В 1930 году группа конструкторов во главе с Генри Фолландом приступила к проектированию нового самолета, который должен был отвечать требованиям спецификации C.16/28 британского Министерства авиации на перспективный транспортный самолет/бомбардировщик, способный
перевозить до 30 военнослужащих или равноценный по массе груз, или бомбовую нагрузку. Самолет получил обозначение Gloster TC.33 и в отличие от предложенного на тендер проекта Handley Page H.P.43 представлял собой абсолютно новую машину под новые 580-сильные двигатели Rolls-Royce Kestrel. Самолет конструкции Фолланда являлся цельнометаллическим бипланом, с бипланным хвостовым оперением с двумя килями и рулями направления, с неубирающимся шасси и силовой установкой с двумя двигателями Rolls-Royce Kestrel IIS и двумя Kestrel IIIS, размещенными попарно между крыльями бипланной коробки и приводившими во вращение толкающие и тянущие воздушные винты соответственно. Кабина - закрытая, в ней размещались пилот, второй пилот и штурман, плюс в носовой и в хвостовой частях фюзеляжа располагались позиции стрелков. Отличительными особенностями новой машины были внешние части верхнего и нижнего крыльев, имевшие стреловидность 7°, а также нижнее крыло, имевшее форму "обратной чайки". В ходе испытаний выявились различные недоработки, а взлетная дистанция с полной нагрузкой была настолько большой, что TC.33 не смог бы действовать с аэродромов британских ВВС того периода. На этой машине проект и завершился.
Тип: бомбардировщик/транспортный самолет, прототип
Силовая установка: четыре 12-цилиндровых V-образных ПД Rolls-Royce мощностью по 580 л. с. (433 кВт), включая два ПД Kestrel 115 и два Kestrel HIS, приводившие во вращение толкающие и тянущие воздушные винты соответственно
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 3960 м - 227 км/ч; практический потолок 5790 м
Масса: пустого 8346 кг; максимальная взлетная 13102 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 28,98 м; длина 24,38 м; высота 7,82 м; площадь крыльев 231,60 м2
Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Lewis, по одному в носовой и хвостовой частях, плюс до 2994 кг бомб на подфюзеляжных держателях
Flight, June 1932
The Gloster Troop Carrier
AIRCRAFT specially designed for the rapid conveyance of troops are not by any means a novelty, and have been in use for many years by the British Royal Air Force in the East. But, as in every other branch of service aviation, progress is rapid, conditions change, and the demands upon the type grows more and more severe. With a view to develop a high-performance aircraft of good carrying capacity, capable not only of carrying troops but also a good deal of defensive armament, the "Gloster" Bomber-Transport machine shown in our photographs was produced by the Gloster Aircraft Co., Ltd., at their Hucclecote works. As the photographs show, the machine is a large four-engined biplane (95 ft. span, all-up weight 28,000 lb.) of exceptionally clean aerodynamic design, and of all-metal construction. The fuselage has a metal skin, and is of good streamline form, while the tandem arrangement of the Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engines makes for low frontal area. Performance figures may not be published at the moment, but the new machine is very fast indeed and has a good range when carrying its full complement of troops (30) and their equipment.
The main cabin is very roomy, with a length of 27 ft. 8 in., a width of 7 ft., and a height of 7 ft. 3 in. Owing to the type of construction adopted, this space is entirely without bracing members and therefore gives a high degree of freedom of movement to the occupants.
For use in case the machine should be employed for the carriage of loads other than troops, there is a hatchway in the roof and a trap door in the floor of the cabin. The hatchway is provided with a runway and pulley block, so that bulky objects up to a weight of 1,120 lb. can be hoisted into the fuselage and placed anywhere within the cabin.
The four Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engines, which are of the fully supercharged type, developing 540 b.h.p. each at 12,000 ft., are mounted in tandem pairs in nacelles in the gap between upper and lower wings. The nacelles, it will be seen, have been very carefully streamlined, the water-cooled engines lending themselves very well to an installation of this type, although the exposed radiators slightly spoil the low drag thus obtained. However, it will be agreed that considering that in each nacelle there are considerably more than 1,000 "horses" to be cooled, the size of radiator is quite diminutive. Doubtless discerning readers will be able to draw their own conclusions from this fact.
The Gloster Bomber-Transport will, we understand, be on view at the R.A.F. Display at Hendon on June 25, in the new Aircraft Park, and there many of our readers will have an opportunity to see the machine for themselves.
The fundamental difference between a troop carrier and a civilian aircraft designed to carry passengers is not great, and we would suggest that the new Gloster machine might well make a very fine passenger aeroplane. For civil work the performance, in the way of speed at altitude, would probably not be quite so important, and in that case it might be possible to increase the gross weight to 30,000 lb. and to fit medium supercharged "Kestrels" of 525 b.h.p. at 2,000 ft. With a power plant divided into four units, and a fairly low power loading such as this arrangement would give, there should be little or no likelihood of such a machine ever having to make a forced landing in unsuitable country, as it would always be able to continue its flight until a suitable field was found. Although the cabin might not be quite large enough to house as many passengers as the machine would carry, it should be possible to seat quite a reasonable number, and to stow elsewhere a very considerable mail load, for the carriage of which the high speed would make the machine very suitable.
Flight, November 1932
The Gloster Aircraft Co., Ltd.
PERHAPS the Gloster Aircraft Co., Ltd., has become best known throughout the world at large through its strong air racing policy, which began with the company designing and building the famous "Bamel" racer, and was continued through Schneider Trophy seaplanes, (biplanes and monoplanes) up till recent times. The firm has, however, designed and built a large number of types adopted at one time or another by the British R.A.F. Quite recently the firm showed that its experience of small high-performance single-seaters had not interfered with its ability to produce large aircraft, and the Gloster Troop Carrier biplane saw the light of day. This machine is of all-metal construction, and has a metal monocoque fuselage in which an excellent streamline shape is achieved with Duralumin plating. The fuselage is, in fact, built exactly like the hull of a flying-boat. Four Rolls-Royce Kestrel engines are placed in tandem pairs between the wings, and this engine arrangement helps to retain the clean lines and small frontal area of the machine. As the Troop Carrier is still undergoing tests nothing may be said of its performance.
DIGNITY AND IMPUDENCE: The Gloster Troop Carrier and the Vickers "Jockey" emerging from the aircraft park.
LOW FRONTAL AREA: This front view illustrates the clean design which characterises the Gloster Troop Carrier.
Gloster TC.33 создавался под требования британских ВВС, испытывавших недостаток финансирования, а потому в нем должны были совмещаться бомбардировщик и транспортный самолет.
GLOSTER C.16/28. From time to time in future we shall be featuring in silhouette and descriptive form unusual and interesting aeroplanes of the past, in addition to new types . This month it is filling, in view of the company's impending fortieth anniversary, that we feature a Gloster aeroplane. In this case it is the Type 33, sometimes known as Goshawk. This should not be confused with the Gloster V racing seaplane, which also bore the same type number. The Type 33 was built to specification C.16/28 and serialled J3982 . It was designed to carry thirty troops or alternative load over a range of 1,200 miles. Only one was built.
The prototype was completed in January 1931 and it is interesting to note that, because the hangar doors were low, the undercarriage had to be assembled in two trenches. The aircraft was winched in and out of the hangar by way of these trenches.
"OLD FRIENDS": The "Gugnunc" and "Autogiro" aviating above the Gloster Troop Carrier.
THE TANDEM ENGINE ARRANGEMENT: The four Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engines (supercharged) are mounted in tandem pairs between the wings, the nacelles being, it will be seen, of good shape and smooth lines.
THE UNUSUAL TAIL UNIT: The horizontal tail surfaces are of sesquiplane form, while the large fins and rudders close in the ends of the tail.
GLOSTER C.16/28. Data : Manufacturer: The Gloster Aeroplane Company Limited, Hucclecote, Glos. Crew: four. Dimensions: span 94 fl. ; length approx . 78 ft. Weights: not known . Performance: maximum speed 146 m.p.h.; service ceiling 20,000 ft.; Power: four steam-cooled Rolls-Royce Kestrels each of 525 h.p.