Fokker C.IV / DC.I
Страна: Нидерланды
Год: 1923


Двухместный самолет-разведчик
Описание:
Fokker C.IV
Fokker DC.I
Flight, August 1923
GOTHENBURG International Aero Exhibition 1923
Фотографии

Fokker C.IV

В период, когда продажи военных самолетов на мировом рынке заметно снизились, Fokker C.IV имел некоторый коммерческий успех. Первый самолет поднялся в воздух в 1923 году, а его серийные поставки начались в 1924 году. Разработанный на базе модели C.I, он имел несколько большие размеры и более прочную конструкцию. Самолет оснащался двигателем Napier Lion и имел два втягивающихся боковых радиатора, установленных в носовой части фюзеляжа. По сравнению с самолетом C.I, фюзеляж и шасси с единой осью колес у новой машины были шире. Авиакорпус голландской Армии (LVA) приобрел 30 самолетов, а еще 10 купили вооруженные силы Голландской Ост-Индии (LA).
  Всего были выпущены 159 самолетов C.IV, из которых 20 были по лицензии построены в Испании компанией "Jorge Loring". Испанские C.IV воевали в составе контингента в Марокко. Среди других заказчиков был СССР, закупивший 55 самолетов, а также Аргентина и авиаслужба Армии США. Один самолет проходил испытания в Италии.
  Как и многие другие самолеты фирмы "Fokker", C.IV прославился своими надежностью и большим ресурсом. После эксплуатации в течение ряда лет в качестве разведывательных, эти машины в 1930-е годы с успехом использовались еще и как учебно-тренировочные в различных странах мира.


Варианты

  C.IVa: вариант с уменьшенными размахом крыла и максимальной взлетной массой (2016 кг); самолет находился в эксплуатации в Голландской Ост-Индии (10 машин)
  C.IVb: варианте двигателем Rolls-Royce Eagle мощностью 360 л. с. (268 кВт) или с двигателем American Liberty 12 мощностью 420 л.с. (313 кВт); несколько самолетов эксплуатировались авиакорпусом голландской Армии
  C.IVc: дальний самолет-разведчик с размахом крыла 14,27 м; на нем был оставлен двигатель Napier Lion, несколько самолетов поступили в авиакорпус голландской Армии
  C.IV-W: двухпоплавковый вариант гидросамолета с двигателем Lion и крылом увеличенного размаха от модели C.IVc; самолет C.IVH "Ciudad de Buenos Aires", пилотируемый аргентинским майором Занни, в 1924 году совершил перелет из Амстердама в Токио
  CO-4: официальное обозначение варианта для авиакорпуса Армии США; три экспериментальных самолета XCO-4, а за ними пять самолетов CO-4A были оснащены двигателями Liberty 12А мощностью 420 л. с. (313 кВт), а модель CO-4A имела два боковых радиатора и фюзеляж, удлиненный на 0,24 м; самолеты проходили испытания на аэродроме в Мак-Кук Филд, штат Огайо

  
ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Fokker C.IV

  Тип: двухместный самолет-разведчик
  Силовая установка: один 12-цилиндровый ПД Napier Lion мощностью 450 л. с. (336 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 214 км/ч; практический потолок 5500 м; дальность 1200 км
  Масса: пустого 1450 кг; максимальная взлетная 2270 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 12,90 м; длина 9,20 м; высота 3,40 м; площадь крыльев 39,20 м2
  Вооружение: один или два 7,7-мм пулемета вверху передней части фюзеляжа и два 7,7-мм наводимых пулемета в задней кабине

Fokker DC.I

Разработанный Рейнхольдом Платцем в 1923 году, истребитель-разведчик DC.I был дальнейшим развитием самолета C.IV, отличаясь от него крылом уменьшенного размаха. Экипаж DC.I (первая буква в обозначении которого означала истребитель, а вторая - разведчик) тандемно размещался в открытых кабинах.
  Шасси были выполнены по схеме с хвостовым костылем. Прототип DC.I был продемонстрирован ВВС Испании, которые в то время заказали более крупный C.IV. Но единственным покупателем самолета стали ВВС Голландской Ост-Индии, получившие 10 DC.I, служба которых продолжалась с 1925 по 1934 год.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Fokker DC.I

  Тип: двухместный истребитель-разведчик
  Силовая установка: один поршневой W-образный двигатель Napier Lion мощностью 450 л. с. (336 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 245 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; потолок 8000 м; продолжительность полета 3 ч
  Масса: пустого 1400 кг; максимальная взлетная 1830 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 11,75 м; длина 8,85 м; высота 3,40 м; площадь крыла 34,55 м2
  Вооружение: два носовых неподвижных 7,7-мм пулемета и один 7,7-мм пулемет на турели в задней кабине

Flight, August 1923

GOTHENBURG International Aero Exhibition 1923

The Dutch Section

  HOLLAND was represented at I.L.U.G. by one firm only, the N.V. Nederlandsche Vliegtuigenfabriek of Amsterdam. In addition to two complete aeroplanes and the all-Duralumin hull of a new Fokker flying boat, a number of scale models of the long series of Fokker machines produced during recent years were exhibited. Some of these models represented types to which we hope to make detailed reference at a future date. At present we must confine ourselves to the two types exhibited full scale.
  The Fokker C.IV is a two-seater fighter and reconnaissance biplane, fitted with either a 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" or a 400 h.p. Liberty. As exhibited at I.L.IT.G. the C.IV was fitted with the Liberty engine. The machine, which follows usual Fokker practice, is chiefly remarkable for the fact that, in spite of its considerable size, it is a cantilever biplane with no lift and anti-lift bracing, but with a pair of "N" interplane struts used principally to stiffen the wings against torsion. The main advantage of the cantilever biplane arrangement in this particular type would seem to be that it is possible to give the wings a pronounced stagger, thus improving the view. In a biplane whose wings depended upon external bracing, the introduction of the same amount of stagger would probably involve quite considerable structural difficulties. That the cantilever wings must necessarily be heavier than those with external bracing will be realised when it is remembered that what has, in effect, been done in the cantilever wing is to reduce the spacing from something like one chord length to the thickness of the section used, i.e., in the neighbourhood of one-tenth chord length. Nevertheless, Mijnheer Fokker would scarcely retain the cantilever without good and sufficient reason, and the main reason, it appears to us, must have been that he wished to incorporate a large stagger.
  Structurally the Fokker C.IV follows usual Fokker practice. That is to say, the fuselage is of the well-known Fokker type of tubular welded construction. In this country we do not allow welding to be used at any point where a great stress is likely to occur, but Fokker has now for many years employed the welded tube structure for his fuselages, and he has a perfectly good reply to all criticisms of the method by pointing out that there has never yet been an instance of failure. Not only so, but in a crash this form of construction may result in bent and damaged tubes, but there is no splintering. In the C.IV the covering of the front portion of the fuselage is aluminium, extending aft to the pilot's cockpit. From there to behind the gunner's cockpit the covering may be three-ply or armour plate, according to the wishes of the purchaser. The rear portion of the fuselage is fabric covered.
  The Liberty engine is mounted on a tubular framework, and is entirely cowled-in, the sections of the cowl being, however, easily detachable. The petrol tank is mounted just aft of the engine, force feed being employed. The side radiators are mounted in a novel way, as indicated in one of our sketches. Above and below the radiator are cantilever supports of approximately semi-circular section, having on their flat faces grooves acting as guides for the radiators. By a simple system of crank levers the radiators can be drawn into the fuselage when the machine reaches a certain altitude. The water connections are by long stout rubber tubes, so arranged that the travel of the radiators does not tend greatly to bend the tubes, which should, therefore, last as long as if the radiators were fixed.
  The gunner's cockpit is exceptionally roomy, leaving ample space for photographic apparatus, wireless, guns, etc. The seat is mounted on rollers running on longitudinal rails, and the "legs" of the seat are so arranged that by turning the seat upside down the gunner obtains a very low position, in which he can sit down in comfort right inside for studying maps out of the draught. If he wishes to use his guns, all he has to do is to stand up, when he can push the seat right out of his way and use his guns quite unhampered. Dual controls are provided, the gunner's pedals being mounted one on each side of the pilot's seat, where they are out of the way, although easily accessible when the gunner's seat is in a forward position. The control stick is normally carried in clips in the gunner's cockpit.
  The wings of the C.IV are of usual Fokker construction, i.e., having box spars of ample dimensions and ply-wood ribs with split flanges. The covering is fabric. The front spar of the top plane is supported from the fuselage by a "tripod" strut, the rear spar having a single strut with terminal adjustment for incidence. The lower plane is attached to the fuselage, and, as already stated, a pair of steel tube struts of N formation separate the top and bottom planes on each side.
  The outline specification of the Fokker C.IV is as follows: Length, o.a., 9.1 m. (29 ft. 11 ins.); span, 12.55 m. (41 ft. 2 ins.); wing area, 38.2 sq. m. (410 sq. ft.); weight empty, 1,300 kgs. (2,860 lbs.); useful load, 700 kgs. (1,540 lbs.); with Napier "Lion" engine the speed is stated to be 245 km. (152 m.p.h.); climb to 1,000 m. (3,300 ft.) in 2.5 mins., to 2,500 m. (8,200 ft.) in 6 mins.
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Fokker C.IV N439FK.
The Fokker C.IV: Three-quarter rear view.
Аргентинский летчик майор Занни предпринял в 1924 году попытку совершить кругосветный перелет на самолете Fokker C.IVH, он вылетел из Амстердама 26 июня, но 11 октября его полет был прекращен - он долетел только до Токио.
Just before the Start: Our picture shows Major Zanni and his engineer, Mr. Beltrame, while between them is Mijnheer Anthony Fokker, the designer of the machine. It is of interest to note that for the world-flight an Argentine pilot flying a Dutch machine should have chosen a British Napier "Lion" engine.
ANOTHER ROUND-THE-WORLD FLIGHT? Major Pedro Zanni, of the Argentine Air Service, with his Fokker biplanes (450 h.p. Napier "Lion") who is attempting an aerial round-the-world dash, starting and finishing at Amsterdam. He will be accompanied by Lieut. Nelson Page and Chief Engineer Beltrame, both of the Argentine Air Service.
MAJOR ZANNI'S WORLD FLIGHT: The above photograph shows Major Zanni's Fokker-Napier arriving at Hinandi, Iraq. The Argentine airman has got as far as Tokio, but owing to the lateness of the season he has decided to abandon the flight. Major Zanni has taken 19 flying days for his Amsterdam-Tokio flight - one day less than Pelletier d'Oisy's Paris-Tokio flight. The first 7,500 miles (Amsterdam-Hanoi) was accomplished in 17 flying days and with one Napier "Lion." Then the machine stuck in the mud and was crashed. The rest of the journey was completed on a new Fokker-Napier. Major Zanni, in a cable from Tokio, says :- "Very delighted state two Napier engines worked admirably until now without slightest indication trouble wear, and without any necessity change or touch parts."
Maj. Zani's World Flight: Maj. Zani, the Argentine airman, who has been attempting a round-the-world flight on a Fokker biplane fitted with a Napier "Lion" engine, has, after reaching Tokio, postponed the flight owing to the lateness of the season. The annexed photograph shows the seaplane model, at Haiphong, being refuelled with "Shell," which Maj. Zani said he "considered to be the best which I have ever used throughout the whole of my career as an aviator. By its unvarying quality it permits one to obtain from the engine the maximum power without imposing any strain."
Mr. B. Stephan, general manager of the Fokker works, standing by a Fokker biplane with Napier "Lion" engine.
Участниками Одесских маневров стали приобретенные в Голландии самолеты Фоккер С.IV и D.XI
The Fokker C.IV: Three-quarter front view.
Созданный на базе C.IV, истребитель-разведчик DC.I представлял собой одностоечный биплан смешанной конструкции с обшивкой из фанеры и полотна.
New Altitude Record: This Fokker Biplane, with Napier "Lion" engine, has reached a height of 6,470 metres (21,227 ft.) recently in the Argentine. The previous record for a machine carrying useful load of 500 kg. was 5,992 m.
IN THE FAR EAST: A Napier-engined Fokker, D.C1, flying over the rice fields of Java.
Fokker CO-4
A batch of Fokker machines with Napier "Lion" engines in the Fokker factory at Amsterdam.
FOKKER AT GOTHENBURG: On the left, a portion of the new Fokker undercarriage, in which the axle is free to travel laterally to a certain extent. This feature is stated to effect a great saving of tyres. In the centre the gunner's seat in the Fokker C.IV. The seat can be shifted fore and aft on the longitudinal tubes, and by reversing it, as shown by dotted lines, the seat is lowered so as to bring the gunner's head below deck. On the right is shown the mounting of the radiator, which can be withdrawn entirely into the fuselage.