Percival. Самолеты семейства Gull
Четырехместный Type K.1 Vega Gull совершил полет в ноябре 1935 года, он имел двойное управление, закрылки и такой же двигатель, как у Gull Six, а на более поздних моделях ставились двигатели Gipsy Six Series II мощностью 205 л.с.
Gull достигли нескольких успехов в гонках и полетах на дальние дистанции, всего было построено 90 машин (последняя - в июле 1939 года).
Машины продавались в Австралию, Канаду, Индию, Ирак, Японию и Кению. Они использовались для связи, а позже были усовершенствованы в вариант Proctor.
Flight, January 1936
A ROOMIER PERCIVAL
The Vega Gull: Seats for Four and a Speed of 170 m.p.h. With a Gipsy Six Engine: Many Practical Detail Modifications
ESSENTIALLY the new Percival Vega Gull follows standard Percival practice, and might, in fact, be regarded as a scaled-up and cleaned-up Gull. It is notable chiefly because it carries four people, with a high degree of comfort, at a speed barely 5 m.p.h. less than that attained by last year's three-seater Gull. An increase of 15 sq. ft. in wing area keeps the landing speed down to the 45 m.p.h. of the smaller machine.
The fuselage, which is 9 in. longer than that of the Gull, has a spruce framework and plywood covering. A thin cotton fabric known as nainsook, or madapollam, is applied, protecting the ply and forming a base for the Titanine finish. The cabin is 44 in. wide and its four seats are arranged in pairs, the two front seats being of the bucket type. The rear pair is luxuriously upholstered and provided with armrests. Soundproofing - which, like the upholstery, is the work of Rumbold - is incorporated, and from all viewpoints the cabin is comparable with that of a saloon motor car. There is a door on each side of the cabin and windows of splinterproof glass.
Dual controls are optional, as are the electric starter and sun blinds fitted to the machine demonstrated the other day at Gravesend Airport by Capt. Percival. Luggage is carried in a separate compartment behind the cabin. Smith's instruments are fitted, and there is a Reid and Sigrist Gyorizon. As in the 1935 model of the Gull, fresh air is taken to the cabin from a small scoop on the starboard wing. Provision has been made for the installation, if necessary, of a simple heating system from the exhaust.
In span the wing of the Vega Gull measures 3 ft. 4 in. more than that of the Gull. Structurally, however, it is identical, having spars of spruce and plywood, lattice bracing of spruce, ribs of the same material and fabric covering. The locking device for the folding wings has been improved and now embodies a disappearing tommy-bar in place of a fixed extraneous handle.
Two 20-gallon petrol tanks are housed in the wing, as in the Gull, and allow a range of 620 miles. The external actuating levers for the ailerons have been done away with in the name of aerodynamic cleanliness. Cleaning-up is also apparent in the undercarriage (which, incidentally, now has a 6 1/4 in. travel, compared with the 5 3/4 in. of the older model), the small bracing strut from the compression leg to the spar having been eliminated a la Mew Gull. Wheels and tyres, as previously, are Dunlop and Bendix respectively. The pneumatic tail wheel is completely orientable and self-centring and is carried in a fork.
A Gipsy Six engine of 200 h.p. is fitted as standard, and a De Havilland or Ratier controllable-pitch airscrew is optional. The installation of one of these benefits take-off and cruising speed.
The split trailing-edge flaps are generally similar to those of the Gull (this means that they do not extend across the bottom of the fuselage and are worked by a lever on the port side of the pilot), but are increased in span and chord. Not more than a 10 lb. pull is required for their operation.
Such beneficial features as the new type of undercarriage are being incorporated in the 1936 model of the Gull, the maximum speed of which has been increased about 4 m.p.h.
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL
Four-seater Cabin Monoplane
D.H. Gipsy Six, 200 h.p.
Span 30 ft. 6 in. (12,04 m.)
Length 25 ft. 6 in. (7,77 m )
Wing area 184 sq. ft. (17,1 m2.)
Tare weight 1,575 lb. (716 kg.)
Gross weight 2,750 lb. (1 250 kg.)
Maximum speed 170 m.p.h. (274 km/h.)
Cruising speed 150 m.p.h. (242 km/h.)
Stalling speed 45 m.p.h. (72 km/h.)
Range 620 miles (1000 km.)
Service ceiling 18,000 (5 600 km.)
Flight, April 1936
MODERN LIGHT AIRCRAFT REVIEW
LATEST of the Percival Gull series, the Vega Gull may be described as an enlarged Gull, though the comparison does not end there. It is both scaled-up and cleaned-up, and carries four people in considerable comfort at a speed barely 5 m.p.h. lower than that attained by the standard three-seater. An increase of wing area has kept the landing speed down to the same figure as before, and the area of the split flaps has been increased. Electric starters are an optional fitting, as are a cabin heater and an R.T.E. homing equipment, and luggage is carried in a separate compartment, behind the cabin, which is reached from the outside.
The majority of low-wing cabin machines tend to become uncomfortably hot without some form of ventilator, and that on the Vega Gull is fed from an aperture well outboard in the wing, so that the air is fresh. Two doors are fitted, so that there is less of the clambering, which is so irritating to the no-longer-young, and the seats are arranged in two pairs with provision for dual control if this is required. The rear pair of seats is provided with armrests. Cleaning-up is apparent in the undercarriage, and this has a travel of more than six inches.
In the case of the Gull the pilot sits alone in front with the two passengers in slightly staggered seats behind. This machine is normally fitted with a Gipsy Six engine, but a Major can be fitted if required, and in this case the cruising speed is 133 m.p.h., against the 155 m.p.h. of the normal type.
The specification of the Vega Gull is as follows: Weight empty, 1.575 lb.; disposable load, 1,175 lb.; span, 39ft. 6in.; length, 25ft. 6in.; maximum speed, 170 m.p h.; cruising speed, 150 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 45 m.p.h.; ranges 620 miles; price, ^1,550.
Flight, October 1936
The Specification of Scott’s Percival Vega Gull and Its Gipsy Engine
THE Percival Vega Gull is a development of the standard Gull, built on generally similar lines, but with a wider fuselage designed to accommodate four passengers, though in the case of the race-winning machine the two vacant seats were sacrificed to extra fuel tank space. A low-wing monoplane, it is of the normal Percival wooden construction, with trousered and spatted undercarriage and fitted with trailing-edge flaps. The cruising speed of the standard model with the 200 h.p. D.H.Gipsy Six engine is 150 m.p.h., but the Series II Gipsy Six and D.H variable-pitch airscrew, as fitted to Scott's machine, increase this figure very considerably. The winner's special tankage arrangements consisted of two tanks in the outer wing panels containing 20 gallons each, two more in the centre section holding 14 gallons each, and a fifth in the cabin of 28 gallons capacity ; this made a total of 96 gallons, which was calculated to give a theoretical range of 1,500 miles.
The Series II Gipsy Six engine with which the machine is fitted is a version of the successful and well-tried Gipsy Six, but adapted for use with V.P. airscrews and utilising high-octane leaded fuels. The outstanding feature of its performance is a higher consistent output over the cruising range and a notable increase in take-off power, made possible by the use of the V.P. airscrew.
The six cylinders have a total capacity of 9.186 litres and a compression ratio of 6:1. The crankshaft runs in eight main bearings, with a ball thrust bearing at the front end. The valves - the exhaust valves are of the Stellited type - operate on steel seats having a high coefficient of expansion, made necessary by the emplovment of high octane fuel.
Two downdraught carburetters each supply three cylinders and draw warm air from around the cylinders at cruising speed, a flame trap being interposed. When the throttle is fully open a change-over flap is moved and air is taken from outside the cowling. This obviates any risk of freezing at cruising speeds, yet there is no loss of performance at full throttle. A gear-type oil pump supplies oil at a pressure of 40 to 45 lb./sq.in., the main stream going via the crankshaft and subsidiary streams lubricating the valve gear and auxiliary drives. Two scavenge pumps draw oil from each end of the crank case.
With a V.P. airscrew the engine develops a rated output of 205 b.h.p. at 2,400 r.p.m. Fuel consumption is 11 1/2 gallons per hour, cruising at 2,100 r.p.m., or 16 gallons per hour at full throttle (2,400 r.p.m.). Oil consumption is 3 to 5 pints per hour at 2,100 r.p.m.
The proprietary equipment of the machine included the following: Smith's engine instruments; two Husun compasses, types P3 and P4; Reid and Sigrist turn and bank indicator; Sperry artificial horizon. A Rotax battery supplied current for the Vickers landing light and Demec navigation lights. The wheels and tyres were Dunlop, and Bendix brakes were fitted. The Percival undercarriage embodied legs by Automotive Products. In the construction of the airframe the spruce was by Bamberger, and plywood was by Flexo and Aeronautical and Panel Plywood. Reynold's special tubing was also employed. The finish was in Titanine dope. Upholstery was by Rumbold, the cabin top was Rhodoid, and the windscreen was of Splintex.
Proprietary engine components and accessories included a crankshaft made of steel supplied by the English Steel Corporation, a camshaft by the Weyburn Engineering Co., and white metal bearings by Hoyt and the Eyre Smelting Co.; Wellworthy piston rings were fitted, and the valve springs were Salters'. B.T.H magnetos, driven through Simms flexible couplings, supplied current to K.L.G. plugs via cables made by British Insulated Cables, Ltd., and the H.T. terminals were by Chater-Lea An Amal petrol pump supplied fuel to the Claudel-Hobson carburetters, to which Amal flame traps were fitted. Other ccessories included gaskets by Hall and Hall, and Cooper's Mechanical Jointing; Robertson's "Jubilee" hose clips; oil-resisting rubber by the Northern Rubber Co., Dermatine Co., and Lyne Hancock; liquid jointing material by Held Glue and Compounds, Ltd., and the Kenilworth Manufacturing Co.; and engine paint by Pinchin Johnson. The 87-octane fuel was Shell (supplied via Vickers four-way petrol taps), and the oil was Castrol.
Flight, March 1938
British light aircraft
NOW that pilots are becoming accustomed to the use of such items of necessary equipment as split flaps and v.p. airscrews, a high-efficiency machine such as the Vega Gull can no longer be considered as one solely for the expert. This best known of the Percival range is the descendant of a line of Gulls which originally carried two passengers and a pilot. The Vega Gull carries four people and their luggage at a cruising speed, with a Series II Gipsy Six and living at optimum altitude, of 170 m.p.h. At lower levels the necessity for keeping the boost pressure and the fuel consumption within reasonable limits somewhat reduces this speed, but even at 1,000ft. or so the machine can still be cruised at 150 m.p.h.
As far as the internal arrangements are concerned, there is plenty of leg room both in the front and the rear seats, and there is a wide door on each side. To some extent a machine such as the Vega Gull must obviously be treated as one would treat any fairly large aeroplane, but there is nothing difficult or unusual about its flying characteristics, and anyone with a reasonable amount of flying experience would find no difficulties. The figures given below are those for the Series II-engined type, but the Vega Gull is, of course, still available in its original form with a fixed pitch airscrew.
SPECIFICATION: Span folded, 16ft.; length, 25ft. 4in.; all-up weight, 3,250 lb.; weight empty, 1,740 lb.; maximum speed, 175 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 170 m.p.h.; landing speed, 45 m.p.h.; range, 660 miles; price, £1,995.
Flight, October 1938
British Sport and Training types
Nowadays the Vega Gull, which was first introduced as a four-seater luxury version of the Gull Six, is usually fitted with a Series II Gipsy Six and v.p. airscrew. Pilots are becoming accustomed to the proper use of the throttle and mixture control with this unit, and a comparatively high-efficiency type, such as the Vega, can no longer be thought of as being one for the use of experts only. Like the Gull, this machine has a long list of distance and speed successes to its credit, the most recent being Broadbent’s Australia-England flight in 5 days 4 hours 21 minutes in April of this year.
Both the structure and the finish have proved themselves in service over the last few years. The former is of wood with the wing built round two box spars of equal depth. The outer sections fold, and the centre section is built into the fuselage. The latter is of box structure with spruce members and plywood panelling, and has been designed so that the four-seater cabin is entirely free from struts or cross-members. The tail unit is fully cantilever. When a Series I engine is fitted a metal airscrew is used, while with a Series II engine either a D.H. or Ratier v.p. airscrew may be fitted. The cabin has a large door on each side, and the seating is arranged in two pairs, full dual control being provided for the front occupants. There is a baggage locker at the rear, and this is accessible from the outside.
Vega Gull (Series II engine) data: - Span, 39ft. 6in.; length, 25ft. 4in. (folded 16ft.); all-up weight, 3,250 lb.; weight empty, 1,740 lb.; wing-loading, 16.5 Ib./sq. ft.; power-loading, 16.4 lb./h.p.; maximum speed, 174 m.p.h.; cruising speed (7,000ft.), 170 m.p.h.; and cruising range, 660 miles. With a fixed-pitch airscrew the cruising speed is 150 m.p.h. at sea-level, and the range is 630 miles.
Pictured at its new base at White Waltham, Vega Gull G-AEZJ is now flying following rebuild with Cliff Lovell near Salisbury, Wiltshire. The Vega was first registered G-AEZJ in the UK in July 1937 before being exported to Holland. The aircraft arrived in the UK from Sweden in 1987 for restoration, after spending its time in Europe registered PH-ATH, D-IXWD and later SE-ALA.
The Percival "Vega Gull" Four-seat Cabin Monoplane (200 h.p. D.H. "Gipsy-Six" engine).
A Percival Vega Gull (Series I Gipsy Six) which is at present being shipped out to Buenos Aires for the use of the British Air Attache there, Group Capt. A. J. Miley, and his assistant, Sqn. Ldr. P. C. Wood. A Vega Gull is already in use by the Attache in Berlin, Group Capt. F. P. Don.
ECONOMICAL TRANSPORT: A pleasant impression of one of the new Percival Vega Gulls above the clouds. With a Gipsy Six engine, this machine carries three passengers, in addition to the pilot, at a cruising speed of 150 m.p.h., and should prove popular for feeder line and charter work as well as for private ownership. A detailed description of the machine appeared in Flight of January 2.
The Percival Vega Gull demonstrating its slow-flying capabilities with flaps down
MOST OF MELBOURNE: The Percival Vega Gull which is used by the Shell Company of Australia, photographed when flying over the capital of Victoria. The distinctive colour scheme is interesting, though it makes a peculiar difference to the natural lines of the machine.
The Woolsington wind-sock gives some indication of the strength of the wind at the Newcastle control. The machine coming in is the Vega Gull flown by Miss Dillon and Capt. Neville Stack.
A bird's eye view of a small section of the member’s enclosure. In the haze, above the two Hart Trainers, can be seen the Percival Vega Gull, flown by Mr. D. M. Bay.
The Percival " family " was represented at Hatfield by a Gull, a Vega Gull, and a Mew Gull. All three machines have Gipsy engines. The Vega Gull is in the foreground.
All the Vega Gulls except one, as shown here, will have Series II Gipsy Sixes with D.H. v.p. airscrews.
The Percival Vega Gull has been obtainable for some time with a Series II engine and v.p. airscrew, increasing the cruising speed and the permissible all-up weight while reducing the normal take-off run
SCALED UP. This is the new Percival Vega Gull which was demonstrated at Gravesend last Thursday. Its fuselage and wing are larger than those of the standard Gull and there are four seats permitting side-by-side seating for two pairs of passengers. With a 200 h.p. Gipsy Six the maximum speed is 170 m.p.h. - perhaps rather more - and this fact, linked with the large capacity of the cabin, suits the machine for high speed charter work in addition to its function as an aerial saloon for private owners.
Gardner's victorious Vega Gull taxies in after its grand race.
The cabin of the Vega Gull is 44 in. wide and permits side-by-side seating without cramping.
P.O. AT ST. MORITZ: The Hon. Drogo Montagu sends this snap, which he took recently at the St. Moritz mountain airport. He says that the machine shown, Mr. Ian Walker’s Vega Gull, was the first British privately owned aircraft to land there.
IMPRESSIONISM: An effective portrait of Air Hire's new v.p. Vega Gull at Heston. This machine has a good deal of special equipment for night operations.
Resistance to the 205 h.p. of Vega Gull No. 7, manned by F/O. D. W. Llewellyn and C. F. Hughesdon.
Mr. Giles Guthrie and Mr. C. W. A. Scott and their victorious Vega Gull (D.H. Gipsy Series II engine) entered by Mr. Guthrie's father, Sir Connop Guthrie.
Vega Gull - продолжатель линейки Gull Six. Данный самолет был приобретен британскими ВВС и дислоцировался на авиабазе Кеттерик.
"... a quick inspection of the new control tower and buildings at Liverpool ..." The A.S.T. Dragonfly and Vega Gull on the tarmac at Speke.
A fast four-seater - the Percival Vega Gull, shown here with a Series II Gipsy Six and v.p. airscrew.
C. W. A. Scott's Vega Gull has a Gipsy Six II and variable-pitch airscrew.
OUTSTANDING CIVIL TYPE: One of four machines which made their first appearance during 1935: (3) the Percival Vega Gull four-seater with Gipsy Six;
The Luftwaffe Vega-Gull with Swedish registration
Despite the fact that the Vega Gull has the same power plant as last year's three-seater Gull it carries its four passengers at 170 m.p.h. Capt. Percival, in fact, says that the maximum speed is a shade over this figure.
Mm. Pissavy and Cornet with their Vega Gull at Le Bourget last Sunday on their arrival from French Indo-China in record time.
Ministering to Gardner's Vega Gull during the eliminating contest. Refuelling was done with the engine running.
The Llewellyn-Hughesdon Vega Gull being refuelled at Vienna
In second place: Mr. S. W. Sparkes and his passenger with their Percival Vega Gull.
Mr. Broadbent waves on his arrival at Hanworth for the benefit of the news cameramen. The actual flight had ended at Lympne last Friday
In spite of the large aggregate amount of sea-crossing, very few competitors took the precaution of wearing life-saving jackets. Derek Schreiber (right) and Flt.-Lt. Peel, his navigator, were among the exceptions.
Two wide doors simplify, as far as possible, the business of entry into the front or rear seats of the Vega Gull.
The Percival Vega Gull (D.H. Gipsy Six), which bids fair to emulate the memorable feats of the Gull. Note in this view the large spinner over the hub of the Ratier V.P. airscrew on the Vega used by Mrs. Markham (inset).
The reckoning: a study of the weighing of the Llewellyn-Hughesdon Vega Gull.
CEREMONY: At the new Percival works at Luton, and in the presence of the Mayors of Luton, Monmouth and Abergavenny, Mr. David Llewellyn's Vega Gull was last week christened County of Monmouth by the Mayor of Newport. The machine, which has a Gipsy Six Series II engine and v.p. airscrew, will be used for a Cape record attempt. It would appear that one of the distinguished visitors involuntarily shared the Vega Gull's champagne bath.
INTERLUDE: On the face of it, hardly an air transport subject, this photograph of Mr. H. F. Broadbent (with two sentries and five porters), standing in front of his sun-protected Vega Gull at Sesok, on Flores, where he landed on his outward record attempt. Nevertheless, Qantas, K.L.M. and K.N.I.L.M., not to mention the Netherlands navy and the D.H. company, made it possible for a new airscrew to be sent and fitted in record time.
Say "Ah!" Capt. E. W. Percival, designer of the Vega Gull, inspects the flaps (which are of greater area than those of the Gull) on the machine he demonstrated at Gravesend.
An improved wing-folding arrangement has been introduced on the Vega Gull. It embodies a tommy bar (which disappears inside the wing) in place of the old fixed handle.
The Vega's business end - the series II Gipsy Six with its "1,000" size De Havilland V.P. Airscrew. There is only one external oil pipe.
The instruments and engine controls of the v.p. Vega Gull. On the extreme right is the landing and navigation light switchboard, while on the left is the useful left-hand additional throttle lever. At the base of the dashboard can be seen (on the left side) the fuel pump, airscrew pitch and intake controls, with (behind the dua! stick) the flooding control. The gauges for the four fuel tanks are on the right of the dash, and the boost gauge is in the centre at the top.
An interior view of Scott and Guthrie's victorious Vega Gull. In the top row of instruments, left to right, are the A.S.I., Sperry artificial horizon (on resilient mounting) and altimeter; in the second row are the r.p.m. indicator, oil gauge, Reid and Sigrist turn and bank indicator, clock, and ammeter, Carburetter and airscrew pitch controls are in the centre. Note the airscrew pitch-changing lever on the left of the near-side control column.
The general arrangement of the surprisingly roomy cabin is apparent in this Flight sketch. The small lever on the left of the pilot's seat (although in this case only one set of controls is fitted, dual controls are optional) operates the split trailing-edge flaps.
There is, as will be seen, ample room, and the luggage is stowed in a compartment at the rear of the cabin. The seating plan indicates the very useful width of the two doors.
There is a genuine saloon car effect about the interior of the Percival Vega Gull.
Inside the four-seater cabin of the Percival Vega Gull.
How the airscrew pitch is changed - the simple control (to the right of the throttle and altitude control) in the Vega Gull.
Mr. W. Lindsay Everard's Vega Gull The Leicestershire Fox IV goes to earth at Shoreham. Mr. P. Q. Reiss, its pilot, was turning on the ground when the machine was caught by a gust.
One half of the simplified undercarriage is revealed
General arrangement of the Vega Gull.