Hawker Woodcock
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1923

Одноместный ночной истребитель
Hawker Woodcock
Flight, September 1924
Flight, January 1926
Flight, July 1928

Hawker Woodcock

Самолет Woodcock спроектирован согласно спецификации 25/22 Министерства авиации к одноместному ночному истребителю. Планер прототипа Woodcock, позже получившего обозначение Woodcock Mk I, изготавливался из дерева и полотна. Он представлял собой типичный биплан с традиционным расчалочным хвостовым оперением, неубираемым шасси, выполненным по схеме с хвостовой опорой-костылем, и с силовой установкой со звездообразным мотором Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar II мощностью 358 л. с. На испытаниях в 1923 году Woodcock Mk I продемонстрировал крайне неудовлетворительные летные характеристики, поэтому был разработан новый прототип - Woodcock Mk II со звездообразным мотором Bristol Jupiter IV. Данный вариант показал на испытаниях достойные результаты, и после доработки хвостового оперения его одобрили к запуску в серию. Первые самолеты, пока без оборудования для ночных полетов, направили в войска для проведения эксплуатационных испытаний. А первый действительно ночной Woodcock Mk II передали в 3-ю истребительную эскадрилью в мае 1925 года.
   Всего для британских ВВС был построен 61 самолет Woodcock Mk II, их эксплуатация продолжалась до 1928 года, хотя отдельные машины летали до 1936 года. Фирма построила также три модернизированных биплана Woodcock с мотором Jaguar IV для авиации Армии Дании. Эти самолеты именовались Danecock, в то время как 12 машин, построенных в Дании по лицензии, обозначались L.B.II Dankok; истребители находились в эксплуатации до 1937 года.


   Hawker Woodcock Mk II

   Тип: одноместный ночной истребитель
   Силовая установка: один звездообразный ПД Bristol Jupiter IV мощностью 380 л. с.
   Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 227 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 166 км/ч; время набора высоты 3050 м - 8 мин 25 с; практический потолок 6860 м; продолжительность полета 2 ч 45 мин
   Масса: пустого 914 кг; максимальная взлетная 1351 кг
   Размеры: размах крыла 9,91 м; длина 7,98 м; высота 3,02 м; площадь крыльев 32,14 м2
   Вооружение: два неподвижных стреляющих вперед 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers по бортам в верхней носовой части фюзеляжа

Flight, September 1924

Bristol "Jupiter" Engine

   ALL who witnessed the magnificent exhibition of flying at the R.A.F. Pageant by Flight-Lieut. Bulman, on the Sopwith-Hawker "Woodcock," with "Jupiter" engine, were much impressed by the excellent performance of this machine. Designed by the H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., of Kingston, who are now commencing a further batch of these interesting machines, the "Woodcock" may be described as a night-flying single-seater fighting machine. Unfortunately, permission is obtainable from the Air Ministry (and rightly so) for publication of exterior views only, and a general description without details of performance. The machine has a particularly clean outline, and its exceptionally wide speed-range makes it eminently suitable for night-flying work. The Bristol "Jupiter" engine forms the power unit, and the cowling has been arranged in such an ingenious manner as to form separate "helmets" over each cylinder, the helmets being fitted with shutters, operated by the pilot, so that the temperature of the engine may be regulated according to the speed and altitude.
   The pilot has an exceptionally fine field of vision, and the machine exhibits in a marked degree those essential qualities of manoeuvrability and stability, the controls, which are on the differential principle, incorporating some particularly interesting devices.
   The undercarriage is of the oleo type, and is very neatly attached to the fuselage. The latter is of orthodox construction, and the tail is adjustable from the pilot's seat. The planes are single-bay type, of timber and fabric, but tests with a metal construction plane have proved very successful, and the production machines will probably be so equipped. The machine has a span of 32 ft., the length overall being 26 ft., and the height 10 ft. Further particulars, as before mentioned, may not be given, but sufficient may be gathered to glean that the performance is exceptional.

Flight, January 1926

Hawker Single-Seater Fighters for Denmark

   SOME time ago we announced in FLIGHT that the H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., Ltd., of Kingston-on-Thames, had received an order from the Danish Government for single-seater fighters. The machines ordered have now been delivered to the purchasers, and it has consequently become permissible to refer to the history of these machines.
   When the Hawker Engineering Company undertook the construction of these machines for the Danish Government a guarantee had to be given as to a structural weight and performance figures with full load, and, furthermore, the machines had to be completed by a certain date - a date, incidentally, which did not leave the Company very much time for building the machines. It is worth placing on record as a somewhat uncommon fact that the machines for Denmark were actually tested, accepted, packed and shipped to Copenhagen five weeks before they were due for their first nights. Knowing the difficulties of ever getting aeroplanes finished to time, we think that this achievement by the Hawker Engineering Co. is one of which all concerned may well be proud. Incidentally, it might be mentioned that when the machines were finished the structural weight was found to be below the guaranteed figure, in spite of certain increases in equipment, while the performance was considerably in excess of that stipulated in the contract.
   Under the agreement entered into with the Danish Government, the latter ordered three machines from the Hawker Engineering Co., and a further batch, the actual size of which we are not permitted to disclose, but which is very considerable, is to be built in the Naval Dockyard at Copenhagen under licence from the Hawker Engineering Company.
   We had the privilege to be present recently during the carrying out of the acceptance tests of one of the Hawker "Danecocks," as the machines for Denmark have been named, Flight-Lieut. P. W. S. Bulman being the pilot on this occasion. It is not permissible to give performance figures of the "Danecock," but it may be said that the all-round performance is very good indeed, and compares not unfavourably with that of the "Woodcock," from which the "Danecock" has been evolved. In the hands of such an exceptional pilot as Lieut. Bulman, the machine was, of course, shown to the very best advantage, and the manoeuvrability and controllability appeared to be extremely good. One of the tests carried out by Lieut. Bulman consisted in a very steep climb off the ground; in fact, it might almost be termed a vertical climb, terminating at the top in a large loop. Both the climbing angle and rate of climb seemed to be exceptionally good, and the machine looped very cleanly indeed.
   In another test Lieut. Bulman took the "Danecock" up to a considerable altitude, and then proceeded to fly at extremely low forward speed. The actual figure is not available, but appeared to be in the neighbourhood of 45 m.p.h. While flying thus slowly, the machine was dropped first on to one wing tip, and then on to the other, showing that even at the stalling speed the lateral control was sufficiently powerful to change from a vertical bank to one side into a vertical bank to the other without the machine ever swerving off its course. When coming in to land, the "Danecock" was seen to float into the aerodrome at a speed which seemed remarkably low for a machine of this type, and after touching the ground, although the undercarriage is not unusually high, the machine seemed to pull up very quickly.
   During another flight, on which our photographer went up in another machine, for the purpose of photographing the "Danecock" in and from the air. Lieut. Bulman executed some extraordinarily slow rolls, one of which is illustrated in a full-page photograph. We do not recollect ever having seen rolls carried out better than they were on this occasion, and certainly the Hawker "Danecock" appears to possess a large degree of both manoeuvrability and controllability.
   Concerning the "Danecock" itself, it is not, unfortunately, possible to say very much, but it may be stated that the machine is a development of the well-known Hawker "Woodcock" supplied to the Royal Air Force. Those familiar with the "Woodcock" will note from the accompanying photographs that a change which is immediately noticeable is the shortening of the bottom plane. The arrangement in this respect is more reminiscent of the Hawker "Heron," although the normal chord of the bottom plane has been retained in the "Danecock." The view from the pilot's cockpit is very good, although probably the relatively large chord of the bottom plane causes a good deal more blanketing than does the small chord of the lower plane in the "Heron."
   It is interesting to note that the equipment of this machine is to be almost entirely British, this referring to the armament, electric plant and the majority of the instruments carried, while a few additional "gadgets" of Danish make are to be fitted when the machines are put into service in Denmark.
   The engine fitted in the Hawker "Danecock" is an Armstrong-Siddeley Jaguar, which firm thus shares with the Hawker Company the credit of introducing British service aircraft into Denmark. Hitherto the Danish Government has been purchasing its aircraft equipment mostly from countries other than Great Britain, mainly, we believe, for financial reasons, but although British aircraft may be somewhat more expensive in first cost, there is little doubt that the soundness of British design and workmanship will soon outweigh this slight disadvantage, and we are quite sure that in the case of the Hawker "Danecock" with its Armstrong-Siddeley Jaguar engine, the Danish authorities will possess a single-seater fighter with a performance equal to that of the best equivalent types of other and much larger nations. At the moment it is, of course, impossible to foresee how the Danish-built machines will compare with the original British prototype, but provided the right materials can be obtained (and we believe the greater part will be obtained from this country), and the Danish workmen trained to the same degree of craftsmanship as obtains in this country, the Danish Air Service should soon be in possession of a fleet of machines which may well cause envy among the service aviators of neighbouring countries.

Flight, July 1928

One Bristol "Jupiter" IV Engine

   THE "Woodcock" is the standard single-seater night fighter of the Royal Air Force. The power unit is the Bristol "Jupiter," Mk. IV, radial air-cooled engine, and the armament consists of two Vickers guns, one on each side of the fuselage. This disposition prevents the flash from interfering with the pilot's vision at night.
   The speed range renders the machine particularly suitable for night operations, and the cockpit is extremely comfortable.
   Fuselage. - The fuselage is of timber construction utilising ash longerons and spruce struts braced with high tensile steel tie rods. Provision is made for wireless receiving and transmitting apparatus and oxygen supply. The instrument board is neatly arranged and provision is made for central lighting.
   Wings. - The wings are of equal span and of timber construction. The spars are of solid spruce with widely spaced ribs braced with tie rods. The ailerons are operated by a differential gear from the bottom planes. A portion of the centre section is detachable to allow for the fitting of an extra tank of 18 gallons capacity, giving additional range if required.
   Tail Unit. - The elevators, fin and rudder are constructed of steel tube, and the tail plane spar is of the same material. Adjustment by means of a hand-wheel is provided from the pilot's seat. The tail skid is of steel tube with a cast-iron shoe.
   Engine Installation. - The "Jupiter" Mk. IV engine is installed on a simple steel tube structure and plate. The four main members are ball jointed at the fuselage end, fitting into a socket on the bulkhead, a spherical cover ensuring perfect alignment. The whole unit is quickly and easily detachable. The petrol tank is of tinned steel with 52 gallons (234 litres) capacity.
   Undercarriage. - The undercarriage is of steel tubes with duralumin radius rods and incorporates the oleo principle. The track is of ample width and facilitates landing.
На рисунке изображен Woodcock Mk II четвертой производственной серии из 17-й эскадрильи британских ВВС. Установка пулеметов для истребителей не совсем обычна - они открыто устанавливались снаружи бортов фюзеляжа.
The Woodcock was the first fighter to he produced by Hawker, but its qualities proved disappointing.
THE HAWKER "WOODCOCK": Another recent single-seater fighter biplane, fitted with a Bristol "Jupiter."
AT THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: Single-seater fighter - the Hawker "Woodcock" biplane (Bristol "Jupiter").
The Sopwith-Hawker "Woodcock," with Bristol "Jupiter" Engine: Three-quarter front view.
THE SOPWITH-HAWKER "WOODCOCK": Three-quarter rear view.
The Woodcock II differed appreciably from the original Woodcock and served with RAF squadrons until 1928.
The Hawker "Woodcock" with 400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter" engine, entered by Mr. T. O. M. Sopwith, will be piloted by Flight-Lieut. P. W. S. Bulman.
Hawker Woodcock single-seat fighter J7960, bearing the distinctive double zig-zag markings of No 17 Squadron, based at Hawkinge, along its fuselage sides. No 17 was the second of the two Woodcock squadrons, and received its first examples in March 1926.
Март 1923г.: Hawker Woodcock, имевший вначале конструктивные недостатки и маломощный двигатель, совершил первый полет. После модернизации самолет широко использовался британскими ВВС.
The RAF’s first Hawker fighter was the Woodcock; two squadrons were equipped, Nos 3 and 17 (illustrated)
A brace of Hawker Woodcock IIs, fitted with the 420 h.p. Bristol Jupiter IV. The foremost aircraft, J7515, was the fourth production aircraft. On July 1925 it was flown by Flt Lt P. W. S. Bulman in the King's Cup Race as G-EBMA, the only civil Woodcock, but crashed at Luton.
R.A.F. DISPLAY AT BLACKPOOL: The huge crowd that visited the Blackpool Air Pageant on July 7 were lucky witnesses of a splendid imitation of the R.A.F. Display at Hendon. This view shows the familiar Air Force machines which took part: Hawker "Woodcocks"
THE SIR PHILIP SASSOON CUP RACE AT NORTHOLT: Two Hawker "Woodcocks" are here shown starting for the race.
THE KING'S CUP: Some of the first day's starters. 5, Bulman on the Hawker Woodcock, dodging the rain.
MANOEUVRABILITY: The Hawker "Woodcock" with Bristol "Jupiter" engine doing a steeply-banked turn close to the ground near the Hawker sheds at Brooklands. The pilot was Mr. Bulman, chief test pilot to the H. G. Hawker Engineering Company.
The Hawker "Woodcock" (Bristol "Jupiter") Designed and built by the H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., which may be said to be carrying on the traditions of the late Sopwith Aviation Co., the "Woodcock" single-seater fighter may justly be regarded as the scion of a long family, commencing with the little Sopwith "Tabloid." The "Woodcock" is of normal straightforward design, but, as in so many other cases, appearances are deceptive, and the machine possesses features which a casual examination might fail to reveal. The Hawker "Woodcock" forms the standard equipment of No. 3 (Fighter) squadron, Upavon, and No. 17 (Fighter) squadron, Hawkinge.
HAWKER "WOODCOCK": Single-seater Fighter, with Bristol "Jupiter" Engine
UPS AND DOWNS: Two views of the Hawker "Woodcock," piloted by Mr. Bulman, flying at Brooklands. When the photograph on the left was taken the machine was doing a banked left-hand turn close to the ground, our photographer enjoying a point of vantage above the machine.
AT THE BRISTOL MEETING: The R.A.F. contribution was in the form of demonstrations, bombing and machine-gunning by three Hawker "Woodcocks" with Bristol "Jupiter" engines, here seen in formation "line astern."
Bill Thorn leading a flight of 17 Sqn Hawker Woodcocks.
THE BRISTOL FLYING .MEETING: 4, Three Hawker "Woodcocks" from No. 17 Squadron give a fine display
FORMATION FLYING EXTRAORDINARY: Daily visitors to Lympne during the light 'plane competition were "Grebes," "Woodcocks" and "Gamecocks," whose evolutions were generally admired. Our photographs show these machines in various formations.
The Hawker "Danecock": Three-quarter front view. The engine is an Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar."
Один из 12 бипланов L.B.II Dankok, построенных заводом Королевских ВМС Дании в 1927-1928 годах. Под нижним крылом смонтированы держатели для легких бомб.
A derivative of the Woodcock, the Danecock was licence-built by the Danish naval dockyard factory and remained in service with the Danish Navy until the mid-'thirties.
THE HAWKER "DANECOCK": This front view gives a good idea of the large span single-bay bracing, and the generally "clean" lines of the machine.
The Hawker "Danecock": Side view. Note the Danish flag on the rudder.
The Hawker "Danecock": Three-quarter rear view.
CONTROLLABILITY: These two photographs of the Hawker "Danecock," photographed from another aeroplane, show two stages of a "slow roll" carried out by Flight-Lieut. Bulman, the firm's chief test pilot. In the larger photograph the machine is seen going into a left-hand roll, and the port ailerons can be seen to be in the maximum "up" position. In the inset the machine is on its back and is commencing to dive into a normal position.
"THAT WAS A GOOD AEROPLANE THAT IS": Reversing the now famous "Shell" slogan seems apt in connection with this Hawker "Danecock" with Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" engine which, although delivered by the Hawker Company to the Danish Naval Air Service in 1924, has recently won the Nordic Cup Competition piloted by Lieutenant Erik Rastnussen, Royal Danish Navy. The course was one of 800 miles, and pilots from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark took part. The "Danecock" is still the standard fighter in Denmark, and the same officer and machine still hold the Scandinavian altitude record established just over two years ago.
AN ANGLO-DANISH ALLIANCE: This series of photographs show the Hawker "Danecock" with Armstrong-Siddeley "Jaguar" engine, of which three were recently delivered to the Danish Government. A further number will be built at the Naval dockyards at Copenhagen. These photographs were secured during a test flight at Brooklands recently, and show the machine in a number of various attitudes. The pilot was Flight-Lieut. Bulman.
An Anglo-Dane Alliance: In this group are seen representatives of the Hawker Engineering Company, Armstrong-Siddeley Motors, and the Danish Government. From left to right: Capt. Proctor (Armstrong-Siddeley), Mr. L. A. Pollard (Hawker), Mr. C. V. Thymann (Royal Danish Navy), Mr. H. K. Jones (Hawker), Lieut. P. W. S. Bulman (Hawker), Lieut.-Commander Victor (Royal Danish Navy), and Mr. F. I. Bennett (Hawker)
Dismantled at the Royal Naval Air Station, Copenhagen, 1938-39
158 in service with 2 Luftflotille, Ringsted, 1930
Restored, with Spitfire wheels, at Vaerloese, circa 1955
A prized exhibit in the Copenhagen museum of the Royal Danish Arsenal is the Hawker Dancock, only surviving example of this 1927 biplane with an Armstrong-Siddeley Jaguar IV radial engine. No 158 is one of the 12 Dancocks built at the Danish Naval Dockyard.
On display in the Arsenal Museum, Copenhagen
How to write-off a Woodcock. The radial-engined remains belong to Hawker Woodcock II J7973, and the second party is a de Havilland D.H.9A. Fg Off Shipwright was injured in this accident. Only Nos 3 and 17 Squadrons had Woodcocks, and the type was in service as a night interceptor fighter from 1925 until 1928.
The Woodcock II differed appreciably from the original Woodcock and served with RAF squadrons until 1928.