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Taylorcraft (США). Самолеты
С. Гилберт Тейлор после того, как оставил "Taylor Aircraft Company", основал в 1936 году в Элаенс, штат Огайо, фирму "Taylorcraft Aviation Company"; в конце года наименование изменилось на "Taylor-Young Airplane
Company", а в 1940 году - на "Taylorcraft Aviation Corporation".
Тейлор спроектировал Cub, ставший бестселлером, и в своей новой фирме решил продолжить развивать компоновку Cub, но увеличить ширину фюзеляжа для размещения пассажиров бок о бок.
В 1937 году был представлен подкосный высокоплан с закрытой кабиной для двух человек - Taylor-Young Model A с мотором Continental A40-4 мощностью 40 л. с. Самолет очень быстро нашел спрос. Построили более 600 Model A, прежде чем начался выпуск Model BC и Model BC-50 с мотором Continental A50 мощностью 50 л. с.
Подварианты "BC" включают Model BC-65, BC-12-65 (двигатель Continental A65 мощностью 65 л. с.), Model BF-50, BF-60, BF-65 и BF-12-65 с моторами Franklin и Model BL-50, BL-55, BL-65 и BL-12-65 с моторами Lycoming.
Такие самолеты выпускали тысячами, а главной проблемой фирмы стало удовлетворение спроса на них. Тем не менее фирма нашла время для разработки модификации с размещением летчика и пассажира тандемом: в конце 1941 года появился Tandem DC-65.
В 1968 году для обеспечения эксплуатации огромного количества самолетов марки Taylorcraft была образована компания "Taylorcraft Aviation Corporation". В 1973 году она приступила к выпуску двухместного, с расположением членов экипажа бок о бок, самолета Model F-19 Sportsman 100, спроектированного на основе довоенного Model B. За ним в 1980 году последовал самолет Model F-21, а в 1983 году - Model F-21A с баками увеличенной емкости. В 1990 году выполнил первый полет самолет F-22 с мотором Textron Lycoming O-235-L2C. Вариант F-22A отличался шасси с носовой опорой, а запаса топлива хватало почти на шесть часов полета. На варианте F-22C стоял более мощный мотор O-360. До прекращения производства в октябре 1992 года построили относительно немного самолетов F-22 всех вариантов.
Flight, August 1939
MUCH IN MINIATURE
Some Impressions of the British-built Taylorcraft : Robust Simplicity
WHETHER from the instructor's, pupil's, or private owner's point of view the standard American formulae for a lightweight is in any way ideal, the fact remains that machines in the U.S. have developed along certain stereotyped and practical lines - apparently with the support and encouragement of the average pilot over there. No fewer than 400 owners of lightweights, the great majority of them following the accepted layout, arrived at the Miami Rally early this year - and 400 people cannot all be wrong. Or, at least, if they are, they can only be wrong for exceptionally good and reasonable reasons.
The reasons are that the present type of lightweight provides cabin comfort for two people, with a performance on cheap power which is adequate if not staggering, and with good, normal, straightforward flying characteristics. The Americans, too, are sensible enough not to mind if a few hundred other pilots own machines which are almost if not entirely identical.
"Identicality" has its advantages in a crowded sky; at least all the pilots have the same range of vision and only in extreme circumstances can two pilots fly in each other's blind spot. Over here, with a dozen entirely different types (many of them only providing a good view backwards), the conditions are becoming dangerous, and a little standardisation would be a good thing. Since the ideal of being able to see equally well all round is a mechanical impossibility, we must put up with the next best thing - standardised view range.
In the case of the Taylorcraft Plus it is somewhat unfair, if inevitable, to harp on its American background, since
everything in the machine except the engine is made over here - and there are not suitable British engines available. Furthermore, the British version is different in its arrangements and has an aerobatic C. of A. In order to provide the necessary robustness, the spruce spars are twice the thickness of those in the U.S. machine and the welded fuselage is built up of 45-ton in place of the standard 22-ton Steel tube. Anyone who has seen a certain quite well-known instructor carrying out aerobatics with the type will agree that it is sufficiently strong; he doesn’t spare it.
While we are all scientifically excited by stressed-skin construction. whether wood or metal, fabric covering retains certain very practical advantages, the most important of which is inexpensive accessibility. The Taylorcraft has all the essential inspection points in the fuselage duly zipped and the wing fittings and alloy ribs are interchangeable. Incidentally, apart from the cabin floor, the spars are the only wooden members in the machine. Which means, generally speaking, that replacements are easy, since all parts must necessarily be jig-built, and the company is, in fact, doing its best to bring maintenance and replacement costs down to car-operation levels. Incidentally, all the hinge points have self-lubricating bearings, with a theoretical life of five years.
American pilots are more accustomed to wheel control in small machines, but the system has at least one considerable advantage - it leaves the cabin free of obstructions, since the operating mechanism behind the dashboard is well out of the wav. The cabin itself is well over 3ft. wide, so there is ample room for two people. Even more important, there is plenty of head room for tall people. Actually, returning to the wheel versus stick question, the newcomer will probably find it just as easy to deal left-handed with a wheel as right-handed with the more conventional stick, and any pilot will soon become accustomed to it. A point in its favour is that those who are taking up flying professionally will eventually fly machines with such a control arrangement. The Taylorcraft has a spoke extension at the top of each wheel, but this is rather too high up to be conveniently used. In due course a control column layout will be produced for those who prefer it.
While dealing with the interior arrangements, it may be said that they are unconventionally practical. On either side of the central throttle are the priming plunger (one pump when the engine is very cold) and the petrol tap (unmistakably in the way when "off"). Above the throttle is a large r.p.m. dial with, car fashion, two little indicators for the oil pressure and temperature incorporated therein. On either side are the A.S.I. and altimeter, with the bowl-type compass mounted at eye level. Outside the screen is a directly operated fuel gauge which cannot be missed. All the instruments are specially made by Smiths - and what other British light aeroplanes have an engine primer and an oil-temperature gauge? The Girling brakes are operated by two little pedals below, and out of the way of the rudder pedals, though near enough to be used in conjunction if necessary. In light winds the machine can he manoeuvred on the ground by slipstream and rudder alone.
The Rumbold upholstery is nearly up to light-car standard and very much better than is usual on light machines. After two hours' flying I felt no aches or pains - nor, indeed, any desire to change position. Behind the rear squab is a cabin-width bag type luggage container; a maximum of 120 lb. can be carried. There is a fire extinguisher, as part of the standard equipment, on the floor.
The essential view, both on the ground and in the air, is better than one expects in a machine of this type. When cruising, the short nose is well below the horizon. Only to the rear is vision impossible, though one learns to make good use of the rear-side windows when turning. Later machines may have more roof-window area, so that the pilot can look over the top of the wing when turning. No direct bad-weather aperture is provided, though the port window hinges at the top for ventilation. The single door is on the starboard side.
The method of trimming is simple, original and quite effective. A separate trimming surface is used, and this is placed beneath the tailplane and looks rather like a submarine hydro-stabiliser. Its movement is directly controlled by a short lever in front of the pilot's seat; later machines have this lever between the two seats so that it may more easily be reached by both occupants.
For normal purposes there is an ample and accurate range of trimming adjustment, but unless luggage is aboard there is not quite enough movement (or trimming surface) for the glide; with the lever at the end of its travel the Taylorcraft glides “hands off” at about 65 m.p.h., whereas, in fact, it need not be brought in at a speed higher than 50 m.p.h. This nose-heaviness has a certain advantage in that it would prevent the novice from flying too slowly in gliding turns, but tends to make it difficult to hold a sideslip at a constant and low speed.
One of the more pleasant features of the Taylorcraft is that it can otherwise be trimmed perfectly for any speed or loading. In any but the roughest conditions it can be left to fly itself, or, alternatively, it can be flown on the ailerons or rudder alone.
In this particular way it certainly has the characteristics of a large machine, and a very low-speed rumble approach into a small space can be made without effort or undue concentration; in fact, the engine, if opened up to about 1.400 r.p.m., with the trimming lever right back, will hold the nose up at just about the right speed. There is no sign of “hunting,” and, except for the illegality of such methods with a single-engined machine, it is quite the easiest and most practical way of coming in.
There is nothing abnormal or "foolproof" about the Taylorcraft, and it handles, except for its somewhat heavier controls, just like any other light trainer. It can be spun - though this manoeuvre requires the use of full rudder at the crucial moment - and recovers in the normal way either by centralisation or, more quickly, by the use of opposite rudder. The straight stall, however, is almost entirely viceless. Whether the engine is on or off there is no sign of wing dropping, and the nose merely falls from its stalled position to one a little below the horizon. Were it not for the risk of possible air disturbance effects near the ground it could probably be brought in quite safely at little more than 35 m.p.h.
In normal conditions the approach is made at 50 m.p.h., but when I flew the machine a flat calm prevailed and in order to make even a reasonably short approach it was necessary to bring it in at 45 m.p.h. or even less. Tests at a safe height showed that the Taylorcraft would turn quite happily at 40 m.p.h., though, obviously, when nearer the ground it is usually advisable to add another ten miles an hour.
There are two means of adjusting the approach. The first, of course, is to sideslip in the ordinary way. The machine can be held in a reasonably steep slip at 45 m.p.h., but the most effective technique involves a series of "crabs" to one side and the other. There is not quite enough rudder to keep the speed down in a really steep slip. A second means of approach adjustment is to vary the gliding speed while flying straight. In anything of a breeze it would be quite practicable to slow the glide down to 40 m.p.h. when tending to over-shoot and to increase this to 50 when nearer the ground. The landing is quite normal and there is not so much elevator control at low speeds that there is a tendency to over-correct during the hold-off. In the ordinary way, with the wheel right back, the machine tends to land very slightly tail-skid first. The brakes can be applied quite hard as soon as the machine is on the ground.
The very useful degree of control in all axes is, at first, misjudged because the ailerons are rather too heavy. The control here has been deliberately geared up in relation to the American version, both to make the machine more suitable for instruction and to bring the ailerons into line with the other two controls. The machine I flew was a new one and a certain amount of blame must be attributed to the natural stiffness, but I should say that the aileron control is heavier than it ought to be. The machine has the neutral stability of nearly all American types. For instance, if trimmed a little tail-heavy and put into a turn it will go on turning, hands and feet off.
The normal cruising revolutions of the Lycoming flat-four are 2,100 r.p.m., and at this figure the airspeed indicator showed 85 m.p.h. - which is possibly about right. There is very little vibration, but the engine is a little noisy at this speed and for normal cruising, when in no hurry, it is very much more pleasant to throttle the engine back to 1,900 r.p.m. and to cruise at rather less than 80 m.p.h. At the take-off the revolution counter is showing about 2,000 r.p.m. and, though the climb is not exceptional when measured in feet per minute, the distance covered while reaching a safe height is certainly short. Out of a normal aerodrome, in calm conditions. the machine is flying at 400ft. before the boundary is crossed. The best climbing speed appears to be in the region of 50 m.p.h., though it climbs quite satisfactorily and without obvious labouring at 40 m.p.h.
The gravity tank behind the dashboard carries 10 gallons, and as the Lycoming uses rather less than 3 gallons an hour at cruising power, the machine has an endurance, therefore, of four hours. Good enough, but when flying against a head wind refuelling points must be carefully planned.
H. A. T.
55 h.p. Lycoming Engine
Wing area 155 sq. ft.
Weight empty 700 lb.
Useful load 500 lb.
All-up weight 1,200 lb.
Wing loading 7.7 Ib./sq. ft.
Power loading (normal max.) 22 Ib./h.p.
Maximum speed 110 m.p.h.
Cruising speed 90 m.p.h.
Landing speed 36 m.p.h.
Initial rate of climb 450 ft./min.
Safe cruising range 275 miles
Makers: Taylorcraft Aeroplanes, (England) Ltd., Britannia Works, Thurmaston, Leicester.
Flight, September 1939
To-day's Light Aeroplanes
A RE-STRESSED Anglicised version of the Taylorcraft, which is made entirely, except for the engine, in this country, is now available in turn versions. One is a standard type for training and the other is a de luxe model for the private owner, with two doors, improved upholstery, larger tyres and other detail changes. The Taylorcraft thus is a side-by-side seater cabin high-wing strut-braced monoplane of all-metal construction, except for the wing spars. The engine is a 55 h.p. Lycoming flat-four.
Weight empty 700 lb.
All-up weight 1,200 lb.
Max. speed 110 m.p.h.
Cruising speed 90 m.p.h.
Landing speed 36 m.p.h.
Initial rate of climb 450ft./min.
Safe cruising range 275 miles.
Makers: Taylorcraft Aeroplanes (England). Ltd., Britannia Works, Thurmaston, Leicester.
Flight, November 1939
Britain's Civil Aircraft
THE Taylorcraft Plus high-wing light monoplane is a side-by-side seater cabin machine of all-metal construction, excepting the wing spars. There are two doors and the cabin is soundproofed. Stick control. Girling brakes, and ventilators are now standard on all models. The fuselage is a fabric-covered welded tubular steel structure.
The power plant can be a 55 h.p. Lycoming, a 75 h.p. Lycoming, or a 90 h.p. Cirrus Minor, the top speed with the last-named unit being 110-115 m.p.h. The empty weight of the Cirrus version is 850 lb. and the gross weight 1,400 lb. The landing speed is only 40 m.p.h. and the take-off run is given as 75 95 yards.
Taylorcraft Aeroplanes (England), Lid., Britannia Works, Thurmaston, Leicester.
Model 19 Sportsman с мотором Continental O-200 мощностью 100 л. с. представлял собой улучшенный вариант самолета Model B. На фотографии - канадский самолет с лыжным шасси.
Самолет Model F-21 оснащен 4-цилиндровым мотором Lycoming O-235-L26 мощностью 118 л. с. (88 кВт), максимальная скорость на уровне моря - 201 км/ч, дальность полета - 644 км. Аналогичными характеристиками обладает и вариант F-21B.
A line-up of floatplanes with a Taylorcraft in the foreground and a Maule immediately behind.
The Taylorcraft Plus has the tremendous advantages of side-by-side seating and dual control in a totally enclosed cabin. Could anything be better for the pupil (or the instructor for that matter) than this new British trainer craft with its steel construction and almost foolproof flying stability?
The simple and conventional lines of the Taylorcraft are obvious in this flying view. The separate trimming surface may just be seen below the elevators.
Robustly conventional best describes the general design of the Taylorcraft, flying view of which are shown here. The front screen, incidentally, is flat, so there is little or no distortion of view. When the photographs were taken the machine was being flown by Mr. A. L. Wykes, one of the directors of the company concerned with its manufacture. Twenty-five examples have already been sold to various clubs.
The Taylorcraft at its test and demonstration base - Ratcliffe, Sir Lindsay Everard’s private aerodrome - with the control tower in the background.
The Taylorcraft Plus is an ideal plane for the Club and "Owner-Pilot." It is low in first cost, has low operating costs. Side-by-side seating with dual control in enclosed cabin. All metal construction and fully aerobatic. Top speed 110 m.p.h. Cruising speed 90 m.p.h. Price L500.
This Taylorcraft, 2002 of the South African Air Force, visited Watercloof in February 1942. It was one of 38 impressed South African civil aircraft allocated serials in the sequence 2001 to 2038.
Taylorcraft Model F-19 Sportsman 100.
Opening day, June 1, 1939; as well as the various airliners on show, three privately-owned aircraft were on hand to celebrate the airport’s inauguration. They were Taylor J-2 Cub LN-EAN (the tail of which is visible here), Taylorcraft A LN-FAG and Fairchild 24 LN-EAF. In the background is DNL’s Caproni Ca 310 LN-DAK Brevduen.
Редкий Model BL-50 с поплавковым шасси построили в 1938 году с целью установления рекорда беспосадочного перелета поплавкового гидроплана из Лонг-Айленда, Нью-Йорк, в Дайтона-Бич, Флорида.
The 55 h.p. engine provides a cruising speed of 100 m.p.h. and the machine is fully aerobatic with a very low landing speed. The price is £479. Technical information with pleasure on request
A good idea of the layout and comparative spaciousness of the two-seater cabin is obtainable from this drawing. Luggage is carried behind the squab. The neatness of the control and instrument layout is particularly noteworthy.
The simple welded tail and tailplane structure, showing the particular sections used where these are not tubular.
A separate trimmong surface is used in the Taylorcraft; this can be seen, in "gliding" position, below the tailplane. Notice the inspection zips and the lifting handle on the right.
Taylorcraft Plus (55 h.p. Lycoming).