Gloster Mars (Bamel) / Nighthawk / Sparrowhawk
Варианты:
Gloster - Mars (Bamel) / Nighthawk / Sparrowhawk - 1921 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1921


Одноместный истребитель
Описание:
Gloster Mars I
Gloster Mars, Nighthawk, Nightjar и Sparrowhawk
Flight, July 1921
THE WINNER OF THE DERBY
Фотографии

Gloster Mars I

Компания "Gloucestershire Aircraft Company" была образована в середине 1917 года, а в конце 1926 года переименована в "Gloster Aircraft Company".
  Отсутствие крупных заказов после окончания Первой мировой войны привело руководство компании к решению убедить британское Министерство авиации в том, что именно "Gloster" является единственной авиастроительной компанией, способной проектировать и строить скоростные истребители. С этой целью в компании был спроектирован одноместный гоночный самолет, названный "Bamel" и рассматривавшийся в качестве прототипа перспективных скоростных истребителей. Самолет представлял собой совершенный, с точки зрения аэродинамики, биплан, оснащенный одностоечной бипланной коробкой и получивший двигатель Napier Lion мощностью 450 л. с. (336 кВт). Недостатком являлась несколько неудобная конструкция носовой части, вмещавшая топливный и водяной баки, вследствие чего пилот из кабины практически ничего не видел впереди по курсу. Позже баки все же перенесли внутрь фюзеляжа.
  Самолет совершил первый полет 20 июня 1921 года, а в следующем месяце на нем было завоевано первое место на ежегодных авиагонках Aerial Derby. Затем самолет подвергся некоторой доработке и 12 декабря 1921 года установил британский рекорд скорости - 316,10 км/ч. В 1922 году на данной машине вновь было завоевано первое место на гонках Aerial Derby.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Gloster Mars I

  Тип: одноместный гоночный самолет
  Силовая установка: один W-образный ПД Napier Lion мощностью 530 л. с. (395 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 325 км/ч; набор высоты 3048 м - за 4 мин 15 с
  Масса: пустого 857 кг; максимальная взлетная 1134 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 6,70 м; длина 7,01 м; высота 2,84 м; площадь крыльев 19,04 м1

Gloster Mars, Nighthawk, Nightjar и Sparrowhawk

Самолет компании "Gloster" Mars I/Bamel, на основе которого впоследствии были созданы самолеты Gloster I и II, в свою очередь был разработан на основе модели Nieuport Nighthawk, спроектированной Генри Фолландом. На основе этой же модели появилось и семейство ранних самолетов компании "Gloster", начиная с Mars Mk II, создававшегося как одноместный истребитель для японских ВМС. Соглашение о поставках было достигнуто после посещения Японии британской военно-воздушной миссией в январе 1921 года. Получив от британских специалистов ряд советов, японские военные заказали партию из 50 самолетов, спроектированных на базе модели Nighthawk.
  В серийном варианте Mars Mk II представлял собой довольно изящный биплан с крыльями деревянной конструкции с полотняной обшивкой, с традиционным хвостовым оперением и дополнительным подфюзеляжным килем. Машина также оборудовалась неубирающимся шасси с хвостовым костылем. На самолет был установлен ротативный двигатель Bentley BR.2 мощностью 230 л.с. (172 кВт). Всего были собраны 30 самолетов Mars Mk II, после чего в производство пошла в целом сходная с ним модель Mars Mk III (построено 10 самолетов). Новый вариант отличался тем, что у него были две расположенные тандемно открытые кабины с дублированной системой управления для использования в качестве учебно-тренировочного самолета.
  Mars Mk IV (построено 10 машин) имел тормозной гак, надувные баллонеты и профилированные щитки-параваны, укрепленные с помощью распорок перед основными стойками шасси для уменьшения опрокидывающего момента и снижения возможности переворота самолета при аварийной посадке на воду. Самолет использовался в качестве истребителя корабельного базирования, а позже все указанные модели были переименованы соответственно в Sparrowhawk Mk I, Sparrowhawk Mk II и Sparrowhawk Mk III. Все они зарекомендовали себя во время эксплуатации в японском флоте с наилучшей стороны, оставаясь на вооружении до 1928 года.
  В дополнение к 10 самолетам Mars Mk III (затем Sparrowhawk Mk II), предназначенным для японских ВМС, компания "Gloster" построила один самолет, который использовался в качестве демонстратора, а под обозначением Mars Mk VI Nighthawk компания выпустила небольшое количество одноместных истребителей, которые оценивались в британских ВВС. Данные самолеты представляли собой планеры Nighthawk с новым двигателем Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar II мощностью 325 л.с. (242 кВт), или звездообразным двигателем Bristol Jupiter III, или двигателем Bristol Jupiter IV мощностью 385 л. с. (287 кВт). Кроме самолетов для Великобритании 25 машин с двигателями Jaguar были отправлены в Грецию, где они оставались на вооружении строевых частей вплоть до 1938 года.
  Последней моделью, созданной на базе планера самолета Nighthawk, стал одноместный морской истребитель Mars Mk X Nightjar, предназначенный для британской морской авиации. В целом это был морской вариант Nighthawk, на котором использовался двигатель Bentley BR.2. Самолет также отличался новым ширококолейным шасси с удлиненными стойками и устройствами для крепления на палубе авианосца. Из имевшихся в своем распоряжении 22 самолетов Nightjar командование британских ВВС в июле 1922 года передало морской авиации 12 машин "в аренду" на два года, в самих же ВВС ему на смену пришел Fairey Flycatcher.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Gloster Mars Mk X Nightjar

  Тип: одноместный истребитель корабельного базирования
  Силовая установка: один ротативный ПД Bentley BR.2 мощностью 230 л. с. (172 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: макс. скорость на уровне моря 193 км/ч; набор высоты 4570 м - за 20 мин; практический потолок 5790 м; продолжительность полета 2 ч
  Масса: пустого 801 кг; максимальная взлетная 982 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 8,53 м; длина 5,59 м; высота 2,74 м; площадь крыльев 25,08 м2
  Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers Mk I в носовой части фюзеляжа

Flight, July 1921

THE WINNER OF THE DERBY
  Some Notes on the Mars I

  As the only really new machine to start in the Derby at Hendon on Saturday last (July 16), more than usual interest attaches to the Mars I, designed by Mr. H. P. Folland and built by the Gloucestershire Aviation Co., of Cheltenham. With its 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine, the Mars I was the highest-powered machine in the race, and the manner in which Mr. Folland had managed to build such a relatively large engine into a small and, let it be admitted from the very outset, very pretty machine, was most interesting. Hitherto most of the really pretty aeroplanes have been designed in France, but with the Mars I Folland has shown that he can design a machine which is pleasing to the eye, while at the same time being "right" structurally and aerodynamically. It is an old saying that if a machine looks right it is right. If that contention is accepted then the Mars I is very much "right." The speed attained by it in the Derby proves it to be very fast, although we are convinced that it did not attain the maximum speed of which it is capable when properly tuned up and "cleaned up."
  Concerning the birth of the Mars I it is not without interest to make a note of the fact that about a month ago the machine existed in Mr. Folland's brain only; nothing had been put on paper (or should one say tracing cloth?). Nearly a week ago the machine won the Derby. This is pretty good going and to those who realise the problems attending the production of a machine of this type, the fact speaks volumes for Mr. Folland's capabilities as a designer. So far as we can learn from Mr. James, whose masterly handling of the machine piloted it to victory, there is nothing to be desired in the stability and general handling of the machine. A look at the accompanying general arrangement drawings will tell those who are familiar with the British Nieuport machines (''Nighthawks," "Nieuhawks," "Goshawks," etc.) that from the pilot's cockpit aft the fuselage is standard. This helps to explain the rapidity of production,, but does not account for the extraordinarily pleasing lines of the machine, nor does it necessarily promise to give a short cut to good balance. That the balance is good cannot be doubted, for even fitted with a trimming tail such a machine would be distinctly unpleasant if the trim was wrong. Incidentally the standard rear portion of the fuselage, including the entire empennage, seems to indicate that a certain amount of standardisation need not necessarily hamper design to any great extent.
  As the Nieuport machines have been dealt with very fully in the past in our columns, we need not devote much space to a description of the fuselage and tail. These were illustrated in our issue of November 27, 1919. The front portion of the fuselage has been rebuilt to accommodate the 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine. Instead of the multi-ply engine plate of the "Nighthawk," the Mars I has cradles of the same material, supporting the ash engine bearers, which are attached to them by angle plates and braced diagonally by steel tubes. The manner of mounting the engine is illustrated in one of the accompanying sketches, which indicates most of the details. The mounting of the radiator underneath the fuselage should be noted, as this position helps to a very great extent to give the machine the clean nose, which lends to it its graceful appearance.
  The placing of the petrol tank is unusual, and might at first give the impression that the pilot's view was entirely obstructed in a forward direction. This is probably true, but then the pilot could see but little over a relatively wide engine in any case, and the placing of the petrol tank where it is results in a simplified petrol system. Whether the gravity feed is sufficient when the tank is nearly empty, and there is consequently a small "head" might be open to-doubt, and as a safeguard a pressure system is incorporated. Mounted on the front of the petrol tank is, it will be observed, a small water tank which is ribbed, or rather corrugated, on the front to assist in the cooling. The same principle is applied to the oil tank, which is mounted underneath the engine, and has corrugations formed in its lower part which projects through the very neat engine cowl.
  As in other machines of Mr. Folland's design, the "spinner" on the propeller is made integral with the screw. The result is a very clean entry and smooth run for the air, and the cowl is so shaped that only the top of the cylinder blocks project beyond it. The whole is exceptionally clean and neat, and proves that it is possible to install a "Lion" in a relatively compact engine housing. Incidentally we might mention that the propeller was designed by Dr. H. C. Watts, of Ogilvie and partners, and Mr. Folland has nothing but praise for it. It was, he informs us, satisfactory in every way.
  The under-carriage is identical in its details with that of the Nieuport "Nighthawk." That is to say, the struts are of spruce and are attached to the lower longerons by links, so that a slight discrepancy in alignment does not matter. To reduce resistance, the shock absorbers are partly enclosed in streamline casings, as shown in one of our sketches.
  Generally speaking, the wings do not present any unusual features. The section is normal, and is not a specially thin racing section, there being ample room for spars of reasonable depth. The spars and ribs are of normal construction also, and the only feature which calls for comment is the use of single I-struts in a machine with staggered wings. We frankly admit that this is a practice with which we are not particularly in love. At the time of the Gordon-Bennett race last year we commented on this feature in the American machine flown by Major Schroeder. The stagger in the Mars I is not, however, as great as it was in the Verville-Packard, and carried out as it is in this machine it is probably quite satisfactory in practice. At the extremities of the spruce struts these are attached, by a mortice joint, to walnut "feet," spreading out to meet the two wing spars, to which they are attached by steel plates and brackets. The lift and anti-lift wires are, of course, attached to the spars at the points where the "feet" meet the spars.
  The wing tips of the top plane are rounded off, as no ailerons are fitted to the top plane. The lower wing tips, on account of the ailerons, are square, with just the corners rounded off. This system, which we first noticed on the Spad machines at the last Paris Aero Show, has much to recommend it, provided sufficient lateral control can be obtained with one set of ailerons only. The ailerons are easily get-at-able, and the absence of ailerons on the top plane allows of thinning down the wing tips, and thus improves the efficiency of the wing which most affects the performance.
  The weight of the Mars I fully loaded is 2,500 lbs., giving a wing loading (for 205 sq. ft.) of just over 12 lbs./sq. ft. and a power loading (on 450 h.p.) of about 5 1/2 lbs./h.p. In the Derby the machine covered the course at the rate of about 163 m.p.h., but this does not, of course, represent her actual speed, which must have been in the neighbourhood of 170, at least. Even this is not, we should imagine, anything like the best of which the machine is capable. We believe that the radiator was too small to allow of running the engine all-out for any length of time, and that, as a matter of fact, James was flying well throttled down most of the time. With a larger radiator and various refinements incorporated here and there the machine should, in our opinion, be capable of a speed of about 185 m.p.h. However, time did not allow of those extra little touches which mean so much when such speeds are concerned, but later on we hope to hear that the machine has been through the official tests at Martlesham and has handsomely beaten the previous record, also set up by a machine designed by Mr. Folland - the "Goshawk." In the meantime we congratulate the Gloucestershire Aviation Co. on their rapid production of such a fine machine; Mr. Folland on a very excellent design; and last, but by no means least, Mr. James on a splendid piece of flying. His get-off was not, perhaps, spectacular, but it was extremely sound, and he was playing for safety by allowing himself a good run. His landing at the end of the race was magnificent, considering that the machine is loaded to the tune of 12 lbs./sq. ft., being practically a "three-point" landing, with engine stopped. "Jimmy" has worked hard and persistently since we first knew him - round about 1910 out in Gloucester - and he thoroughly deserves his victory.
Mars I
The Winner of the Aerial Derby: The Mars I. Three-quarter front view. Note the position of the petrol tank on top of the fuselage, in front of the pilot's seat.
The Mars I as it appeared in the Martlesham tests: Note the clean lines, and the manner in which the Napier ''Lion'' has been cowled in. Also the fairings behind the wheels.
THE WINNER OF THE AERIAL DERBY: Two views of the Mars I.
Самолет Mars I изображен в своем первоначальном виде, он отличается хвостовым оперением по типу Nighthawk и неудобным размещением топливного и водяного баков.
The Gloucestershire ''Gloster" won the 1923 Aerial Derby at a speed of slightly less than 200 m.p.h. The engine is a Napier ''Lion.''
The "Mars I" of the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co. was greatly admired by visitors to Croydon.
THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE "MARS I," 450 H.P. NAPIER "LION," AT WADDON: Mr. James's flying on this machine was greatly appreciated, and coming down wind the machine must have been doing about 210 m.p.h. A remarkable feature of the "Mars I" is its slow landing speed, which is actually no higher than that of some commercial passenger aeroplanes in regular use on the London-Paris service. Yet its maximum speed is in the neighbourhood of 195 m.p.h. in still air, and its climb is simply marvellous.
THE AERIAL DERBY: Mars I, 450 h.p. Napier "Lion."
THE photograph shows aeroplanes lined up for the start of the Aerial Derby in 1922. In front may be seen the Gloster Bamel.
THE COUPE DEUTSCH: 1, The British representative, Mr. J. H. James. 2, The Gloucestershire Aircraft Co.'s Mars I, 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine. 3, James landing after his struggle with maps.
The British Deutsch Cup Challenger: The Mars I, designed by Mr. H. P. Folland and built by the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co. of Cheltenham, was fitted while at Etampes with Lamblin radiators. The result was an increase in speed of several miles per hour, and but for the fabric stitching failing, this machine would undoubtedly have given an excellent account of itself in the race. Incidentally, what about adapting this type of machine for military purposes? With slightly larger wings, so as to improve the climb and reduce the landing speed, it should prove a formidable rival to existing types.
PROM THE AERIAL DERBY: J. H. James leaving on the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co. Mars I.
AIR CONFERENCE VISIT TO WADDON: Mr. James demonstrates the speed and climb of the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co.'s "Mars I," with Napier ''Lion" engine.
Four types of the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co.'s products. Reading from left to right: Top, the "Mars I" (450 Napier "Lion") racer and the "Mars II" (230 B.R.2) fighting scout; bottom, the "Mars III" (230 B.R.2) training machine and the "Mars IV" (230 B.R.2) fighting scout, ship's 'plane.
Mars II, Mars III
The Gloucestershire "Mars II" is a single-seater fighter with 230 h.p. B.R.II rotary engine.
The first Sparrowhawk I land-based fighter for the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The Gloucestershire "Mars III" is very similar to the "Mars II," but is a two-seater intended for intermediate training, being fitted with dual control.
THE AERIAL DERBY: Mars III, 200 h.p. B.R.2.
Sparrowhawk
The Sparrowhawk III shipboard fighter - the first example being illustrated - with hydrovane attachment in front of the undercarriage.
На японских боевых кораблях Sparrowhawk запускались с 10-метровых катапульт, сооруженных на башнях главного калибра, как на фотографии.
Mars VI Nighthawk
A Jaguar-engined Mars VI Nighthawk supplied to the Greek Army Air Force in 1923 and destined to remain in service until the late ’thirties.
WITH A BRISTOL JUPITER IN MESOPOTAMIA: We show above a "Nighthawk" Fighter fitted with a 400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter" which successfully completed a test of 100 hours in Mesopotamia under trying. tropical conditions. This is the same type of engine that is exhibited at the Paris Aero Show.
The Gloucestershire Aircraft Co.'s "Mars VI", fitted with Siddeley "Jaguar" engine, a machine which has fine climbing and speed performances.
The Gloucestershire "Mars VI" is a high-performance singleseater fighter, with very wide speed range and excellent climb. It is variously fitted with 400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter" or Armstrong-Siddeley 370 h.p. "Jaguar" engine. The photograph shows the "Jupiter" machine.
The Jupiter-engined Mars VI Nighthawk, which, although extensively tested by the RAF, was never adopted for squadron service.
Mars X Nightjar
A Mars X Nightjar at RAE Farnborough in 1922. Nightjars of No 203 Sqdn, RAF, operated in the Middle East during the Chanak crisis.
 
All that happened: When, on alighting after winning the Derby, Mr. James was in danger of running into a crowd of people (who ought not to have been there), he effected a masterly "save" by swerving to the right. His left tyre, as a consequence, came off, but otherwise nothing happened.
The photograph shows the effect of a "crash" (with a "Sparrowhawk" in Japan) on a Leitner-Watts metal airscrew. The bent blade, being detachable, was easily replaced.
An Impression of "Mars I."
THE MARS I: Details of the shock absorbers and their streamline casings.
SOME DETAILS OF THE MARS I: On the left the cowling over the engine. Note the "spinner," which is built integral with the propeller, and the petrol tank above the fuselage.
Mars I 450 hp Napier Lion Engine
The Mars I biplane.
The Sparrowhawk III shipboard fighter with hydrovane attachment in front of the undercarriage.
The Jupiter-engined Mars VI Nighthawk, which, although extensively tested by the RAF, was never adopted for squadron service.