Gloster I - III
Варианты:
Gloster - I - III - 1923 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1923


Одноместный гоночный биплан
Описание:
Gloster I/II
Gloster III
Flight, September 1925
THE SCHNEIDER CUP SEAPLANE RACE
Фотографии

Gloster I/II

В начале 1923 года самолет Mars I был оснащен более мощным двигателем Lion и получил значительно модернизированное крыло, баки с топливом и водой из которого были перенесены в фюзеляж, что позволило ликвидировать так ухудшавший обзор кабан. Столь существенные доработки заставили изменить название самолета на Gloster I. После победы в авиационных гонках 1923 года машина была куплена Королевскими ВВС и оснащенная поплавковым шасси использовалась в Феликстоу для тренировок в Звене скоростных полетов ВВС.
  Способность фирмы "Gloster" строить самолеты с высокими характеристиками позволила ей получить заказ от Министерства авиации на два аэроплана Gloster II, которым предстояло принять участие в гонках на кубок Шнейдера в 1924 году. Отличавшийся от Gloster I большим выносом крыла, Gloster II был оснащен двигателем Napier Lion VA мощностью 585 л. с. (436 кВт) и металлическим винтом Fairey Reed. Поплавки обтекаемой формы и различные зализы значительно улучшили аэродинамику машины. Первый самолет (J7504) был передан для испытаний в Феликстоу 12 сентября 1924. Неделю спустя, когда самолет пилотировал Хьюберт Брод, при посадке на волны подломилась передняя стойка поплавка. Самолет практически мгновенно затонул, но, к счастью, Броду удалось спастись. Вскоре после этого гонку Шнейдера 1924 года отменили, и второй Gloster II был достроен с колесным шасси. Он использовался для скоростных испытаний и был разбит при посадке в середине 1925 года.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Gloster I (с колесным шасси)

  Тип: одноместный гоночный биплан
  Силовая установка: один 12-цилиндровый двигатель Napier Lion мощностью 530 л. с. (395 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость у земли 354 км/ч; время набора высоты 3048 м - 4 мин 18 с
  Масса: пустого 894 кг; максимальная взлетная 1202 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 6,09 м; длина 7,01 м; высота 2,84 м; площадь крыла 15,31 мг

Gloster III

В феврале 1925 года "Gloster" получила от Министерства авиации заказ на два новых гоночных биплана с обозначением Gloster III, которым предстояло участвовать в гонках на кубок Шнейдера в этом году. Новую машину создавали на базе Gloster II, и Генри Фолланд не пожалел усилий, чтобы максимально облагородить ее аэродинамику. Был использован фюзеляж монококовой конструкции из фанеры, обеспечивший минимальную массу при заданной прочности. Силовые элементы крыла были выполнены из дерева и имели полотняную обшивку, а поплавки крепились с помощью обтекаемых подкосов и растяжек. На Gloster III установили двигатель Napier Lion VII, сделав его самым маленьким самолетом с подобной силовой установкой. Летные испытания первого самолета выявили путевую неустойчивость, и в отсутствие времени на серьезные доработки у машины несколько изменили установку крыла и увеличили площадь верхнего и нижнего килей. После этой модификации самолету присвоили обозначение Gloster IIIA.
  Пилотируемый Хьюбером Бродом, Gloster IIIA занял второе место в гонке на кубок Шнейдера в Балтиморе, США. Другому самолету, построенному как Gloster III, повезло меньше - он получил повреждения в ходе подготовки к состязаниям. После возвращения в Великобританию Gloster IIIA был передан ВВС в Феликстоу. А вот второй Gloster III отремонтировали, одновременно внеся в конструкцию ряд доработок (в том числе, разместив радиаторы в поверхности крыла). Эта машина, получившая обозначение Gloster IIIB, также была передана в Феликстоу и вместе с первой использовалась для тренировок Звеном скоростных полетов британских ВВС.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Gloster IIIB

  Тип: 1-местный гоночный гидросамолет
  Силовая установка: один W-образный двигатель Napier Lion VII мощностью 700 л. с. (522 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость у земли 405 км/ч
  Масса: пустого 1033 кг; максимальная взлетная 1343 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 6,10 м; длина 8,18 м; высота 2,95 м; площадь крыла 14,12 м1

Flight, September 1925

THE SCHNEIDER CUP SEAPLANE RACE

THE MACHINES

The Gloster-Napier III.

  The machine designed for the Schneider Cup Race by Mr. H. P. Folland, and built by the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co., Ltd., Cheltenham, may be said to be the logical development of the company's previous racing machines. Mr. Folland has always been an advocate of the biplane for racing machines, and in the Gloster-Napier III he has adhered to that type. The Schneider Cup challenger bears a strong family resemblance to previous Gloucestershire racers, but has been considerably "cleaned up" and streamlined, wherever streamlining was possible. The wing area is exceptionally small, and the machine is certainly by far the smallest for its power ever constructed in Great Britain.
  The fuselage is a plywood covered structure of very small cross sectional area, and of good streamline shape. There is but a single inter-plane strut on each side, and the wings are braced by streamline wires in the usual way. The wing section used is a special racing section developed by Mr. Folland, and a peculiar feature of the wings is that the tips of the upper plane are rounded, whilst the lower plane has square tips. Ailerons are fitted to the lower plane only, where they are readily accessible, and we believe the rounding of the top wing tips was chosen with a view to making the lower plane ailerons as effective as possible.
  Like the Supermarine, the Gloster-Napier III has Lamblin radiators mounted on the wings, but whereas in the Supermarine the radiators are fitted under the wing, they are placed in the Gloster-Napier III in the leading edge of the lower plane close to the fuselage. Owing to the fact that the wing section used is a thin one, the radiators project considerably, and give the appearance of offering considerable resistance. This impression is, however, probably more apparent than real, and actually the resistance may be quite low. Probably a certain amount of resistance could have been saved by using wing radiators sunk in flush with the wing surface, but the construction of such radiators for a thin wing is not without difficulty, owing to the fact that at high speed the spars of a thin wing deflect a certain amount, which would be likely to cause leaks in the wing radiators. The Gloucestershire Aircraft Company consider that by now they have overcome the difficulties, but time did not allow of building these special radiators for the present machine.
  The undercarriage is of the twin-float type, the two floats being built entirely of Duralumin by Short Bros., of Rochester. Like the Supermarine floats they are of the single-step type, but they are carried on a braced structure of steel tubes.
  The Napier engine is neatly cowled in, and Mr. Folland has taken advantage of the fin above the fuselage carrying the top plane by fairing the cowling for the central bank of cylinders neatly into this fin. The cross-sectional area of the fuselage appears smaller than that of the Supermarine, but in consequence the "bulges" formed by the cowling over the cylinder banks are rather larger, and it would be interesting to know which affords more resistance, the smaller fuselage with larger bulges, or the larger fuselage with smaller bulges. The propeller is a Fairey-Read.
  The tail of the Gloster-Napier III is of orthodox design, and the fixed tail plane is braced by streamline wires. Vertical fins are provided both above and below the fuselage, and the rudder is slotted to clear the conical shape of the stern of the fuselage.
  In the Gloster-Napier III, the biplane racing machine would appear to have reached approximately the limit of its development, and the workmanship and finish are such as one would expect in machines produced by the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company. During tests flights the machine is stated to have handled extremely well, both on the water and in the air, and Capt. Broad and Mr. Hinkler have got in considerable practice, not only on the actual racer, but also on the "Bamel" practice machine.
  At a luncheon given by the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company and by D. Napier and Sons, Mr. David Longden, Managing Director of the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co., referred briefly to the long association of these two firms in air racing, and said he trusted this would continue, and he was glad to be able to express the thanks of his Company for the generous assistance received from all quarters ; especially from the Air Ministry and their technical staff, and also the officers and men of the Felixstowe station. Several constructors had also given advice and help without reserve, and he took that as an indication that the industry as a whole realised that this event was one of cardinal importance to Great Britain's prestige in the air. Mr. Longden added that a British victory in the race would prove of great importance, also to the prosperity of the industry, as he was sure that trade followed records.
  In conclusion Mr. Longden expressed his thanks to the De Havilland Company and to A. V. Roe and Co., respectively, for their very sporting spirit in lending for the race their pilots, Capt. H. Broad and Mr. Bert Hinkler.
Gloster I
THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE AIRCRAFT COMPANY'S NEW RACER: The "Gloster," with Napier "Lion," is a "cleaned-up" version of the famous "Bamel," and it will be noticed that, as regards external appearance, the main alteration is formed by the disappearance of the petrol tank from the cabane.
THE "GLOSTER": A side view of the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company's world's record speed machine "Gloster," which won the Aerial Derby last Monday. A front view of this, aeroplane appeared last week exclusively in "Flight." The engine is a 450 h.p. Napier "Lion."
THE AERIAL DERBY, 1923: The winner, Mr. L. L. Carter, finishing on the "Gloster" (450 Napier "Lion") at a mean speed of 192-4 m.p.h. Inset, on the right, the "Gloster" is seen starting.
Mr. L. L. Carter, the pilot of the Aerial Derby winning "Gloster," immediately after "coming to earth." Both he and his machine, as may be noticed, were smothered with oil from a leaking oil pipe.
THE AERIAL DERBY: Mr. L. L. Carter, the pilot of the 200 m.p.h. "Gloster," after the race
Gloster II
Типичный гоночный гидросамолет своего времени, Gloster II представлял собой попытку разместить двигатель максимальной мощности в планере минимальных размеров. Другими характеристиками, например, хорошей управляемостью, приходилось жертвовать.
The Gloster II Seaplane: It was on a sister 'plane fitted with wheels that Larry Carter met with a mishap while flying at Cranwell. The engine is a Napier "Lion." Note the careful streamlining and the Lamblin strut radiators.
Gloster III
THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: This side view of the British challenger, the Gloster-Napier III
THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: This official photograph of the Gloster-Napier III gives a very good idea of the general design. Noteworthy features are the very careful streamlining and the small size of the machine in relation to its floats.
Gloster IIIA N194 в Феликстоу после модификации хвостового оперения. Этот самолет занял второе место в гонках на кубок Шнейдера в 1925 году.
THE BRITISH SCHNEIDER CUP CHALLENGERS: This front view give an excellent idea of the manner in which head resistance has been cut down to a minimum.
THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: Capt. Broad's Gloster-Napier III leaving the slipway or its first test flight. In the background may be seen the Supermarine-Napier S.4, and, on the right, some of the American seaplanes which were to take part in the demonstration planned for Schneider Cup day.
THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: These three views of the Gloster-Napier III give a reasonably good idea of the clean lines of Mr. Folland's design. The special Napier racing engine is totally cowled-in, and streamlining generally has been carried out to the greatest possible extent. At the top is a view of the machine taking off.
THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: Broad cornering on the Gloster-Napier III over the pier at Bay Shore Park.
ON THE SLIPWAY AT BAY SHORE PARK: In the foreground is a U.S. Navy "dog ship," and farther back the Supermarine-Napier S.4, while in the background may be seen the Gloster-Napier III.
 
THE 1925 SCHNEIDER TROPHY RACE: An impression of Captain Broad's Gloster-Napier III racer, which secured second place in the race.
Gloster III. racing seaplane with Napier Lion engine.