Flight, June 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
THE BRISTOL AEROPLANE CO., LTD.
Two complete aeroplanes will be exhibited on the stand of the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., one a single-engined four-seater passenger machine with Bristol "Neptune" engine,
and the other a "Bulldog" single-seater fighter with Bristol "Jupiter."
The new Bristol four-passenger commercial aeroplane is a saloon machine, carrying the official works type number 110A. As was to be expected from the Bristol firm, the saloon will be most comfortably equipped and with the finish one has come to expect from all "Bristol" products. The machine, apart from its individual appeal, is of interest as being the second or third of what may be termed the "feeder line" type of aircraft to be produced in this country. In the United States the three or four-seated single-engined type of machine has long been popular, but in this country we have hitherto had little experience of this class of machine. It may be said that what has, in the case of the Bristol company, made the 110A possible is the production of two new types of "Bristol" engines: the five-cylinder "Titan” and the seven-cylinder "Neptune." These engines, of which the "Neptune" will make its first public appearance at Olympia, make use of a certain number of "Jupiter" parts, such as cylinders, pistons, connecting rods, &c. The new 110A may be supplied with either engine, but at the Show it will be fitted with the more powerful of the two, i.e., the "Neptune," rated at 295-315 h.p.
From the general arrangement drawings it will be seen that the Bristol 110A is a biplane in which the pilot's cockpit is placed between the saloon and the engine, ahead of the pings. The pilot's seat is placed on the port side, and the cockpit communicates with the saloon by a door, while the pilot is able, by means of a door on the starboard side, to enter and leave his cockpit without going through the saloon. In front of the pilot is a windscreen of "Triplex" glass, while on the sides are panels of clear celluloid. The pilot's seat is of the bucket type, and its height is adjustable in flight through a range of four inches. The controls are of normal type, with a rudder bar adjustable in flight for fore and aft position.
All the bearing surfaces of the controls are provided with grease-gun lubrication. On the port side is mounted the tail trimming wheel. The instruments fitted as standard include altimeter, airspeed indicator, cross level, compass, revolution counter, oil-pressure gauge, oil thermometer, watch, engine magneto switch and hand starter magneto switch.
The saloon is 6 ft. long by 3 ft. 6 in. wide, and has seating accommodation for four passengers. The two front seats have back rests to fold down, and, in addition, one of them is hinged to fold against the wall of the saloon so as to allow of easy access to the pilot's cockpit. The seats at the rear are of the sofa variety, extending right across the saloon. All seats are upholstered in leather, and are pneumatically inflated.
Large fixed "Triplex" windows are fitted along both sides of the saloon, and ventilation is by six ventilators in the top sides, adjustable from within. An air extractor is provided at the rear of the saloon. The colour scheme is blue, a blue cloth covering extending up to the windows, and the seats and carpet being royal blue. For the peace of mind of the passengers an airspeed indicator, height recorder and a clock are fitted in the forward part of the saloon, in full view of the passengers.
Structurally the Bristol 110A is an all-metal, and chiefly all-steel, machine in which use is made of the now well-known "Bristol" methods of construction. The fuselage, is composed of several sections bolted together. First there is the engine plate support, which is in the form of four tubular struts braced by tie rods, and forming a complete unit bolted at the corners to the fuselage proper. Then comes the pilot's cockpit, which is also a complete unit, of tubular construction, and having tie rod bracing in the bottom panels and a Warren girder in the side panels. The saloon portion of the fuselage has members built up of high-tensile steel strip, the struts being of a peculiar corrugated or "crinkled" section, as shown in a sketch. The rear portion of the fuselage is of typical "Bristol" steel strip construction. Finally the extreme stern portion is composed of the stern post, four longerons and a pair of diagonal side panel struts, all of nickel chrome steel.
The biplane wings are of the familiar "Bristol" construction, with box spars of corrugated steel strip, and ribs of the same material. The internal drag struts are steel tubes with tie-rod drag bracing. The leading edges are of sheet aluminium, and the trailing edges of steel tubing. All wing fittings are steel stampings, and are placed well inside the wing covering.
Ailerons are fitted to the top planes only, and are of familiar Bristol-Frise type, with grease-gun lubrication. The inter-plane struts are built up of nickel-chrome steel strip, with steel fairings. The bracing wires are high tensile steel streamline wires, cadmium plated.
An undercarriage of the "split" type is fitted, rubber compression blocks being used in conjunction with oleo damping gear. The rubber blocks are of long oval section, and form in themselves part of the fairing. The members of the undercarriage are all faired with Balsa wood and aluminium. The undercarriage telescopic legs have a stroke of no less than 8 in., so that the undercarriage is well able to withstand severe shocks on landing, not to mention taxying over rough ground.
The petrol system is of the direct-gravity feed type, with two tanks of 45 gallons' capacity each, carried in the top wings, close in to the body. Each tank has a petrol gauge, so mounted that it is visible from the cockpit, and the outlet sumps have petrol cocks controlled from the cockpit. The petrol pipes are solid drawn copper, with all-metal joints, and a filter is mounted on the forward side of the fireproof bulkhead. From the filter to the carburettor the fuel is carried by "Petroflex" tubing. The oil tank, of 9 gallons capacity, is carried in the forward end of the fuselage, on rubber blocks. An oil cooler is carried on the bottom of the fuselage and fitted with a valve to provide automatic variation of the cooling.
As previously mentioned, either the "Neptune" or the "Titan" engine can be fitted. An "Eclipse" inertia hand starter is provided in either case as standard equipment. If desired, an "Eclipse" electric starter can be fitted instead, at extra cost.
When fitted with the "Neptune" engine, the gross weight of the Bristol 110A is 4,260 lbs., and when the "Titan" is used, the gross weight is 3,720 lbs. In the former case, the estimated top speed is 125 m.p.h., and in the latter, 111 m.p.h. The respective cruising speeds are 100 and 90 m.p.h., and the landing speeds 56 and 52 m.p.h. The duration, in each case, is 6-2 hrs. at normal cruising speed (ranges 620 and 560 miles, respectively), and the time to climb to 5,000 ft., 11 and 16 1/2 mins., respectively.