Anson / Type 652
Ближний морской разведчик и патрульный самолет, двухмоторный моноплан смешанной конструкции с убирающимся шасси (первый английский военный самолет с убирающимся шасси). Спроектирован в КБ фирмы "А.В. Роу" под руководством Р. Чэдвика на базе пассажирской машины
Авро 652. Опытный образец Авро 652 впервые взлетел 24 марта 1935 г. "Энсон" строился на заводах "Авро" в Ньютон-Хиэсе, Чэддертоне и Йидоне, а также группой предприятий в Канаде (только учебные модификации). Всего выпущено 11 020 экз. всех вариантов, в том числе 6779 экз. типа I.
Самолет состоял на вооружении в Великобритании с мая 1935 г., Ирландии - с марта 1937 г., Ираке - с 1938 г., Турции и Австралии - с августа 1939 г., Южно-Африканском Союзе -с 1940 г. Кроме того, как учебные машины "энсоны" использовались в Канаде, Южной Родезии и Финляндии.
Экипаж 3 - 4 чел. Вооружение 2x7,69 (полевые переделки до 4x7,69 или 2x7,69+1x20), бомбы до 164 кг (в ходе войны бомбовая нагрузка доведена до 224 кг). На некоторых машинах в годы войны были установлены РЛС (подобная доработка осуществлялась как в Англии, так и в Австралии).
В качестве боевого самолета использовалась только одна модификация, "Энсон" I, с моторами "Чита" IX. С 3-й серии (со 175-й машины) введены измененный фонарь пилотской кабины и элероны с металлическим каркасом, позднее стали устанавливать посадочные щитки, заменили пулеметы на более современные, усовершенствовали оборудование.
Первая эскадрилья Берегового командования британских ВВС начала получать "энсоны" в феврале 1936 г. К июню 1937 г. достигли боеспособного состояния уже пять эскадрилий.
В начале Второй мировой войны "Энсон" являлся самым массовым самолетом Берегового командования британских ВВС. Ими были вооружены 11 эскадрилий. В широких масштабах эти самолеты применялись для противолодочного патрулирования, оперируя с баз в Великобритании. "Энсонами" было потоплено значительное количество немецких подводных лодок. В мае 1940 г. эти машины участвовали в прикрытии эвакуации английского экспедиционного корпуса из Дюнкерка, в том числе осуществляя атаки на немецкие торпедные катера.
Со второй половины 1940 г. "энсоны" в качестве противолодочных самолетов начали вытесняться американскими "хадсонами", но часть машин передали в спасательные эскадрильи ВВС. С 1942 г. они переводились в учебные и транспортные части, где служили до конца войны.
Австралийские машины патрулировали побережье до конца 1942 г., затем также были переведены на роль учебных и военно-транспортных. Аналогично применялись "энсоны" и в Южной Африке.
Греческие самолеты участвовали в войне с Италией, затем отражали вторжение немцев в апреле 1941 г. Иракские машины были уничтожены английской авиацией на аэродромах во время пронемецкого мятежа Рашида Али в мае 1941 г.
Один "Энсон", перешедший к ВВС РККА из эстонской военной авиации, в июне 1941 г. числился в эскадрилье, приданной 22-му стрелковому корпусу.
Последний "Энсон" выпустили в мае 1952 г. Эти самолеты состояли на вооружении в Великобритании до июня 1968 г. (транспортные модификации послевоенной постройки), в Австралии - до 1948 г. (хотя отдельные машины летали до 1963 г.)
Моторы, количество х мощность:||2x350 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||4286 кг
Максимальная скорость:||303 км/ч
Практический потолок:||5800 м
Avro 652 Anson
Avro 652 Anson серийно выпускался с 1934 года по 15 мая 1952 года, что является рекордом для британской авиапромышленности. Изначально машина проектировалась согласно требованиям авиакомпании "Imperial Airways" к коммерческому одномоторному самолету, способному перевозить четырех пассажиров на расстояние 676 км с крейсерской скоростью не менее 209 км/ч, продолжать полет с одним работающим двигателем на высоте не менее 610 м и иметь скорость сваливания не более 97 км/час. Спецификация была выдана фирме "Avro" в апреле 1933 года.
В августе 1933 года группа конструкторов под руководством Роя Чедвика приступила к полномасштабному проектированию Avro 652 - низкоплану с убираемым шасси и силовой установкой из двух звездообразных моторов Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah V. Максимальная взлетная масса составляла 2948 кг, но затем изменение требований со стороны заказчика заставило конструкторов увеличить максимальную взлетную массу до 3470 кг. Заказ на постройку двух самолетов поступил в апреле 1934 года, первая из этих машин поднялась в воздух 7 января 1935 года. Сертификат типа был получен в марте того же года, а первые две машины "Imperial Airways" получила уже 11 марта.
7 мая 1934 года Министерство авиации обратилось к фирме "Avro" с предложением разработать новый двухмоторный самолет с колесным шасси, предназначенный для разведки и патрулирования прибрежных морских акваторий, или же адаптировать под вышеозначенные задачи уже готовую конструкцию. На фирме началась работа над морским разведчиком, за основу был взят Avro 652. Новый вариант получил обозначение Avro 652A. Проектирование велось согласно спецификации Министерства авиации, которое в марте 1935 года заключило контракт на постройку прототипа. Конструкторам фирмы "Avro" потребовалось менее шести месяцев для выполнения полного комплекта рабочих чертежей и постройки военного варианта самолета. От самолетов авиакомпании "Imperial Airways" новую машину отличали круглые иллюминаторы и наличие турели Armstrong Whitworth с одним пулеметом Lewis калибра 7,7 мм.
Прототип выполнил первый полет 24 марта 1935 года, затем, после доработки горизонтального оперения, машину передали в исследовательское подразделение Береговой обороны для проведения сравнительных испытаний с бипланом de Havilland DH.98M. По результатам испытаний конкурс выиграл самолет фирмы "Avro".
Первые серийные Anson GR.Mk I строились по спецификации 18/35; первая серийная машина поднялась в воздух 31 декабря 1935 года, а 6 марта следующего года самолеты Anson поступили в первую строевую часть - 48-ю эскадрилью (авиабаза Мэнстон). Эта эскадрилья дольше всех в частях первой линии британских ВВС эксплуатировала самолеты данного типа - до января 1942 года, когда им на смену поступили самолеты Lockheed Hudson. Самолеты Anson состояли на вооружении 21-й эскадрильи Берегового командования, а также экспортировались в Австралию, Египет, Эстонию, Финляндию, Грецию и Ирландию. Всего до сентября 1939 года было построено почти 1000 самолетов Anson, включая тренировочные машины, внесшие наиболее весомый вклад в победу союзников.
Хотя "Avro" предложила учебно-тренировочный вариант еще в ноябре 1936 года, тогда он востребован не был. Потребовалось время, чтобы первые Anson Trainer с двойным управлением поступили в эскадрильи авиационных училищ летчиков и штурманов, школ воздушной стрельбы, училищ летнабов и корректировщиков артогня. Последние использовали самолеты с турелями типа Bristol B1 Mk VI. Всего было построено 6742 самолета Anson Mk I.
18 декабря 1939 года Anson был утвержден одним из основных учебно-тренировочных самолетов Британского содружества наций. Британская промышленность получила контракт, по которому собранные в Великобритании планеры без двигателей морем доставлялись в Канаду, где на них ставили моторы Jacobs L-6MB (Anson Mk III) или Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (Anson Mk IV). Ha Mk III позже установили закрылки и шасси с гидроприводами. Планеры поставлялись вместе с пулеметными турелями, хотя на большинстве самолетов, летавших в Канаде, турелей не имелось.
Ухудшение обстановки на Европейском ТВД заставило полностью перенести постройку самолетов Anson в Канаду - до этого из Британии в Канаду доставили 223 планера. Первым полностью канадским вариантом стал Anson Mk II с двигателями Jacobs, выклеенной из фанеры носовой частью фюзеляжа, гидравлическими закрылками и шасси. Первый Anson Mk II поднялся в воздух 21 августа 1941 года, а всего было построено 1832 самолета, 50 из которых поступили на вооружение авиации Армии США под обозначением AT-20.
Удачный опыт использования фанеры в носовой части фюзеляжа позволил распространить данную технологию на весь фюзеляж. Самолет Mk II с новым фюзеляжем получил обозначение Mk V. Дальнейшим его развитием стал вариант Mk VI с двумя 450-сильными моторами Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-12B Wasp Junior и увеличенным количеством курсантов (с трех до пяти). Самолет Mk V для обучения штурманов был построен в количестве 1050 экземпляров, а еще одна машина в 1943 году была собрана в варианте учебного самолета воздушных стрелков, она оснащалась турелью Bristol В1 Mk VI. Обозначения Mk VII, Mk VIII и Mk IX были зарезервированы для еще не построенных канадских самолетов.
Avro 652A Anson GR.Mk I
Тип: трехместный патрульный и разведывательный самолет прибрежного действия
Силовая установка: два звездообразных мотора Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah IX мощностью по 350 л. с. (261 кВт)
Характеристики: макс, скорость на высоте 2135 м - 303 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптим. высоте 254 км/ч; скороподъемность на уровне моря 293 м/мин; практич. потолок 5790 м; дальность полета 1271 км
Масса: пустого 2438 кг; максимальная взлетная 3629 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 17,20 м; длина 12,88 м; высота 3,99 м; площадь крыла 38,09 м1
Вооружение: один неподвижный стреляющий вперед 7,7-мм пулемет и один 7,7-мм пулемет на турели; до 163 кг бомб в бомбоотсеке
Flight, March 1935
FOR IMPERIAL AIRWAYS CHARTERS
Two Avro 652 Low-wing Monoplanes With Siddeley "Cheetah" Engines: Finely Finished Passenger Accommodation
WITH the exception of Imperial Airways, Ltd., practically all the air-line companies operating at Croydon have several low-wing monoplanes among their fleets. Now, Imperial Airways will cease to be an exception, for their latest acquisitions are two Avro 652 low-wing, twin-engined monoplanes, which are to be called Avatar and Avalon. It is understood that they will be used primarily for long-distance charter work.
As will be seen from our table of performance figures on the next page, they should be eminently suitable for this purpose; even with “Cheetah V” engines their cruising speed of about 150 m.p.h., while with "Cheetah VI" engines, which will be fitted to subsequent models, this speed will be increased to at least 165 m.p.h.
A head-on view of the 652 shows that the makers have studied the question of interference very carefully, and have evolved a particularly clean and well streamlined layout. The engines are cowled-in completely with ring-type cowlings, having a double surface in keeping with the usual Avro and Armstrong Siddeley practice. Behind these cowlings a large tapering "egg" forms the fairing, which merges into the top and bottom surface of the wing. The top half of this fairing carries the oil tank, and the bottom half houses the retractable undercarriage. The aluminium fuel tanks are on each wing, outside the engines.
Structurally, the 652 follows the lines of other Avro commercial machines. The rectangular fuselage is built of welded steel tubes, and has the corners carefully rounded off by plywood bent to a large radius, and spruce stringers running the length of each side carry doped fabric. The wing and tail units are all of plywood and spruce construction with plywood covering, so that the combination forms a rigid structure which should require very little maintenance.
The tail plane is fixed, and merges into the fuselage with generously dimensioned fillets, as does the fin. Both fore and aft and directional trim are achieved by "tabs" on the elevators and rudder. These are worked from small serrated knobs situated above the pilot, and in flight they are sensitive and easy to operate. The ailerons are of the narrow cord and long span type, and are Frise-balanced.
The cabin accommodation, as arranged for Imperial Airways, has been tastefully done in blue and buff by L. A Rumbold and Co., Ltd., with a generous use of figured wood panelling for the sides, between which and the fabric covering of the fuselage there is a sound-damping layer of Seapak, a seaweed substance which, between layers of brown paper, is very effective for deadening noise.
There is accommodation for four passengers on seats of the adjustable type, in which a reclining position is possible. Each passenger has a small table, a fiddle for carrying glasses, a reading lamp, and an individual fresh-air supply, while alongside each of the two front passengers are controls for a hot-air supply. In the rear end of the cabin there is a wash place and lavatory, while abaft that again with an external door on the starboard side of the machine (the main cabin door is on the port side) there is the luggage compartment. Further luggage or mails can be carried in the nose of the machine in front of the pilots. This is a separate riveted duralumin shell, with a hinged nose door which, incidentally, also carries a Harley landing light.
The pilots' cockpit is very fully equipped, with two side-by-side seats and a full set of dual controls. The dashboard has an extensive layout of instruments, including those for both engines. Behind the pilots, on the bulkhead which separates them from the passenger cabin, and in which there is a door, is the Marconi wireless equipment. Between the pilots' seats there is a small flap in the floor of the cockpit, which can be raised to expose an open-grid type of drift sight.
Electric starters, which can be worked from the cockpit, are fitted to each engine. The windscreen has a very pronounced slope, and the sides of the cockpit have windows of ample proportion so that either pilot can see out with great ease.
The retractable undercarriage fitted to this model is, as can best be seen from the sketch, of the articulated type, with the wheel raised forward and upward so that it projects slightly underneath the engine cowling when in the "fully-up" position. It is operated by a screw gear of rather low pitch, actuated by a handle between the pilots' seats.
In the air the 652 is easy to fly, having those amply proportioned, effective controls for which Avro's have become so well known. The gliding angle is extremely flat, even with the undercarriage down, and it would seem that the addition of some form of air brake to steepen the angle of glide is likely to be considered desirable by most pilots, particularly if, as is generally the case in the course of charter flights, the machine has to be landed in confined aerodromes with high obstructions around the boundaries. Steepening the glide is always preferable, from the passengers' point of view, to side-slipping as a method of losing height quickly, because any prolonged deviation from the horizontal tends to make them think that there is something wrong.
Flight, October 1935
FOR COASTAL RECONNAISSANCE
Some Constructional Details of the Avro Anson Monoplane, which is to Equip the General Reconnaissance Squadrons of the Royal Air Force
ONE hundred and seventy-four Avro Anson high speed twin-engined monoplanes have been ordered by the Air Ministry for the equipment of several general reconnaissance squadrons. The first unit to receive the machine will be No. 48. It is intended that the Ansons should be used on medium-range reconnaissance missions, for patrol and probably for anti-submarine work.
The Anson, or 652A. is a direct development of the Avro 652 commercial monoplane originally designed and constructed to the order of Imperial Airways as a feeder line and charter type (this machine was fully described, from the passenger-carrying point of view, in Flight of March 7, 1935). It is the first development of a commercial design to go into service with the R.A.F. and, structurally, resembles its civil counterpart.
Of cantilever type, the wing is built in one piece, and consists of two main spars of box section with laminated spruce flanges and plywood webs, joined by closely spaced ribs of plywood and spruce, the whole framework being covered with plywood. This form of construction, besides being easy to maintain, provides ample buoyancy should the machine be forced to descend into the sea.
The construction of the empennage follows the same lines as that of the wing, being built up of spruce frames with plywood covering.
For the fuselage a welded tubular steel framework, with wood fairings and doped linen covering, is used. The fuselage frame is braced by rigid struts and stout flooring is fitted throughout the length of the pilot's cockpit and the rear cabin. Panels of electron sheet cover the nose portion.
In the prototype machine the engines are of the Siddeley Cheetah VI type, developing 290 h.p. each at 6.000ft. In the production machines, however, the power plants will be Cheetah IX's which are designed to run on fuel of 87 octane number and are normally rated at 310 h.p. at 6,000 it. Their maximum power is 339 h.p. at 6.800 ft.
The engines themselves are carried on welded tubular steel frames built out from the wing and are mounted well forward of the leading edge. Long-chord ring cowlings are fitted, with "helmets" for each cylinder. The two engine installations are entirely independent, each unit being provided with fuel and oil tanks of welded aluminium which are mounted in cradles in the wing. Fuel is fed by duplicated pumps.
It seems likely that the Anson will be the first armed military type with a retractable undercarriage to go into service with the R.A.F. This undercarriage consists of two separate units each mounted beneath an engine nacelle. Each wheel has pneumatic shock absorbers, medium-pressure tyres and pneumatic brakes. Retraction is mechanical and there is a crank handle for alternative operation. When the wheels are in the “up” position a small section of the tyre projects, and at all times the undercarriage is visible to the pilot.
Parallel-motion rudder pedals and stick and wheel for elevators and ailerons form the flying controls. Both rudder and elevator are mass balanced, and the ailerons are of the Frise type. The tailplane is, of necessity, fixed, but the elevator, like the rudder, is trimmed by small hinged flaps in the trailing edge, actuated by hand wheels from the cockpit. The instruments are arranged on a large panel, those for blind flying being provided with a shock-proof mounting.
On the port side, in the extreme nose of the fuselage, is the pilot's seat. The corresponding place on the starboard sides provides a prone bombing position. Dual controls can be fitted for training purposes, but when these are fitted the prone bombing position cannot be used. Either one or two fixed machine guns can be provided for the pilot (the R.A.F. type will have one). There is, of course, no interrupter gear.
Immediately behind the pilot's cockpit is the main cabin, which has ample windows on each side and in which provision is made for wireless telegraphy, navigation and photography.
At the extreme rear of this cabin is the rear gunner's station. On account of the high speeds attained by the Anson it is impossible to use an ordinary wind-balanced gun ring and an open cockpit. Guns can, however, be mounted to fire on each side of the rudder with movement through a few degrees (the gunner being protected by an adequate windscreen) or an enclosed revolving turret can be provided. In the R.A.F Ansons an Armstrong Whit worth turret will be used.
Racks for a maximum of eight 20 lb. bombs and two 100 lb. bombs are provided inside the wing; any variation or increase in this bomb load necessitates external stowage.
Recently a member of the staff of Flight was privileged to fly in the prototype Anson and to occupy the rear, gun turret during a mock combat with a fast two-seater biplane. He found the Anson to be extremely manoeuvrable for a machine of its type, and that the rear gunner, from his comfortable turret, has an excellent field of fire.
It is claimed that with one engine stopped and when fully loaded, the Anson can maintain level flight at 6,000 ft.
AVRO 652A (ANSON)
Coastal Reconnaissance Monoplane
Two Siddeley Cheetah VI. 290 h.p. at 6,000 ft. (to be replaced by Cheetah IX's)
Span 56 ft. 6 in. (17.2 m.)
Height 9 ft. 8 in. (2.94 m.)
Length 43 ft. 3 in. (12.9 m.)
Track 13 ft. 8 in. (4.16 m.)
Mean chord of wing 8 ft. 4 in. (2.54 m.)
Tare weight 4,826 lb. (2189 kg.)
Crew (three with parachutes) 600 lb. (272 kg.)
Fuel and oil 1,005 lb. (456 kg.)
Maximum military load 1.219 lb. (553 kg.)
Maximum permissible gross weight 7,650 lb. (3 470 kg.)
Maximum speed at sea level 169 m.p.h. (272 km/h.)
Maximum speed at 6.000 ft. (1,828 m.) 188 m.p.h. (302 km/h.)
Cruising speed at 6,000 ft. 160 m.p.h. (257 km./h.)
Stalling speed 86 m.p.h. (106 km/hr.)
Rate of climb at sea level 750 ft./min. (3.81 m/sec)
Rate of climb at 6,000 ft. (1,828 m.) 850 ft./min. (4.32 m/sec)
Service ceiling 19.500 ft. (5844 m.)
Absolute ceiling 21.000ft. (6400 m.)
Flight, January 1936
MODERNITY for the RAF.
A Low-wing Cantilever Monoplane Goes Into Service - the Avro Anson, Equipped for Long-range Over-water Reconnaissance: High Performance and a Comfortable Cabin
WITHIN a few weeks the first machines of a very large batch of Avro Anson general reconnaissance monoplanes will be leaving the Avro works for duty with Royal Air Force units. They will be the first machines of their class to be issued, for the general reconnaissance squadron is something entirely new to this country. Such units, based near the coast, will, in time of war, fly out to sea and report the position of any enemy ships which might venture into these waters. The G.R. machine can, if required, carry a light bomb load, and possessing, as it does, two machine guns and a high performance would not be "cold meat" to any enemy pilot.
The Anson, although designated in its Service guise a general reconnaissance aircraft, is essentially a highly efficient general-purpose type, and the uses to which it could be put by an air force are manifold. Obviously, with its twin engines, good load-carrying ability and long range, it is admirably suited to foreign service, and could fulfil its many and varied duties with economy, and, by virtue of its simple, robust, and well-tried structure, within the minimum of upkeep.
The Anson is essentially a development of the Avro 652 commercial monoplane described in Flight of March 7 last year. Testimony is borne to the structural similarity of the two machines by the fact that the Anson bears the Avro works number 652A. In external appearance, however, there are numerous features of dissimilarity.
It may be advantageous to recall that the one-piece cantilever wing embodies two main box spars with flanges of laminated spruce and plywood webs, joined by closely spaced ribs of spruce and plywood. The fuselage is a framework of welded steel tubes with fairings of wood and fabric covering, excepting the nose portion, which is panelled with Elektron.
The Anson is the first machine with a retractable undercarriage to be adopted for the R.A.F. Each of the two separate portions of the undercarriage is mounted under each engine nacelle, and is normally retracted by mechanical means; there is a crank handle for alternative operation. Dunlop wheels, tyres and pneumatic brakes and Turner legs are fitted as standard. When the wheels are in the "up" position a small portion of each tyre protrudes below the nacelles. The swivelling tail wheel is not retractable.
Mass balances are used on the rudder and elevator, and the ailerons are of the Frise variety. The tail plane is fixed, but the elevator, like the rudder, has a small trimming “tab” actuated by a handwheel in the cockpit.
Siddeley Cheetah IX seven-cylinder radials are fitted to the Ansons under construction for the R.A.F. The Cheetah IX is rated at 310 h.p. at 6,000 ft., and is designed for operation on the new Service fuel of 87 octane number. Each of the Anson's Cheetahs is provided with its own fuel and oil tanks, these being of welded aluminium and mounted in cradles in the wing. Duplicated fuel pumps mounted on the engines themselves feed the fuel to the carburetters. The engine mountings are welded tubular steel frames.
An interesting form of cowling is being used. It is fairly long in chord and small in diameter, the actual cylinder heads and valve gear being housed in scallops or helmets standing out from the main body of the cowling. This arrangement permits a nacelle of comparatively small diameter to be used, and improves, in consequence, the lateral vision, which is of great importance in a reconnaissance machine. The airscrews are two-bladed metal Faireys.
At the moment the Anson is not fitted with flaps, but an experimental Dowty-operated set is being prepared, and due weight allowance has been made in the production Ansons for their fitting. Apart from increasing the gliding angle they should reduce the landing speed of 66 m.p.h. by 9 m.p.h., thus facilitating small-aerodrome operation.
For general reconnaissance duties a crew of three is carried, consisting of a pilot (who operates the fixed gun), the navigator (who performs the duties of bomb aimer), and a wireless operator, who is alternatively the rear gunner.
In the extreme nose of the fuselage is the prone bombing position, with the bomb sight and appropriate instruments, a drift sight, and a Harley landing light. The pilot's cockpit is immediately aft of this and is provided, in the production model, with Cellastoid panels in the roof in place of the original metal covering. Parallel-motion rudder pedals are fitted on the port side, where the pilot sits, and the ailerons and elevator are operated through a normal stick and wheel control. The main instrument panel bears all the usual dials, the instruments for blind flying being attached to a shockproof mounting. Indirect instrument lighting is provided for night flying.
The pilot has a single Vickers 0.303in. machine gun, the breech of which is easily accessible to his left hand; the barrel protrudes into a channel in the nose fairing. Four hundred rounds of ammunition can be accommodated in the belt box, and the sights are of the ring and bead type, the ring being mounted in an inverted position actually inside the cockpit. A set of bomb release controls is also provided for the pilot's use. Other items suitably placed near the pilot are warning signals showing the position of the retractable undercarriage, petrol controls and handles for the operation of the trimming tabs. Just behind the pilot's seat are racks for two parachute packs, which are clipped in an emergency to the harness of the pilot and navigator. There is a small folding seat nearby, on the starboard side. Dual control may be fitted for training, but it is not then possible to use the prone bomber's position.
The cabin proper starts behind the pilot's seat and extends rearward as far as the gun turret. Windows of Triplex and Cellastoid now extend for its entire length on both sides, those in the centre being arranged to hinge inboard. Entering the cabin from the forward end one finds the navigator's position, between the spars, on the port side. The navigator has a chair and table, bearing compasses, Bigsworth chart boards, sea markers, course and wind calculators, course and speed calculators, signalling lamp and float flares, all stowed in convenient positions in the cabin. Aft of the rear spar is that portion of the cabin occupied by the wireless operator when he is not working the rear gun. Here, on the starboard side, is a table bearing standard Service W/T apparatus, the trailing aerial winch, parachute pack, fire extinguisher, etc. The fixed aerial sprouts from the fuselage roof behind the cockpit.
A door in the bulkhead at the rear of the cabin gives entry to the Armstrong-Whitworth gun turret, of the type described in Flight last week. In this is a Lewis gun and five 97-round ammunition drums. A first-aid box, accessible from the exterior of the machine, is also included.
The main door to the cabin is located on the starboard side just forward of the turret. Two emergency exits are provided in the roof.
Normally the bomb load, which is stowed in the wings, consists of two 100 lb. bombs and four or eight 20 lb. bombs, which are dropped through trap doors. All bombs are released electrically but are fused by mechanical means. If eight 20 lb. bombs are carried instead of four, the petrol load is reduced to 128 gall, and the duration of the aircraft to 4.25 hrs.
Stowed in the tail fairing of the starboard nacelle is an inflatable dinghy which is provided with automatic actuators to the rear of the engine and in the nose of the fuselage. The Walter Kidde system of inflation is used; this makes use of a bottle of liquid carbon dioxide. An emergency release cord is also fitted on the outside of the fuselage. A marine distress signal is provided under a tear-off patch at the bottom of the fin, and two further signals are secured to the handline on the dinghy.
The internal layout of the Anson is clearly shown in Max Millar's double-page drawing, which will be found overleaf.
Flight, October 1938
British Commercial Aircraft
THE Avro 652 high-speed commercial monoplane may be considered as the type from which the now well-known Anson was developed, and it was, in fact, the first low-wing commercial monoplane, to be built at the Newton Heath works. Two of these were originally ordered and flown by Imperial Airways who, however, now require types of a rather greater seating capacity for all their services. These two are now in good use at Air Service Training, Hamble, for navigation and wireless instruction, while more recently the type has reappeared and is used by the Egyptian Government. In its latest form the general layout is more similar to the Anson, without, of course, this machine's rear gun turret.
The 652 has, like every machine produced by the company since 1929, a fuselage of welded steel construction. The covering is of fabric on wood fairing, while the nose is panelled with electron sheet. The wing is cantilever and is built in one piece with two box-section main spars and ply-wood covering. The tail unit is cantilever, and of similar construction. It is normally fitted with two Siddeley Cheetah IX moderately supercharged engines with fixed-pitch airscrews. Mechanical operation is employed for the retraction of the undercarriage. At the time when the 652 first appeared flaps were not usual, but the later production Ansons have all been so fitted. Six passengers are normally carried, with a crew of two, the second pilot acting as radio operator.
Avro 652 Data.- Span, 56ft. 6in.; length, 42ft. 3m.; all-up weight. 8,000 lb.; weight empty, 5,550 lb.; maximum speed at sea level, 175 m.p.h.; maximum speed at 7,000ft., 195 m.p.h.; cruising speed at rated height, 160 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 62 m.p.h.; rate of climb, 750 ft./min. (905 ft./min. at rated altitude); service ceiling, 19,500ft.; absolute ceiling on one engine, 6,000ft.; normal range with full load. 600 miles; maximum range with standard tanks, 845 miles.
Makers: A. V. Roe and Co., Ltd., Newton Heath. Manchester, 10 (Collyhurst 2731).
This particular Avro 652 is one of two used by Imperial Airways. Later models incorporate certain improvements.
UP-TO-THE-MINUTE: Modern commercial monoplane practice is exemplified in every line of the new Avro 652, two of which have been built for charter work for Imperial Airways. The machine has two Siddeley "Cheetah" engines.
The Avro 652, a smaller machine, fitted with Siddeley Cheetah engines of 310 h.p. The Avro Anson military machine was developed from this.
THE MODERN TOUCH: An attractive view, taken from beneath Syrinx's fuselage by a Flight photographer, of the re-named Avatar (now Ava, for diplomatic reasons), one of Imperial's two new high-speed Avro charter monoplanes.
The auxiliary surfaces for trimming the elevators and the rudder can be seen in this photograph of the tail units.
Head on, the Avro 652 looks clean and carefully faired.
Mails or other light loads can be placed inside the nose through this door. For Imperial Airways a landing light has been fitted in the nose.
FOR COASTAL RECONNAISSANCE: The Avro 652 (two 270 h.p. Siddeley "Cheetah" engines) converted from a civil into a military type. Note the "birdcage" on top of the fuselage behind the wing.
OUTSTANDING MILITARY TYPE. The Avro Anson has been adopted as a standard coastal reconnaissance type. It does 188 m.p.h. with two 310 h.p. Cheetah IX's.
24 марта 1935г.: компания "Avro" впервые подняла в воздух прототип модификации своего самолета Type 652, приспособленный для прибрежного патрулирования - Type 652A, K4771.
Прототип Anson сохранил квадратные окна кабины Type 652, на смену которым у серийных самолетов пришла характерная "оранжерея". Конструкция ветрового козырька также подверглась незначительным доработкам.
A Coastal Reconnaissance machine, the Avro 652 (Conversion) is the military version of the firm's commercial monoplane. It has two Siddeley "Cheetah VI" engines of 290 h.p. each.
"Anson" is the official name of the Avro coastal reconnaissance monoplane (2 "Cheetah IX"). A very large order for these machines has been placed.
The Avro Anson coastal reconnaissance machine have been developed from civil type. The engines are Cheetah IXs.
Quick fill-up: No. 217 Squadron’s Ansons about to be replenished by “Mr. Zwicky” at Tangmere.
LORD HUNTINGFORD, Governor of Victoria, in an Anson of the City of Melbourne Squadron, of which he is the Honorary Air Commodore.
Bill Thorn with an Anson in 1947. Born on August 13, 1901, Sidney Albert Thorn was A. V.Roe’s chief test pilot at the time of his death.
"The Coliseum": The transparent turret over the gunner's cockpit in the Avro 652A would look quite at home at the lower end of St. Martin's Lane.
The engine installation and the working parts of the undercarriage are readily accessible for adjustment and routine inspection.
One of the seven-cylinder Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IXs installed in an Avro Anson.
SEEN ON EMPIRE AIR DAY: The new Avro coastal reconnaissance monoplane - a militarised "Ava" or 652 - leaves Gosport to give battle to a "Hart." The blob in the "parrot cage" is Flight's representative.
Mr. S. A. Thorn lowers the undercarriage of the first production type Anson for the benefit of Flight's photographer
In this fine Flight photograph of the first production type Avro Anson there can be seen, among other features, the disposition of front and rear guns, the bomb traps, wing-root filleting and the interesting shape of the tailplane.
THE ADMIRABLE ANSON: Lord Anson did much in his day to improve the fighting efficiency of the Royal Navy; and the Avro Anson coastal reconnaissance machine, harbinger of hordes of monoplanes and first of its class in the Royal Air Force, will greatly assist the work of the senior Service in protecting our shores. This Flight photograph shows the first of a very large number of Ansons which will be going to Squadrons within the next few months.
The Avro "Anson" Coastal Reconnaissance Monoplane (two 310 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Cheetah IX" engines).
ARMCHAIR FIGHTING. The disposition of the Anson's Armstrong-Whitworth gun turret is readily apparent here. Note the spacious, airy cabin
AVRO ANSON: General reconnaissance (two Cheetah IX engines - 350 h.p. each at 6,000ft.); span, 56ft. 6in.; gross weight, 7,650 lb.; max. speed, 188 m.p.h. at 7,000ft.
K6152 was the first production Avro Anson I, making its maiden flight on December 31, 1935. The type entered RAF service in March the following year, with 48 Squadron. The last Anson, actually an Avro 19 T.21, was flown away from Yeadon in May 1952 and the type was finally retired from the RAF in 1968.
Known affectionately by its crews as “Faithful Annie”, the Avro Anson entered RAF service in March 1936 as a general reconnaissance aircraft for Coastal Command. This Anson I, K6152, was delivered to the RAE at Farnborough from the manufacturer, so may have been a candidate for the fitting of the Whittle test unit in 1939.
The latest Avro type, the Anson general reconnaissance machine, has a speed of 188 m.p.h. when fitted with two Siddeley Cheetah IX engines of 310 h.p. each.
Avro Anson I K8814 of 224 Squadron, part of a batch delivered to the RAF between April and September 1937, pictured over the River Tyne. K8814 later passed to the Royal Canadian Air Force, becoming aircraft 6112 in 1940.
Avro Ansons are the aircraft of the general reconnaissance squadrons which patrol the waters round the coast of Britain.
A trio of coastal reconnaissance Anson Is of 220 Sqn. Nearer the camera is K6207, which later served with 206 Sqn, 6 FTS and 2 School of General Reconnaissance before being shipped to Canada in February 1941. K6206 and K6208 are in the background.
AVRO ANSONS are the equipment of several general reconnaissance squadrons of the Royal Air Force, and have been supplied to the Air Forces of Australia, Irish Free State, Finland, Estonia and Egypt.
A STRIKING FORCE: Normally the work of the General Reconnaissance squadrons is to scour the seas round the coasts of Britain and report the presence of enemy ships. During the recent exercises on the South Coast the Ansons of three G.R. squadrons were used as bombers, and here one of these squadrons is seen off the coast of Cornwall flying out to attack the Blue Fleet
No. 217 (G.R.) Squadron (with “Flight” represented in the leading Anson) slips past the Casquets on its way to make a low bombing attack on the convoy, which it found about 120 miles from the nearest land.
The fifteen Ansons of No. 217 Squadron flew in a formation intended to provide concentrated protective cross-fire. It will be gathered that outlook from the Anson is extraordinarily good.
Coastal reconnaissance aircraft normally wish to see and not to hide themselves, but sometimes they practise navigation above the cloud banks
A composite echelon stepped up, showing the types now used at the C.F.S. course: Anson, Oxford, Hart Trainer, Tutor and Fury.
SKY PARADE: Gauntlets, Ansons and Harrows in a "skeleton flight" rehearsal for the massed fly-past which will feature in the RA.F. Display to be held at Hendon on June 26. It is to be hoped that the squadrons will fly at closer intervals and at a lower altitude than did those in the so-called fly-past of two years ago.
Training aircraft of No. 9 F.T.S.: Anson, Hart and Audax.
A formation of 10 FTS Avro Anson Is, probably up from RAF Ternhill, with N9550 nearest the camera at right.
A formation of 10 FTS Avro Anson Is, probably up from RAF Ternhill, with undercarriages down and with N9724 leading. This Anson was transferred to the RCAF in December 1940.
Ansons of 9 FTS flying from Hullavington in early 1940.
Anson Is of 215 Sqn on coastal patrol in 1937. K6291 crashed while landing at Barrow on May 6, 1944.
The Avro Anson (two Siddeley Cheetahs) is a general reconnaissance type now equipping R.A.F. general reconnaissance squadrons.
Avro 652A Anson I K6234 seen at Hooton in 1938, was part of the first RAF production batch built in 1935. The type was the RAF's first monoplane to have a retractable undercarriage and was used as a general reconnaissance aircraft.
К началу Второй мировой войны Avro Anson состоял на вооружении 11 эскадрилий ВВС. Хотя его служба в качестве разведчика в Береговом командовании оказалась недолгой, этот самолет сыграл важнейшую роль в обучении авиаторов. На снимке представлен Anson Mk I со стрелковой установкой Armstrong Whitworth. Обратите внимание на большую площадь остекления фюзеляжа.
The Avro Anson I Armament and Navigation Trainer (two Armstrong Siddeley IX engines).
В начале войны только одна эскадрилья Берегового командования британских ВВС была оснащена самолетами Hudson Mk I, в девяти были самолеты Anson Mk I (на снимке), и одна эскадрилья летала на совсем устаревших Vickers Vildebeest Mk IV.
This Power boat had fell designs on the defences of our East Coast, but the Anson spotted her and reported her position to H.Q. at Manston.
Avro Anson general reconnaissance machines in an appropriate setting with a flotilla of destroyers below.
Группа "энсонов" из 217-й эскадрильи
ESCORT: A fine impression of Ansons escorting the royal yacht, Enchantress, during Their Majesties' recent visit to France. The formation is flying a figure 8 in order to keep in the vicinity of the vessel.
"Энсоны" 217-й эскадрильи в полете.
Some of the Avro Ansons (two Siddeley Cheetahs IX) of No. 48 (General Reconnaissance) Squadron at Manston.
Navy Day! A scene of suspended animation at a Redland aerodrome during Thursday's storm, which grounded the major portion of the defending air force. On the left are the Heyfords of No. 99 Bomber Squadron with No. 269 General Reconnaissance Squadron's Ansons on the right
This was the scene at RAF Odiham on the afternoon of Tuesday, July 14, 1953, the day before the Review, as seen from Flight’s Miles Gemini G-AFLT. A full dress rehearsal was held the previous Friday!
THE STAGE SET: This aerial photograph of the Royal Air Force Display machines assembled in the operational park at Hendon forms a fitting introduction to the pictures, in the ensuing pages, of the Display in progress. There are eight monoplanes in the assembly - Ansons (third row) and Clouds (fifth).
Symbolic? A general reconnaissance Anson at Hendon provides shelter against an unwelcome precipitation from the skies.
Avro "Ansons" (two "Siddeley "Cheetahs") of Nos. 220 and 206 (General Reconnaissance) Squadrons, R.A.F., at Bircham Newton.
DAWN PATROL: A G.R. Anson being started up at 03.00 hours during the recent Coast Defence Exercises.
Anson I NK720 was used by Whinney throughout Operation ASCENSION.
Believed to be one of the oldest Royal Navy Ansons still in service is NK201 (999-SZ).
Avro Anson I LT674 of the RAF Santa Cruz Workshops Flight, pictured in the summer of 1946.
"Hop out, Joe, and have a good look round". Another Anson following a forced landing elsewhere.
Near enough: The Anson at the end of its forced-landing run. Fog and fuel shortage were the causes of the bother.
Typhoons undergo maintenance in a former Luftwaffe hangar after 263 Sqn’s move to the Continent in August 1944. The “Tiffies” of 263 Sqn shared hangars with those of other squadrons, including 197 Sqn, a Typhoon of which, coded OV-A, is seen in the background. In the foreground is an Avro Anson also undergoing maintenance.
Hotspurs at a Glider Training School, 1942. Avro-built Audax tug K7328 and an Anson can be seen in the distance.
Учебно-тренировочные самолеты "Тайгер Мот" (Тексан???) и "Ансон", авиабаза Бриндизи, Италия, лето 1945г.
A.III NA135 of 190 Squadron at Great Dunmow in June 1945 - an Anson and Stirlings behind. Built at Speke by Rootes in 1945, it served only with 190 and was struck off charge in February 1947.
Putting the “car” into “cargo” - the Darracq is driven up the ramp at Lympne, while the Alvis TA21 awaits its turn. Just visible in the background is an Avro Anson of the Kenley-based No 61 Group Communications Flight, coded RCE-F.
Avro 652A Anson G-ALWX, ex EG674, owned by Air Enterprises Ltd, caught at Croydon in April 1950. Painted silver overall, the aircraft has had its RAF marks painted out in black. G-ALWX was never converted and it was scrapped in June 1953.
Avro 652A Anson I G-ALYE, ex LV280, photographed at Croydon in February 1950 when it was owned by Transair Ltd. It is seen here painted in green and brown camouflage with yellow bands and undersides. In June 1950 this Anson slipped off to Israel.
Avro 652A Anson Mk 1 G-AMBE, still bearing the RAF serial number EG228. Painted silver overall with black RAF squadron markings and temporary civil registration letters in white, 'BE is seen at Croydon aerodrome in June 1950. Owned by Transair, the Anson was never converted and was withdrawn from use in December 1961.
Avro 652A Anson G-AMBG, ex MH124, on the apron at Croydon in June 1950. Owned by Transair Ltd, the Anson was finished silver overall and had temporary registration letters in white.
Left, photographed at Southend in October 1949, Avro 652A Anson G-ALUS was silver overall and had its temporary registration letters painted in black. In October the following year ’US was scrapped.
Right, another Rollason-owned Avro 652A Anson parked on Croydon's tarmac. G-ALEL, ex MG247, in green and brown camouflage, yellow undersurfaces and rear fuselage, had its registration letters painted in cream when seen in November 1948. It was scrapped in January the following year.
Another Israeli-bound Anson I was G-ALXE, ex R7985, seen at Croydon in January 1950. This Transair aircraft was in green and brown camouflage, with green undersides, with temporary civil registration in grey. 'XE left for Israel in June 1950 already.
Still going strong is Derby Aviation's Avro Anson I with an EM "bird" under the fuselage for mineral surveying.
The Avro 652 transport in its later form - actually - one for the Egyptian Government. The well-known Anson was developed from the 652, two of which were used by Imperial Airways.
An adaptable feederline or charter type is the Cheetah-powered Avro 652
Restored Avro Anson VH-ASM photographed at Mascot, Sydney, Australia on June 23, 1987, exactly 40yr after its first commercial flight with East West Airlines on June 23, 1947. Originally W2068 with the RAAF, it became East West’s first aircraft after the war. It subsequently served with Sid Marshall at Bankstown, but was grounded in 1962. In 1965 its wings were axed off, and it languished in the open until 1972, when East West rescued it for static restoration.
Первый "Энсон", поставленный в Австралию. Стрелковое вооружение отсутствует
Первый "Энсон" I, полученный австралийскими ВВС.
A pair of Ansons from Richmond over the magnificent harbour at Sydney.
A formation of Avro "Ansons" (350 h.p. Siddeley "Cheetahs") belonging to the Royal Australian Air Force, flying over Sydney, N.S.W.
Anson reconnaissance-bombers of the Royal Australian Air Force in impressive array over Sydney. Combining economy with performance (a top speed of nearly 190 m.p.h. is available on about 700 h.p. delivered by two Siddeley Cheetahs), this British general-purpose type is an attractive proposition for air arms with limited financial resources.
Ansons from Richmond Aerodrome over wooded country in the Blue Mountains.
L2639 after its forced-landing, taken from Heffernan’s Anson.
Австралийский "Энсон" заходит на посадку на аэродром Маллала (близ Аделаиды), март 1939 г.
No 21 (City of Melbourne) Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, lined up at Laverton for inspection by His Excellency the Governor of the State of Victoria on his appointment as Honorary Air Commodore of the Squadron.
CITIZEN PILOTS: Cadets of Australia’s Citizen Air Force receiving armament instruction at Laverton aerodrome. They fly Ansons extensively.
DEMONS DOWN UNDER: Permanent personnel of the Royal Australian Air Force in training at Laverton aerodrome. Their headgear is worthy of note. The aircraft nearest the camera are Hawker Demons (R. R. Kestrel V) which, as supplied to Australia, are really general purpose machines with fully supercharged engines. A pair of Ansons may be descried farther down the tarmac, together with additional Demons.
Anson I 6048, formerly R3522, at Camp Borden in 1940. this ex-RAF Anson was taken on RCAF strength on May 15, 1940 and was finally struck off charge on September 21, 1944.
Used by the R.A.F. for general reconnaissance and advanced training duties, the Avro Anson, a Swedish (Finnish ???) version of which is seen in action
THE OTHER SWASTIKA. Quite a number of people have wondered whether certain Ansons, seen recently on test, were intended for Germany. Actually the batch is for Finland, and one of the machines is seen here in the hands of Flt. Lt. Geoffrey Tyson, erstwhile display aerobatic expert, and now an Avro test pilot.
IRONING THE GREENSWARD: An aeroplane flying at "no altitude" with its undercarriage retracted is always an impressive sight. Here is another view of one of the Avro Ansons for Finland being flown in a spectacular manner by Flt. Lt. Geoffrey Tyson.
The particular Avro Anson is one of a batch for Finland. Similar machines are used in large numbers by the R.A.F.
THE WEARING OF THE GREEN: An Avro Anson (two 310/355 h.p. moderately supercharged Siddeley Cheetah IXs) on test at Woodford prior to delivery to the Irish Free State Air Force, which is composed almost entirely of Avro aircraft. All its machines, including some Vickers Vespas, have Siddeley engines.
Avro "Ansons" of the Air Force of Eire.
NATIONS AT THE FOUNTAIN: A Yugoslav Autogiro (Genet Major), a Portuguese 626 comprehensive trainer Cheetah) and an Irish Anson reconnaissance machine (two Cheetahs) in a "feeding time" scene at Woodford, Avro's Manchester aerodrome. The Anson is fitted with flaps.
Avro Anson 1581 was usually based at Almaza during the early part of the Palestine War and is believed to have been used for navigation and bomber training.
Ground-crew bombing up an REAF Aero Anson I, probably during World War Two. The REAF's remaining Ansons were used for bomber training during the Palestine War, though it is possible that they carried out some tactical bombing strikes
An Iraqi Anson I as operated from Mafraq in Transjordan during the Palestine War.
A Federal-built Anson V Navigational Trainer (two Pratt & Whitney Wasp-Junior engines).
Этот необычный Anson на поплавковом шасси принадлежал 35-й эскадрилье южноафриканских ВВС, базировавшейся в Конгелла, Южная Африка. Он использовался для обучения экипажей полетам с воды, прежде чем они пересаживались на штатные летающие лодки Sunderland.
Some idea of the size and the nature of the construction of the wing may be gathered from this view.