PZL SZD-8 Jaskolka
Страна: Польша
Год: 1951

M.Hardy. Gliders & Sailplanes of the world

M.Hardy. Gliders & Sailplanes of the world

SZD-8 Jaskolka

  Since the war Poland has established herself as probably the leading Eastern European rival to the Federal German Republic in the design and manufacture of high quality sailplanes. Between 1947 and 1977 the Polish aircraft industry produced 3,638 gliders of 91 different types, and SZD sailplanes were exported all over the world, setting up many world and national records over the years. The SZD organisation responsible for Polish sailplane design and development was officially formed in April 1946 as the Instytut Szybownictwa (or Gliding Institute) at Bielsko-Biala and was renamed in 1948 the Szybowcowy Zaklad Doswiadczalny - SZD (or Experimental Glider Establishment). In July 1969 the name was changed again and since July 1975 the former SZD has been known as Przedsiebiorstwo Doswiadczalno Produkcyjne Szybownictwa, or Experimental and Production Concern for Gliders, although the well known letters SZD continue to be used for its products. The sale of these to foreign customers, like those of other Polish aircraft, is handled by the PEZETEL trading organisation.
  The SZD-8 Jaskolka (or Swallow) high performance single-seater first appeared in 1951, two prototypes being rolled out in September and December that year; in prototype form it had a fuselage length of 22ft 1 1/2 in but in the production version, which started coming off the line in 1954, the length was increased to 24ft 4 1/4in. The Jaskolka soon began to make its mark in contest flying, and between May 1954 and May 1960 the type held no fewer than 15 world records for speed and distance. The SZD-8L was a special version for the 1956 World Championships at St Van, France, in which one, flown by Gorzelak, took 3rd place; this version had a wing of laminar flow section, a 'butterfly'-type V-tail and wing tip end plates which had the effect of increasing the wing span as well as acting as 'bumpers'. The SZD-8L also carried 100 litres (22 Imp gal) of water ballast to permit maximum performance in varying weather conditions, and was one of the first sailplanes to employ this form of ballast, which is now a feature of many high performance types. Of conventional wooden construction, the Jaskolka has two-piece cantilever mid-set wings with single spars and fabric covering; the Fowler flaps can be lowered to 12° or 25° and air brakes are fitted in the upper surfaces. The wings are quickly detachable and the ailerons are aerodynamically-balanced. The fuselage is plywood-covered and the pilot sits over the wing leading edge, rather than in front of it, thus giving him an excellent view; the cockpit is enclosed by a moulded two-piece Plexiglas canopy the rear section of which slides back for exit and entry. A novel feature of the rear fuselage is a built-in recessed handle each side for ease of handling the Jaskolka on the ground. A semi-retractable monowheel with a mechanical brake is fitted, plus a short nose skid and a tail bumper. Altogether 80 Jaskolkas had been built when production ended in 1961.

Data: Jaskolka-Z
Span: 52 ft 6 in
Length: 22 ft 11 1/2 in
Height: 4 ft 7 1/2 in
Wing area: 146.4 sq ft
Aspect ratio: 18.8
Empty weight: 595 lb
Max weight: 816 lb
Max speed: 155 mph (in smooth air)
Min sinking speed: 2.5 ft/sec at 46 mph
Best glide ratio: 28.5:1 at 51.5 mph
SZD-8 Jaskolka.