Hawker Heron / Hornbill / Hawfinch / Hoopoe
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1925


Опытный одноместный палубный истребитель
Описание:
Hawker Heron, Hornbill, Hawfinch и Hoopoe
Flight, June 1931
SPECIAL TYPES AT THE DISPLAY
Фотографии

Hawker Heron, Hornbill, Hawfinch и Hoopoe

Заслуживают упоминания прототипы четырех бипланов, построенных компанией "Hawker" в 1920-х годах. Первым из них был экспериментальный истребитель Hawker Heron, облетанный в 1925 году. Имевший сходство с выпускавшимся серийно Woodcock Mk II, он отличался от последнего новым крылом и оперением и стал первым самолетом компании "Hawker", имевшим цельнометаллический каркас. Оснащенная радиальным двигателем Bristol Jupiter VI мощностью 455 л.с. (339 кВт), машина отличалась хорошей управляемостью, но так и не пошла в серию.
  Hawker Hornbill, поднявшийся в воздух в мае 1926 года, был первым новым боевым самолетом, разработанным под руководством Сиднея Кэмма. По конструкции Hornbill был во многом подобен истребителю Heron, за исключением более тонкого фюзеляжа и двигателя Rolls-Royce Condor IV мощностью 698 л. с. (520 кВт). Во время испытаний самолет развивал в горизонтальном полете максимальную скорость 301 км/ч, оказавшись самым быстрым истребителем из тестировавшихся ВВС. К сожалению, его устойчивость на скоростях выше 240 км/ч оставляла желать лучшего, и больше прототипов не строили.
  Объединивший в себе черты машин Heron и Hornbill, Hawker Hawfinch был разработан по техническому заданию F.9/26 на одноместный истребитель с радиальным двигателем. От Heron он отличался новым фюзеляжем и двухстоечной бипланной коробкой. Впервые взлетевший в марте 1927 года, самолет испытывался Королевскими ВВС совместно со многими прототипами других фирм, в конечном счете, проиграв контракт на серийное производство Bristol Bulldog. Хотя был построен только один самолет Hawfinch (J8766), он позволил получить фирме опыт разработки истребителей.
  Для истребителя-биплана предпочтительной оказалась схема с одностоечным крылом, что продемонстрировал Hawker Hoopoe, в инициативном порядке построенный в 1927 году по техническому заданию Министерства авиации на одноместный палубный истребитель. В первом варианте Hoopoe имел двухстоечное крыло и был внешне очень похож на Hawfinch, но вариант Hoopoe Mk II уже оснащался одностоечным крылом и стойками шасси с обтекателями.
  С радиальным двигателем Armstrong Siddeley Panther III самолет продемонстрировал максимальную скорость 315 км/ч. Когда Сидней Кэмм объединил его планер с рядным двигателем Kestrel, появилось семейство классических бипланов фирмы "Hawker", оставившее яркий след в истории авиации.

ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Hawker Hoopoe Mk II

  Тип: опытный одноместный палубный истребитель
  Силовая установка: один 14-цилиндровый радиальный двигатель Armstrong Siddeley Panther III мощностью 560 л. с. (418 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 3810 м - 315 км/ч; потолок 7195 м
  Масса: пустого 1263 кг; максимальная взлетная 1774 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 10,11 м; длина 7,47 м; площадь крыла 26,80 м2
  Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers; четыре сигнальные ракеты или 9-кг бомбы под крылом

Flight, June 1931

SPECIAL TYPES AT THE DISPLAY

HAWKER HOOPOE

  THE Hawker "Hoopoe" is an all-metal single-seater fighter designed to operate from a naval vessel. It is fitted with a 500-h.p. Armstrong-Siddeley "Panther III" engine (in our photograph a different engine is shown), and differs from the majority of single-seater fighters in that its biplane wing structure is of the two-bay type, i.e., it has two pairs of interplane struts on each side. This biplane arrangement results in a very rigid wing structure, and has been used in other Hawker machines of the single-seater class, notably in the "Hawfinch."
  The main data of the Hawker "Hoopoe" Ship's Fighter are as follow :- Wing span, 33 ft. 6 in. (10.2 m.); total flying weight, 3,500 lb. (1,600 kg.); endurance at full throttle, 1/2 hr. at sea level, plus 2 hr. at 15,000 ft. (4,600 m.). The landing speed is 60 m.p.h. (96 km./h.), and the maximum speed at 15,000 ft. is approximately 200 m.p.h. (320 km./h.).
Heron
The Heron was a private venture design and the first predominantly metal Hawker fighter.
Hawker "Heron" (Bristol "Jupiter"). The "Heron" designed and constructed by the H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., is an experimental high performance single-seater fighter, embodying a number of important features in detail design. It may be described as a development of the "Woodcock" single-seater fighter, constructed by the same firm, already in service production. It is a tractor biplane of the single-bay type, with a large top plane and a. smaller lower one. It has an excellent performance, especially as regards climb, and its manoeuvrability is also good.
The Hawker "Heron" with Jupiter Engine is a metal fighter embodying some novel and advanced constructional features.
THE HAWKER "HERON": These views, taken at Brooklands recently, show the machine in various attitudes. Considering the speed at which the machine flies, the quality of these photographs is, we think, quite exceptionally good. The pilot was Flight Lieutenant Bulman.
"NEW AND EXPERIMENTAL": Some of the machines which took part in the "Fly Past" at the R.A.F. Display. (3) Hawker "Heron" (400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter"), a single-seater fighter mainly of metal construction.
The Hawker "Heron," a single-seater Fighter of metal construction, fitted with a 400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter," which will be seen at the R.A.F. Display at Hendon on Saturday.
THE HAWKER "HERON": Built for the Air Ministry, the Hawker "Heron" is a single-seater fighter, fitted with Bristol "Jupiter" engine. The machine not yet having been put into quantity production no details may be given, other than those which may be gathered from an inspection of the photographs. The "Heron," designed and built by the Hawker Engineering Company, has a remarkable climb, but actual figures may not yet be published.
A King's Cup Non-Starter: The Hawker "Heron" (pilot, Flight-Lieut. P. W. Bulman), which was one of the favourites, had the misfortune to run into a car while taxying to the starting line at Hendon, with the result shown.
Hornbill
The Hornbill is illustrated with the original ventral radiator.
The Hornbill is illustrated with the twin-radiator arrangement adopted to overcome cooling difficulties.
THE HAWKER "HORNBILL": Among the single-seater fighters which made their first appearance at the R.A.F Display few came in for more favourable comment than the machine here shown. The engine is a Rolls-Royce "Condor."
The Hawker "Hornbill" (Rolls-Royce "Condor") Although a single-seater fighter, the "Hornbill," designed by Mr. Camm, chief designer of the H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., is a somewhat different type from the other three, having a much more powerful, but also larger and heavier engine, the Rolls-Royce "Condor," of 670 h.p. The extra size of the engine, and the greater quantity of fuel to be carried, mean a greater power plant and fuel weight, and consequently larger wing area if the same stalling speed is to be retained. In spite of this, Mr. Camm has been very successful in producing a clean machine without sacrifice of speed.
A HIGH-POWER SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER: The Hawker "Hornbill," designed and manufactured by the H. G. Hawker Engineering Co., Ltd., is fitted with a Rolls-Royce "Condor" engine. This machine, which will take part in the "Fly-past" at the R.A.F. Display at Hendon on July 3, is of exceptionally clean design, and is very fast.
THE HAWKER "HORNBILL" in various attitudes, as piloted by Mr. Bulman
Hawfinch
HAWKER "HAWFINCH": Single-seater Fighter, with Bristol "Jupiter" Engine.
A single-seater fighter of outstanding merit incorporating the Hawker patent system of metal construction.
THE HAWKER "HAWFINCH" IN FLIGHT: These four views from various angles give some idea of the manoeuvrability of the machine. The front view is a very remarkable picture, and shows good "team work" between our photographer and Mr. Bulman, Hawker's Chief Test Pilot.
A MODERN SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER: The Hawker "Hawfinch," Bristol Series VII "Jupiter" engine, incorporates several unusual features. In spite of its diminutive size, its biplane wings show two-bay bracing. The small lower plane, pronounced stagger, and low placing of the top plane result in an excellent view, coupled with a very rigid wing structure. These three views give a good idea of the general lay-out.
Hoopoe
THE HAWKER HOOPOE is an experimental deck-landing Fleet Fighter, fitted with Bristol Mercury Engine.
Hawker Hoopoe создавался по техническому заданию N.21/26 Министерства авиации. Самолет Hoopoe II (на снимке) стал предшественником превосходного истребителя Fury.
 
The Heron was a private venture design and the first predominantly metal Hawker fighter.
The general arrangement drawing illustrates the Hornbill in the form in which it was first flown. The Hornbill was one of the fastest fighters of its day.
Hawker Hawfinch