Breda Ba.27
Страна: Италия
Год: 1934

Одноместный истребитель
Breda Ва 27
Flight, September 1934

Breda Ва 27

Принято считать, что одноместный истребитель Ва 27 создали под впечатлением самолета "American Travel Air Model R". Машина сконструирована по схеме подкосного низкоплана с фюзеляжем из стальных труб, обшитых гофрированными листами дюраля. Крылья были цельнодеревянными.
   Построили два прототипа Ва 27 со звездообразными моторами Bristol Mercury IVA, собранными по лицензии под маркой Alfa Romeo Mercurius. Их летные испытания провели в начале 1933 года.
   После сильной критики самолет подвергся радикальной модернизации. Он получил металлическое крыло измененной формы и более обтекаемый фюзеляж с гладкой обшивкой и сдвинутой вперед кабиной пилота. Это позволило улучшить летные данные и обзор для летчика. Самолет назвали Ва 27 Metallico.
   Единственный прототип Ва 27 Metallico впервые взлетел в июне 1934 года. Он эксплуатировался в итальянских ВВС до декабря 1937 года, но так и не был принят на вооружение. Серийный выпуск Ва 27 Metallico обеспечили китайцы, заказавшие 18 машин этого типа для отражения японской агрессии. Фактически было поставлено только 11 самолетов, которые в 1937 году поступили на вооружение 29-й истребительной эскадрильи в Кантоне.


   Breda Ва 27 Metallico

   Тип: одноместный истребитель
   Силовая установка: звездообразный двигатель Alfa Romeo Mercurius (Bristol Mercury IVA) мощностью 540 л. с. (403 кВт)
   Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 380 км/ч на высоте 5000 м; набор высоты 5000 м за 7 мин 30 с; практический потолок 9000 м; радиус действия 750 км
   Масса: пустого самолета 1320 кг; максимальная взлетная 1850 кг
   Размеры: размах крыла 10,80 м; длина 7,67 м; высота 3,40 м; площадь крыла 18,85 м2
   Вооружение: два синхронных пулемета Breda-SAFAT калибра 12,7-мм в носовой части фюзеляжа

Flight, September 1934

An Italian Monoplane Fighter with an Alfa-Romeo "Mercurius" IV Engine, Which is a Bristol "Mercury" IV Built under Licence in Italy

   MORE and more military monoplanes are appearing in almost every country which has an Air Force. One of the latest of these is an Italian machine, the Breda 27 single-seater fighter. It will be seen that the aircraft is of ultra-modern design, bearing quite a remarkable resemblance to certain American types. Not that it can be said that the machine is in any way a "copy" of these aircraft, the wire-braced wings with the centre-section struts transmitting loads from a well-faired wire-braced undercarriage having featured in many Breda designs during the past few years.
   The fuselage is constructed of welded chrome molybdenum steel tubes with wire bracing. Rear and central portions are covered with duralumin, but the forward covering behind the engine is of aluminium. Welded carbon-steel tubes are used for the engine mounting, which is detachable and fixed to the fuselage by six bolts. The central part of the fuselage is built integral with the wing "stubs," to which are attached the undercarriage legs.
   A medium thick section is used for the wing, the structure of which comprises wooden spars and ribs, the covering being of plywood. Spar fittings, which may be easily inspected through cellon doors, are of steel, the attachments of the spars to the fuselage being provided with two bolts. Ailerons, which are aerodynamically balanced, are of wooden construction, plywood covered and joined to the wings by steel hinges. It is claimed that in the case of damage to any one of the wing spars the strength of the wing is reduced by one-third at the most.
   Wood is mainly used for the tail surfaces, the covering being of plywood, and all levers, hinges and attachments of steel. The tail plane, which is in one piece, is adjustable in flight, and is braced on its upper side by streamlined tie-rods and beneath by two streamlined steel tubes. A portion of the fin may be adjusted on the ground for directional trimming.
   The undercarriage structure is of steel, directly welded to the framework which forms the central part of both fuselage and wing unit. It consists of two separate members which serve for the attachment of the tie-rods which brace the wing. The shock absorbers are of the long travel oleo-pneumatic type. Large streamlined fairings, easily detachable for inspection of the working parts of the undercarriage, are fitted over the wheels and shock absorbers. Wheel brakes are provided. Either a tail skid or a tail wheel may be used, the skid being of a wide spoon-shaped type.
   The pilot's control column is adjustable for height, both on the ground and during flight. Control transmission is through double steel cables over pulleys, and levers. On the left of the pilot's seat is the tailplane incidence adjustor, and on the right-hand side are the controls for adjusting the pilot's seat and the wheel brake levers.
   Petrol is carried in tanks within the wings, feed being maintained by engine-driven pumps through appropriate filters. Parts of the tubing which are subjected to vibration are of Petroflex. The oil tank is situated behind the engine, and is provided with a Vickers type cooler, easily accessible filling cap, and a level indicator.
   Armament consists of two Breda Safat 7.7 mm. caliber machine guns mounted in the fuselage and synchronised to fire through the airscrew arc. The cocking levers for the guns are directly in front of the pilot, well within his reach, and the firing levers are on the top of the control column. Beneath the guns are the cartridge boxes, each containing 400 rounds of ammunition, the receptacles for the disintegrated links of the belt and bags for the empty cartridge cases. Cartridge boxes and guns are easily accessible through doors in the fuselage. A type O.M.1 camera using 13 x 18 cm. films is placed on the right side of the fuselage. Near the centre of the port wing are fittings for the installation of a camera gun which is provided with controls similar to those used for a normal pilot's machine gun.
   Complete wireless equipment is carried. Incorporated in the lighting system is a retractile landing light beneath the fuselage. Three navigation lights and three lamps for lighting the instrument panel are provided. The back of the pilot's seat is made to accommodate a Salvator B “dorsal” type parachute. Oxygen apparatus, fire extinguisher of the "knockout" type and heating arrangements complete the equipment.

Alfa-Romeo "Mercurius" IV

   Span 35 ft. 1 in. (10,7 m)
   Length 24 ft. 10 1/2 in. (7,6 m)
   Height 11 ft. 1 1/2 in. (3,4 m)
   Mean chord 5 ft. 8 1/2 in. (1,77 m)
   Wing area 202.9 sq. ft. (18,85 m2)

   Weight empty 2,777.8 lb. (1 260 kg)
   Gross weight 8,046.2 lb. (1 790 kg)

   Maximum speed (approx.) 236 m.p.h. (380 km/h)
   Minimum speed (approx.) 62 m.p.h. (100 km/h)
   Climb to 16,400 ft. (5 000 m) 8 min.
   Ceiling 29,528 ft. (9 000 m)
Самолет Ba 27 Metallico отличался от первого прототипа цельнометаллической конструкцией и улучшенным обзором для пилота.
Breda Ba 27 for China.
Breda Ba 27 prototype.
AN ITALIAN FIGHTER: A Bristol "Mercury" IV built under licence in Italy gives the Breda 27 a speed of 236 m.p.h.