The picture shows the first M.20 as U9, camouflaged but with the original tail configuration. It is the only known photograph depicting an M.20 in flight. The fixed, spatted undercarriage eliminated the need for hydraulics.
The M.20 is seen in camouflage as AX834, with extended rear fuselage and tailplane moved aft.
The Miles M.20/2 AX834 in an altered camouflage scheme - the lower surfaces were doped trainer yellow.
The four starboard gun ports clearly visible. The guns could be tilted for servicing. The wheel spats may well have proved to be mud traps had the M.20/2 gone into service.
The M.20/4 built to Specification N.1/41 for a Naval fighter, differed from its predecessor mainly in the design of its undercarriage fairings.
The second Miles M.20 (M.20/4 DR616), built to Naval Specification N.1/41 with a modified undercarriage and catapult points under the centre section.
This view of the Miles M.20/4 shows the thick-section wing, the positioning of the eight Browning guns and the revised undercarriage.
Miles M.20/4 U-0228. This revised aircraft is recognised by its more pointed spinner, the spindly undercarriage legs and catapult points on the fuselage underside beneath the cockpit.
The "new" Miles M.20/4 with B Conditions markings U-0228, photographed in April 1941, the month that it was first flown.
Another view of the Miles M.20/4 U-0228. The bubble canopy was ahead of its time, as was the M.20's high wing loading.
Another view of U-0228. It was later allocated serial number DR616, and survived until 1943.
Two views of the M.20/4's easily-accessible pneumatically-fired Browning machine-guns. Note the uncowled Rolls-Royce Merlin XX V-12.
Two photographs taken during the construction of the Miles M.20/2 fighter. The aircraft was ready to fly only 65 days after the start of design work.
An undercarriage leg and attendant fairing from the M.20/2.
The late Tommy Rose, chief test pilot for Miles during the war years, seated in the M.20/2.
The M.20 cockpit utilised standard Master parts. The white card refers to engine limitations. The windscreen framework formed a serious obstruction to the sighting view.
AX834 after overshooting into a flooded sandpit in 1940. Note revised camouflage.
The camouflaged Miles M.20/2 ask AX834, after overshooting the snow-covered grass at Woodley aerodrome on February 6, 1940. It finished up in a sandpit - pilot Hugh Kennedy was unhurt. The repositioned tailplane is clearly shown.
Two views of the M.20/1 wooden mock-up, which was inspected by Sir Kingsley Wood in 1939. The type was not ordered. Note the cranked wing to permit a shorter undercarriage - retractable at this early design stage.
Miles M.20 F.19/40
Miles M.20/4