Wassmer WA-20 Javelot / WA-28 Espadon / WA-30 Bijave
Страна: Франция
Год: 1956

Single-seat high-performance sailplane
M.Hardy. Gliders & Sailplanes of the world

M.Hardy. Gliders & Sailplanes of the world

Wassmer WA 20 Javelot

  The WA 20 Javelot (or Javelin), designed by Maurice Collard, made its first flight in August 1956, and was intended to meet the growing need of the French gliding clubs for a single-seater of good performance and uncomplicated construction to replace the now obsolescent German designs such as the Weihe and the Nord 2000 (the French-built DFS Meise) and early postwar French types such as the Arsenal Air 100 that were then in service. Wassmer-Aviation SA had been founded in 1905 and for some years concentrated on repair and overhauls, and the licence production of other firms' designs. In 1955 it began building the Jodel D120 Paris-Nice, later completing over 300 Jodels and launching its own range of light aircraft, of which the WA 51 Pacific was noteworthy in being of largely glassfibre construction. The Javelot marked Wassmer's entry into sailplanes and was of conventional mixed construction, the cantilever shoulder wings being of wood with a single box spar and D-type leading edge torsion boxes; there are air brakes above and below each wing, and small endplate 'bumper'-type fairings at the wing tips. The wings are in two pieces and joined with two cylindrical pins, being rigged to the fuselage with four securing pins. The fuselage is a steel tube framework covered by fabric and is distinguished by a rather blunt nose and a flush-fitting cockpit canopy that is curved longitudinally but has flat sides and a flat curved top. There is a non-retractable monowheel with a brake aft of the rubber-sprung nose skid, and a tailskid. The tail unit is a cantilever wooden structure with a trim tab in the one-piece elevator.

Span: 52 ft 9 in
Length: 23 ft 2 in
Wing area: 166.9 sqft
Aspect ratio: 16.7
Empty weight: 430 lb
Max weight: 728 lb
Max speed: 124 mph (in smooth air)
Min sinking speed: 2.2 ft/sec at 47 mph
Best glide ratio: 29:1 at 50 mph

Wassmer WA 22 Super Javelot

  The Super Javelot is a single-seat Standard Class version of the WA 20 Javelot with three-piece instead of two-piece wings of 15m span and 5° 30' dihedral on the outer panels, there being no dihedral on the centre section; the modified fuselage has the forward portion covered with three resin-bonded glass-cloth panels and the rear part fabric-covered, the nose now being longer and more streamlined and the blown plastic canopy redesigned. In addition, the fin and rudder are now swept back. The prototype Super Javelot first flew on 26 June 1961 and the type succeeded the WA 21 Javelot in production; in 1964 two Supers a month were being turned out. A number of refinements were introduced on the 1964 model, which was known as the Super Javelot 64; these included a modified leading edge for improved performance at low speeds, modified wing roots to improve airflow at the wing/fuselage junction, increased dihedral of 5° 30' on the outer wing panels and the use of birch plywood to cover the entire wings to give better laminar flow. The cantilever wooden shoulder wings have single spars and the wooden ailerons are each in two parts operated differentially; there are perforated wooden air brakes above and below each wing, and small end-plate 'bumper'-type fairings at the wing tips. The welded steel tube fuselage framework is now in two portions, the forward section having four longerons and the rear part only three, both sections being differently covered to those of the Javelot. The cantilever tail unit is of wood, with a trim tab in the one-piece elevator. Landing gear consists of a rubber-sprung nose skid with a non-retractable monowheel mounted aft of it; this has a brake linked to the wing air brake control, and there is also a rubber-sprung tailskid. The pilot sits in a canvas seat and there is provision for radio and oxygen. The Wassmer WA 23, of which the prototype first flew on 6 August 1962, was an experimental 'one-off' sailplane used to test a new 18m (59ft 0in) span wing with an aerofoil section developed by M Maurice Collard; this had an aspect ratio of 22 and was married to the fuselage of a WA 22 Super Javelot.

Data: Super Javelot 64
Span: 49 ft 2 1/2 in
Length: 23 ft 2 in
Height: 6 ft 3 in
Wing area: 155.0 sqft
Aspect ratio: 15.7
Empty weight: 452 lb
Max weight: 750 lb
Max speed: 124 mph
Min sinking speed: 2.29 ft/sec at 50 mph
Best glide ratio: 30:1

Wassmer WA 28 Espadon France

  The WA 28 Espadon (or Swordfish) high performance single-seater is the all-glassfibre version of the earlier WA 26 Squale (or Shark), differing from it in having cantilever shoulder wings of the same span, area, aspect ratio and plan form but of glassfibre/plastic foam sandwich construction instead of the WA 26 Squale's conventional wooden construction with trailing edge air brakes inboard of the ailerons; the Espadon has perforated Schempp-Hirth air brakes above and below the wings. The WA 26 Squale first flew in prototype form on 21 July 1967; series production started in 1968 and by January 1970 a total of 85 Squales had been ordered. A version without the spring-loaded anti-tab in the all-moving one-piece tailplane was designated WA 26CM. Design work on the Espadon began in 1972 and the prototype WA 28 made its first flight in May 1974, followed by the first production Espadon in November that year; 20 were on order by the spring of 1975. Both types have an oval section fuselage made of reinforced polyester plastics, with the pilot in an adjustable semi-reclining seat, with adjustable headrest and rudder pedals, under a long flush-fitting one-piece Plexiglas cockpit canopy that opens sideways to port. Comprehensive instrumentation is provided. Both types have a retractable monowheel mounted forward of the cg with a hydraulic brake; a fixed tailwheel is optional in place of the bumper fairing. The tail unit is a conventional wooden structure with fabric covering, with an all-moving one-piece tailplane with (on the Espadon) spring-loaded trimming.

Data: WA 28 Espadon
Span: 49 ft 2 1/2 in
Length: 25 ft 1 1/4 in
Height: 5 ft 5 1/2 in
Wing area: 135.6 sqft
Aspect ratio: 17.82
Empty weight: 540 lb
Max weight: 833 lb
Max speed: 151 mph (in smooth air)
Best glide ratio: 38:1 at 56 mph

Wassmer WA 30 Bijave

  This tandem two-seat advanced training glider was the standard aircraft in this category for the French gliding clubs during the 1960s, and was developed from the WA 21 Javelot. Designed by M Maurice Collard, the first prototype Bijave made its maiden flight on 17 December 1958 and the second prototype, incorporating some improvements, first flew on 18 March 1960. The type soon went into production and over 300 were eventually built. The Bijave is of conventional mixed construction very similar structurally to the Javelot; the cantilever wooden shoulder wings are in three pieces, with 4° 30' dihedral on the outer wings and none on the centre section. They have single box spars and D-type leading edge torsion boxes, with birch plywood covering forward of the spar and fabric covering aft of it; the plain spruce ailerons are also fabric-covered. There are no flaps, but perforated Schempp-Hirth wooden air brakes retract into slots above and below each wing; wing tip 'salmon' fairings are also fitted. The fuselage is a welded steel tube framework covered with fabric, and with a glassfibre nose cone. The two pilots sit in tandem under individual blown Plexiglas canopies, the rear seat being raised a bit to give its occupant a good view forward; a full range of instrumentation, a compass, oxygen and radio can be carried. There is a retractable monowheel with rubber ring shock absorption and a SATMO motor-cycle brake mounted aft of a rubber-sprung wooden nose skid, and there is also a steel tailskid. The cantilever wooden tail unit has a fabric-covered rudder, and the all-moving one-piece tailplane has large anti-balance tabs.

Span: 55 ft 3 1/2 in
Length: 31 ft 2 in
Height: 9 ft 0 in
Wing area: 206.7 sq ft
Aspect ratio: 15.0
Empty weight: 650 lb
Max weight: 1,213 lb
Max speed: 149 mph (in smooth air)
Max aero-tow speed: 93 mph
Min sinking speed: 2.30 ft/sec at 47 mph
Best glide ratio: 30:1 at 47 mph
Wassmer WA-22 Super-Javelot single-seat sailplane
Wassmer WA-22 Super-Javelot.
Wassmer WA-26 Squale single-seat high-performance sailplane
Wassmer WA-26 Squale single-seat high-performance sailplane
Wassmer WA 28 Espadon, developed from the WA 26 Squale with all-plastics wings
Wassmer WA-30 Bijave
Wassmer WA 30 Bijave.