После окончания Первой мировой войны компания «Westland Aircraft» спроектировала легкий транспортный биплан, рассчитанный на трех пассажиров, которые должны были размещаться в закрытой кабине. Самолет получил обозначение Westland Limousine I, прототип был
облетан в июле 1919 года. Он оснащался двигателем Rolls-Royce Falcon III, который был установлен и на двух из четырех построенных затем самолетах Limousine II (хотя один из них проходил испытания со звездообразным двигателем Cosmos Jupiter мощностью 410 л. с.). Еще два самолета оснащались V-образными двигателями Hispano-Suiza мощностью 300 л. с.
Limousine II имел крылья размахом 11,51 м и оснащался двигателем Rolls-Royce Falcon III мощностью 275 л. с., позволявшим ему развивать максимальную скорость 161 км/ч и совершать полет на дальность до 644 км. Для участия в авиагонках коммерческих самолетов, устроенных в 1920 году Министерством авиации, была построена увеличенная модель Limousine III, рассчитанная на пилота и пятерых пассажиров. Самолет имел размах крыльев 16,46 м, оснащался двигателем Napier Lion мощностью 450 л. с. и развивал максимальную скорость 190 км/ч. Он стал победителем в своем классе, однако Limousine III так и остался построенным в единственном экземпляре.
Flight, December 1919
THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919
PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION
The Westland Aircraft Works
This firm is showing on stand No. 20 a complete Westland limousine, similar to the standard machine which has been described in FLIGHT. The colour scheme is grey and aluminium throughout. The wings and rear portion of the fuselage are grey, while the cabin is aluminium. The upholstery is grey Bedford cord. Generally speaking, the exhibition machine is similar to the standard. It might be mentioned that an altimeter and speed indicator are fitted in the cabin, where they can be read by the passengers. In addition to the complete machine, Westlands will show one side of a cabin, showing the construction, which, it may be remembered, is of the unit type, the engine compartment forming one unit, the cabin another, and the rear portion of the fuselage a third. A scale model will be shown of the limousine fitted up for mail carrying.
In addition to the machine at the exhibition there will be a demonstration machine at the Le Bourget aerodrome. This machine has been in service since last July, and has done a great deal of flying, including mail carrying during the railway strike. It will, therefore, form a good opportunity for prospective purchasers to see how the Westland limousine stands up to hard wear. The machine will be fitted with hot water heating apparatus, which can be regulated by the passengers.
Both machines will be flown across from Yeovil to Paris, and it is hoped that all the material required for the stand, etc., may be carried on board the two machines, thus avoiding the necessity for any other form of transport.
The overall length of the Westland limousine is 28 ft. 6 ins. and the span is 38 ft. 2 ins. The maximum speed, fitted with 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon engines, is 115 m.p.h. a t 1,000 ft., and the cruising speed is 85/90 m.p.h. With full load of pilot and three passengers the machine will climb the first 1,000 ft. in one minute, which is sufficient for clearing obstacles around the aerodrome on taking-off.
Flight, January 1920
The Paris Aero Show 1919
Westland Aircraft Works
As a result of the fog, which kept the Westland machine at Lympne for days, the Westland stand was empty when the Paris show opened. However, by making the crossing on the first day that was at all possible for flying, Captain Keep managed to get the Westland Limousine to le Bourget and hence, in the dark of night, to the Grand Palais. As soon as the machine was erected the Westland stand became a centre of interest, visitors crowding the stand to inspect the comfortable cabin of this machine. In spite of the relatively small size of the Limousine the cabin space is generous, the passengers having plenty of room to stretch their legs, while the totally-enclosed cabin, in conjunction with the long exhaust pipes, makes it possible to converse in an ordinary tone of voice. This we personally tested at Yeovil on the first of the Limousines last summer, when Mr. Bruce dictated letters to his secretary during a flight. The Westland machine was fully described at the time, and will therefore be familiar to readers of Flight. In the show machine few alterations had been made, except in the manner of engine housing. It may be remembered that the Westland Limousine is built on the unit system of construction. That is to say, the fuselage is built in three separate sections: the engine housing, the cabin, and the rear portion. This method of construction, which has much to recommend it, makes the substitution of one engine unit for another an easy matter, and thus the new engine unit - or, rather, engine housing, for the engine remains the same, a Rolls-Royce Falcon - was readily fitted. The main alteration is that a radiator of different shape has been fitted, resulting in a much neater nose and a generally improved appearance of the whole machine.
Two Westland Limousines were flown over to Paris for the show, one of which remained at le Bourget aerodrome to give exhibition and passenger flights, while the other was exhibited on the stand. It might be mentioned that between them the two machines carried all the paraphernalia that was required on the stand, thus avoiding the use of any other means of transport. There is not the slightest doubt that the Limousine was greatly admired at the show, and was an eye-opener to many as to the space and comfort which it is possible to provide, even in a fairly small machine.
Flight, July 1920
The Olympia Aero Show 1920
Westland Aircraft Works. (STAND 61) Yeovil, Somerset.
THE Westland Exhibits will consist of a Mark II. "Westland Limousine" which is a modified form of the Westland Rolls-Royce "Limousine" exhibited at the Paris Show.
The Mark II. model is fitted with a 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine in place of the Falcon III. Rolls-Royce, and the petrol tanks have been removed from inside the fuselage and replaced by two torpedo-shaped tanks, each of 29 gallons capacity, which are now carried underneath the lower planes. By this means considerably greater cubic space is available in the cabin, and this extra space can be utilised for the carriage of mails or goods. In addition to this, the machine is better from the point of view of fire, as in the event of a crash there is no possibility of petrol being poured over the engine. Between the engine and the fuselage a perfectly fire-proof bulkhead, covered with aluminium and asbestos, is fitted. The whole machine has been strengthened so that a load of three passengers plus 230 lbs. goods can be carried with, a loading of 8-7 lbs. per square foot. Various small modifications have been made inside the cabin to increase the comfort of the passengers. The increased petrol capacity gives a flight endurance of 4 1/2 hours and a cruising speed of about 90 m.p.h., which makes the machine eminently suitable for Continental services. In addition to the complete machine a fuselage under construction will be exhibited which shows how the very rigid structure is obtained together with lightness. This fuselage is quite standard and will show the type of workmanship put into the Westland machines. Probably a few components such as tanks, etc., will be shown. Some coloured photographs of the various Westland machines will also be exhibited together with models of the Rolls-Royce engine limousines.
The Westland Limousine
It is now several months since we described in detail the first Westland Limousine designed and built by the aircraft department of Petters of Yeovil. Since then the machine has undergone several minor modifications, although in its broad lines it is still very much like the original machine. The chief feature of the Westland Limousine is, in our opinion, the seating arrangement, which is a good compromise between the two types: pilot in front and pilot far aft. Both of these arrangements have their drawbacks, but in the Westland the bad points of both would appear to have been avoided. The pilot and rear passenger sit side by side, but the pilot at a higher level, with his head out in the open, while the passenger is inside the cabin. The other two passengers are slightly farther forward, one on the port side facing forward, and the other on the starboard side facing aft. Thus, in spite of its comparatively small size, the Westland Limousine is very roomy, while the weights are at the same time close together so that any variation in the number or weight of passengers carried will not seriously affect the trim.
The show machine is fitted with a 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine neatly enclosed and yet very accessible. The whole engine housing is a separate unit, attached to the cabin portion of the fuselage by 6 bolts. It is thus an easy matter to remove an engine unit for repair, and to substitute a new one while that is being repaired. Similarly, the rear part of the fuselage is a structure of the girder type bolted to the aft wall of the cabin unit. Here, however, the fabric covering extends over the joints, and the removal of the tail portion is not quite so easy.
A novel feature of the show machine is that the petrol tanks are carried one on each side under the bottom plane In this manner extra space is afforded in the body, while at the same time the risk of fire is considerably reduced. Part of the extra cabin space resulting from placing the tanks under the wing is used for luggage, and we understand it is intended to fit a bar across the front of this space so that the luggage can be put in and the locks sealed by the customs authorities, thus saving valuable time at the port of arrival
Flight, August 1920
THE AIR MINISTRY COMPETITION AT MARTLESHAM
Some Notes on the Machines Entered
The Westland 6-Seater Limousine 450 h.p. Napier “Lion"
Generally speaking, the machine entered by the Westland Aircraft Works of Yeovil is similar to that firm's well-known standard four-seater Limousine. It is, however, a considerably larger machine, and seats five passengers instead of the three of the standard machine. Also the power plant is a 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" in place of the Rolls-Royce and Hispano engines fitted in the smaller model. In general arrangement, however, the Competition machine follows the well-known Westland. That is to say, the cabin is between the planes, and the pilot is seated to the left of and slightly above the aft passenger. This arrangement impresses one as quite a good solution, giving the pilot a good enough view without placing him so far back as to upset his "feel" of the machine.
The engine is the 450 h.p. Napier "Lion," which has already a reputation for reliability and smooth running. The engine mounting is of tubular construction, cross-braced with steel cables and extremely rigid, and the whole engine unit is separated from the machine by a fireproof bulkhead of asbestos covered with aluminium sheet. This is a point well worthy of notice, and throughout the design and construction every care has been taken to avoid any possibility of fire.
As a further protection the petrol tanks are carried under the wings. This the designers consider better than using any form of fireproof tank in the fuselage, and it also has the additional advantage of being readily accessible. Each tank carries 44 gallons while a small gravity tank in the top plane holds a further 9 gallons. This is approximately sufficient for 4 1/2 hours' flight. The petrol is fed by means of wind-driven pumps from the main tanks up to the gravity tank. The excess from this tank is returned to whichever tank is being used. A flow meter shows whether the system is working correctly. Each tank is fitted with a petrol gauge which can be read from the pilot's seat.
The question of accessibility and ease of replacement is one which has been carefully studied throughout the machine. The tanks are very accessible for filling.
The undercarriage is worthy of special notice. It is very strongly constructed, at the same time having great shock-absorbing power. The two rear wheels are fitted with band brakes operated by a lever in the pilot's seat. These brakes greatly reduce the length of run necessary after landing. There is no danger of putting the machine on its nose as the leading wheels prevent any possibility of this.
The cabin is arranged for five passengers in addition to the pilot who is raised slightly above the level of the passengers so that his head projects above the cabin roof giving him a wide field of view, but at the same time he is in direct communication with his passengers. The instrument board is situated directly in front of the pilot. In addition to the usual instruments there is a starting gear by which he can put the engine in motion without leaving his seat.
The entrance to the cabin for both pilot and passengers is through a large door in the side, and it is as easy to get in and out of as a limousine car. Nine "Triplex" glass windows allow the passengers a splendid view, and ventilation is secured by a louvre which directs fresh air into a diffuser box in the cabin without draught. For heating in cold weather there is a heating box alongside the centre exhaust manifold which introduces hot fresh air into the diffuser box, and the temperature may be regulated at will by the passengers.
The upholstery is carried out in grey Bedford cord which, in addition to making it comfortable, effectually damps out the noise of the engine, and conversation can be carried on without difficulty. Passengers who have flown in the war type and converted war type machines will appreciate the comfort and absence from noises and smell.
If used for goods carrying, with the seats removed, over 1,000 lbs. weight can be easily carried. No ballast is needed in the machine whatever weight is carried from empty to full load, and the machine can be made to fly level at any speed by means of the tail trimming gear operated by the pilot. The touring speed of the machine is 100 to 105 m.p.h., and a maximum speed of 120 m.p.h. can be obtained.
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: Three-quarter front view
The Westland Limousine, Mark 2, fitted with 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: Similar to the first machine of this type, except for the radiator, the Westland was flown over from England, carrying all the paraphernalia required on the stand
The Rolls-Royce Falcon installed in a Westland limousine
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: The main petrol tanks are mounted one on each side under the lower plane
THE LEVEL CROSSING AT WADDON AERODROME: Lieut. Courtney taxying a Westland across the road which divides the Waddon aerodrome, what time the red-flag man holds up the approaching traffic.
A Christmas Greeting from Canada: This photograph is from a Christmas card sent us by the Laurentide Air Service, Ltd., of Montreal. The machines on the ice are a Martinsyde and a Westland.
In August 1922 Cotton and the Aerial Survey Co took delivery of two four-seat Limousine IIs; G-EAJL, as seen here, and G-EAMV. A third, G-EARG, arrived that November. Powered by a 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon liquid-cooled V12 piston engine, the Mk II had a top speed of 100 m.p.h. (160km/h) and a service ceiling of 17,000ft (5,200m).
AIR CONFERENCE VISIT TO WADDON: Airco 18, Instone Vickers Vimy-Commercial, Westland Limousine, Avro triplane, and Bristol Coupe
THE WESTLAND 6-SEATER LIMOUSINE: Note the petrol tanks underneath the lower plane. The Westland limousine won the Air Ministry trials for commercial aeroplanes. One of these machines has been used with great success in Newfoundland by Capt. S. Cotton.
Limousine был рассчитан на трех пассажиров, располагавшихся в закрытой кабине. Место пилота находилось позади кабины пассажиров, причем его голова возвышалась над ее крышей.
A NEW WESTLAND NAPIER LIMOUSINE: This machine, which has been built for the Air Ministry, is very similar to that which won the Competition at Martlesham last year, but minor modifications have been made. Our photo, shows the machine going for a trial flight piloted by Capt. Keep.
Ski-equipped Westland Limousine III G-EARV of the Aerial Survey Co on its way from Botwood to the goldfields at Stag Bay, Labrador, in April 1923. Alighting on thin ice on the shore of the bay, Cotton and Stannard had to keep the six-seat machine moving to avoid breaking the ice and sinking. The company also used three examples of the smaller four-seat Limousine II.
A Westland Limousine in Canada: But for the Westland Limousine (Napier "Lion'') shown above, the mining village of Rouyn in Canada would be isolated from civilisation during the winter months, for snow and ice renders the roads useless. Westland Limousines, however, maintain a daily in-and-out service between Rouyn and Larder Lake - a distance of about 100 miles - and thus provide the inhabitants with fresh supplies from the "Larder." The machines are fitted with skids in place of wheels, enabling them to function on the ice and snow.
Captioned as "On the mail route at Fogo", this picture presumably shows G-EARV on the island during one of the regular mail runs. The Limousine III was sold to Laurentide Air Service in 1923, but was scrapped shortly afterwards.
An Aerial Survey Co party prepares for a photographic sortie in the Limousine III. Note the fuel tanks on the top wing centre section, fitted in addition to wing-mounted fuel tanks.
Martinsyde c/n 215 and Limousine III G-EARV outside the hangar at Botwood circa early 1922. Thanks to engine covers made from balloon fabric to Cotton’s own design, “our aircraft would stay for days on end in temperatures of from 30 to 50 below zero, but when we pulled our covers off, the engines would start up immediately”.
One of only two Limousine IIIs built, G-EARV was a considerably larger version of the four-seat Limousine II, with three-bay wings of 54ft (16-5m) span instead of the Mk II’s two-bay wings of 37ft 9in (11‘5m) span. The Mk III was fitted with a more powerful Napier Lion engine. Here G-EARV is being prepared for a flight at Botwood in 1921.
The Westland 6-seater Limousine: View of the mounting of the 450 h.p. Napier-Lion aero engine
MODERN CABIN MACHINES: The Westland Limousine.
Two views inside the cabin of the Westland Limousine: On the left the two forward seats are shown, and on the right the aft seat and pilot's cockpit
The petrol tanks of the Westland Limousine are carried under the lower plane, reducing the risk of fire and giving extra space in the fuselage
An interplane Strut fitting on the Westland Limousine
The Westland limousine, 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon