FIAT AS.1 / AS.2 / TR.1
Страна: Италия
Год: 1928


Двухместный туристический и учебный самолет
Описание:
Fiat AS.1, AS.2 и TR.1
Flight, May 1929
THE FIAT "AS.I"
Flight, June 1929
OLYMPIA AERO SHOW 1929
Flight, April 1930
AIRCRAFT FOR THE PRIVATE OWNER
Фотографии

Fiat AS.1, AS.2 и TR.1

Созданный буквально за несколько недель с учетом стадии проектирования, прототип двухместного туристического самолета Fiat AS.1 поднялся в воздух летом 1928 года. Он представлял собой подкосный моноплан с крылом типа парасоль и оснащался звездообразным чешским двигателем Walter мощностью 90 л. с. (67 кВт). Внешние секции крыла могли складываться для удобства буксировки и хранения. Силовая конструкция самолета была смешанной с фанерно-полотняной обшивкой, за исключением легких металлических панелей, имевшихся непосредственно позади двигателя. На серийных AS.1 стоял двигатель Fiat A.50.
  В распоряжении двух членов экипажа имелось двойное управление, сами летчики располагались по схеме тандем в открытых кабинах с небольшими ветровыми стеклами. Дополнительную защиту обеспечивало ветровое стекло, встроенное в передние стойки центроплана, что под некоторыми углами зрения создавало видимость самолета с полностью закрытой кабиной. Самолет AS.2, появившийся в 1929 году, имел усиленную конструкцию и оснащался двигателем Fiat A.50S мощностью 100 л. с. (75 кВт). Более поздние варианты обоих самолетов - AS.1 и AS.2 - уже имели полностью закрытые пилотские кабины. Еще два варианта - оснащенный двумя поплавками гидросамолет AS.1 Idro и модификация AS.1 Sci, имевшая лыжное шасси, - появились в 1930 году. Самолеты семейства AS.1 буквально не сходили с первых полос газет на протяжении 1929-1930 годов. В августе 1929 года восемь таких машин выиграли командную гонку на международных соревнованиях "Challenge Internationale de Tourisme". В январе 1930 года летчики Донати и Капаннини установили на самолете AS.1 мировые рекорды дальности и продолжительности полета в классе туристических самолетов: 2746 км и 29 часов 4 минуты соответственно. В том же месяце эти летчики установили новый мировой рекорд высоты в классе туристических самолетов - 6782 м, а в феврале Франсис Ломбардии выполнил перелет в Могадишо (Восточная Африка), преодолев за семь дней расстояние 8047 км. Но это было еще не все - 28 декабря 1932 года самолет AS.1 Idro, оснащенный двигателем CNA С7, достиг высоты 7363 м и установил мировой рекорд для туристических гидросамолетов. Два дня спустя этот же самолет, но уже с колесным шасси, поднялся на высоту 9282 м и установил мировой рекорд для туристических сухопутных самолетов. В течение 1929 года темп постройки самолетов AS.1 был ускорен, самолеты данного семейства были весьма популярны у частных владельцев, а также были приняты на вооружение ВВС Италии, где использовались в качестве связных, курьерских и учебно-тренировочных. Имеются данные, что всего было построено не менее 500 самолетов AS.1 и около 50 самолетов AS.2, а заказы итальянского Министерства обороны составили 276 самолетов AS.1 и 36 самолетов AS.2.


Варианты

  TR.1: самолет имел схожую конструкцию с AS.1, но с полотняной обшивкой, ширококолейным шасси, полностью закрытой кабиной на двух членов экипажа, вписанной в задний верхний свод фюзеляжа, и силовой установкой с одним звездообразным двигателем A.50S мощностью 100 л. с. (75 кВт); первый полет состоялся в 1930 году; самолет стал победителем в ряде спортивных соревнований в 1931 году, включая командные гонки "Giro Aereo d'Italia"


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Fiat AS.1

  Тип: двухместный туристический и учебный самолет
  Силовая установка: один звездообразный ПД Fiat А.50 мощностью 90 л. с. (67 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 158 км/ч; практический потолок 6800 м; дальность 1000 км; продолжительность полета 5 ч 30 мин
  Масса: пустого 450 кг; максимальная взлетная 690 кг
  Размеры: размах крыльев 10,40 м; длина 6,10 м; высота 2,53 м; площадь крыльев 17,50 м2

Flight, May 1929

THE FIAT "AS.I"
A New Italian Light 'Plane

  PRIVATE flying is officially encouraged in Italy, the Government having included in their aviation programme specially for this branch of aeronautics. With a view to assisting in the development of the Government programme, the Fiat Co. of Turin have produced a light two-seater touring monoplane, and a special 85 h.p. air-cooled radial engine, both of which we illustrate this week.
  We have not at the moment, unfortunately, full details of this new machine, and can only refer now but briefly to some of its outstanding features. The A.S.I is a parasol monoplane with a span of 34 ft. and a length of 21 ft. 9 1/2 in. The wings, which are of fairly thick section with "square” tips, are mounted high above the fuselage to a short centre section on a vertical cabane, and are externally braced by a pair of struts each side extending from the lower longerons of the fuselage up to the wing spars at a point about midway between the wing tip and the centre of the machine. There is no other external wing bracing.
  The wings can readily be folded back against the fuselage, but we do not know exactly how this operation is carried out. The ailerons, which are hinged to a false spar, are balanced by small auxiliary balance surfaces mounted below and forward of the ailerons - a system very popular with the Fiat Co. The rudder and elevators are balanced by the usual projecting surfaces.
  The fuselage is of rectangular section, and we gather that the construction follows usual Fiat practice as regards the steel tube frame and that the covering is plywood. That portion of the fuselage immediately below the wings is "humped" up to the latter to form a roomy cabin. Actually, this cabin is formed by closing in the cabane with windows, the wing centre section (which by the way, also carries the fuel tank) serving for the roof.
  It will be noticed that the sloping back of the "cabin” also has a window, so that the pilot has excellent vision in all directions. Access to the cabin is by way of two doors in the left-hand side of the fuselage, foot-grips being mounted on the lower longerons as well. The seats are arranged in tandem, and it is said that the noise of the engine has been reduced to such an extent that it is possible to carry on a conversation in normal tones during flight.
  The undercarriage is of the conventional V-type, with shock absorbers embodied in the front struts.
  The Fiat A-50 engine, which has been developed specially for this type of machine - and incidentally, the first of its kind to be built in Italy - is a 7-cyl. air-cooled radial developing 85 h.p. at 1,600 r.p.m., and 95 h.p. at 1,800 r.p.m., for a weight of 275 lbs. Its cylinders of 3 -9 by 5-51 in., bore and stroke respectively, are steel forgings with a ribbed aluminium head having two valves with special bronze seats and cast-iron guides. The overhead rocker mechanism is mounted on roller bearings. There are plain bearings for the crankshaft and the connecting rods, these being lubricated under pressure; the base chamber is being kept dry by means of a scavenger pump having 50 per cent, greater capacity than the pressure feed pump. Ignition is by two Marelli magnetos, each supplying current to a set of seven plugs. The petrol consumption is 0-5 lbs. per h.p. and the oil consumption is particularly low.
  We await with interest further reports of this machine, which we understand is being produced at a moderate price and is cheap to maintain.

Flight, June 1929

OLYMPIA AERO SHOW 1929

The Fiat A.S.I.

  The light 'plane exhibited on the F.I.A.T. stand in the main building is a parasol monoplane two-seater of composite construction. The engine is a Fiat type A.50 seven-cylinder radial air-cooled of 85-95 h.p.
  Although our photographs show it as a coupe monoplane, the Fiat A.S.I can actually be converted into, and is exhibited as, an open touring machine by removing the transparent coupe top. Another modification possible is the substitution of a twin-float undercarriage, turning the machine into a seaplane.
  The fuselage of the Fiat A.S.I shows the plywood covering which is becoming almost universal for light 'planes. In front the fuselage is fitted with two doors, one for each cockpit, and the nose of the machine is formed by a duralumin plate carried on duralumin tubes from the fuselage structure proper.
  Constructionally, the monoplane wings are of orthodox type, with wooden spars and ribs and fabric covering. They are hinged on the rear spars and when folded back along the fuselage the overall width of the machine is reduced to less than 11 ft. The folding operation can be carried out in less than 5 mins.
  A vee type of undercarriage is fitted, the shock-absorbing medium being rubber blocks working in compression, with metal separator plates and cylindrical containers. The tail skid is a laminated steel spring.
  As already mentioned, the Fiat A.50 engine is mounted on a duralumin plate in the nose of the machine. There are two petrol tanks, one in the centre-section of the wing and one in the fuselage. The total capacity of the two tanks is 150 litres (33 gallons), which suffices for a flight of some 7 1/2 hours' duration, and gives a range of approximately 1,000 km. (620 miles).
  The two seats are so constructed as to afford space for a “Salvator" type parachute, which is strapped on the back and forms a cushion for the back rest. The forward cockpit is capable of being converted to hold two seats, thus turning the machine into an "occasional" three-seater. Dual controls are fitted, and there is an arrangement whereby the pilot can, at any moment, throw the pupil's controls out of gear by moving a lever forward. A catch holds the lever forward and the front controls out of action until the pilot again releases the catch.
  The main dimensions of the Fiat A.S.I are :- Length, o.a., 6-277 m. (20-6 ft.); wing span, 10-4 m. (341 ft.); wing area, 17-5 sq. m. (188 sq. ft.).
  With a tare weight of 390 kg. (858 lbs.) and a gross weight of 670 kg. (1,475 lbs.), the Fiat A.S.I has a disposable load of 280 kg. (616 lbs.). The maximum speed at ground level is 170 km./h. (105 m.p.h.), and full speed at 10,000 ft. is 160 km./h. (100 m.p.h.). The climb to 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) occupies 5 mins. 15 secs., and to 2,000 m. (6,600 ft.) in 13 mins. 25 secs. Climb to 3,000 m. (10,000 ft.) in 24 mins. Absolute ceiling, 5,400 m. (17,700 ft.).

Flight, April 1930

AIRCRAFT FOR THE PRIVATE OWNER

FIAT

  THE Fiat is another small machine which comes from Italy, and in this country it is handled by Fiat Motors, of 43, Albemarle Street, W.I.
  It is a small parasol monoplane which can be supplied with a cabin top or as an open machine. If desired, floats can be fitted, making the machine into an attractive little seaplane.
  Several novel features are incorporated in this machine, and the workmanship is of the standard one naturally expects from the Italians. An interesting fitment is an arrangement whereby the instructor can disconnect the pupil's control column, so that in case of emergency he can assume complete control of the machine.
  Doors are provided for getting in and out of the cockpits, and the seats are designed to take the "Salvator" parachute if required, a cushion taking the place of the parachute if this latter is not carried. This parachute is the back type, and when in use the parachute forms a pad for the back.
  The forward cockpit is also designed to allow the fitting of an extra seat, so that the machine may be used as an occasional three-seater.
  The engine normally fitted is the Fiat-type A.50 seven-cylinder, radial air-cooled of 85-95 h.p., and this is mounted on a duralumin plate on the nose of the machine. The coupe top is detachable, and the photograph above shows the seaplane as an open machine.
Одним из достижений AS.1 стал перелет из Верчелли в Токио, выполненный Ломбарди и Капаннини с 13 по 22 июля 1930 года.
Francis Lombardi (left) and his mechanic, Capannini, and the Fiat A.S.1 monoplane (95 h.p Fiat A.50) in which they flew from Vercelli to Tokio.
PETROL TEST AT THE ORLY MEETING: (6) Four Fiats A.S.I. (Fiat)
AT ORLY: Our picture shows a scene inside the large airship hangar at Orly on the occasion of the International Light 'Plane Tour of Europe.
THE FOLDING TEST AT ORLY: (6) A very tight fit for the Fiat A.S.I. (Fiat engine).
On the Fiat Stand: The A.S.I is a two-seater light 'plane, which can be supplied as an "open" machine, as a coupe, and as a seaplane in both forms.
Lombardi's Turin-Tokio A.S.1;
THE FIAT "A.S.1": Two views of the new Italian two-seater light monoplane. It is fitted with a Fiat 85 h.p A-50 air-cooled radial engine.
THE FIAT A.S.I: At Olympia the machine is shown as an open landplane. This view shows it as an open seaplane.
The first A.S.2 light 'plane used by the three Italian pilots in their flight round Africa.
The AS.2, a long-range cabin version of the AS.1.
The TR I two-seat tourer.
The tail skid on the Fiat A.S.I is a steel leaf spring.
Undercarriage and landing light on Fiat A.S.I.