Short. Различные самолеты 1920-1932 годов
Несколько большим по размерам был S.14 Sarafand, совершивший первый полет 30 июня 1932 года. Это был чисто экспериментальный самолет, который утилизировали в 1936 году.
Flight, July 1932
THE SHORT R.6/28 FLYING BOAT "PRESENTED"
ON Monday last representatives of the Press, the aircraft industry and many other friends of Short Brothers had been invited to view the new six-engined flying boat launched recently. The party boarded a paddle steamer at Strood and were taken down the Medway towards Kingsnorth, where the machine was moored.
As soon as the party arrived, the crew began to start the six Rolls-Royce "Buzzard" engines, accomplishing the task in about four minutes by hand turning! Mr. Lankester Parker was at the controls, and next to him was Maj. Brackley, of Imperial Airways. After warming up the engines Mr. Parker took off right alongside the steamer, and thus gave everyone a perfect view of the clean behaviour of the boat on the water. For the next half-hour or so Mr. Parker showed the new boat's paces, and then alighted alongside the steamer again, the "amerissage" being as clean as the take-off.
The new boat, at present known as Flying Boat R.6/28, is of extremely pleasing lines, and the tandem arrangement of the six engines results in a very low frontal area. The machine is entirely of metal, with the exception of the wing covering, which is fabric doped with Cellon. The machine has a wing span of 120 ft., and the total loaded weight is approximately 70,000 lb.
The six engines are Rolls-Royce "Buzzards," type III MS. The airscrew gearing has a ratio of 0.477:1, and the normal power is 820 b.h.p. at 2,000 r.p.m. at sea level. The maximum power is 930 b.h.p. at 2,300 r.p.m. at sea level.
Mr. Parker's masterly handling of the machine was greatly admired, and after the demonstration he had to come aboard the steamer and be photographed, filmed and "talkied." Even this did not seem to disturb him. We wonder what would give Parker stage fright!
As the new machine is a military type, no performance figures may be given, but the boat is certainly very fast, and we understand it will have a very useful range. When we need the really large commercial flying boat, the R.6/28 Short should provide a useful basis to work from.
Flight, November 1932
Short Brothers, Ltd.
LONG before aeroplanes came into being Short Brothers were aeronautical engineers in that in 1897 they had established their own balloon factory. When the work of Wright Brothers and other experimenters began to become known Short Brothers were quick to realise the tremendous possibilities of heavier-than-air craft, and at once set to work to design and construct. Since those early days (1909 or so) they have never looked back, and to-day Short Brothers are among the most esteemed of British aircraft firms. Twin-float seaplanes were among the first Short machines to be constructed, and ever since then the firm has been closely connected with the development of marine aircraft. Of recent years these have been mostly of the flying-boat type, although other types have also been produced.
Several military types of Short flying-boats have been built, such as the "Rangoon" (military version of the "Calcutta" ), the "Singapore I," the "Singapore II" and the R.6/28. Space permits of referring to the latter only.
The Short R.6/28 is generally similar to other Short flying-boats, but is fitted with six Rolls-Royce Buzzard engines arranged in three tandem pairs. Stainless steel is used extensively in the construction of the hull. The machine is far and away the largest flying-boat ever produced by a British aircraft firm, as will be realised when we state that the maximum authorised weight is no less than 70,000 lb. (31 750 kg.), while the wing span is 120 ft. (36,6 m.) and the overall length 89 ft. 6 in. (27,3 m.). Performance data may not be published, but the Short R.6/28 is probably one of the fastest flying-boats in the world.
Flight, June 1935
THE SHORT "SARAFAND"
The Largest British Flying Boat Described for the First Time: Thirty-one tons: 150 m.p.h.: More Than 5,500 h.p. in Three Tandem Engine Nacelles
FROM the earliest days of British aviation the name Short has been associated with marine aircraft. First came a number of twin-float seaplanes, and afterwards a series of flying boats. The latter may be said to have culminated in the Short "Sarafand," which was produced in 1932 to an Air Ministry specification, but of which it has not been permissible to publish a detailed description until now. The "Sarafand," known at first as the Short R.6/28, was primarily an experiment designed to ascertain the possibilities of the type. A civil machine of similar dimensions was projected about the same time, but in the interests of economy its completion was abandoned. When the "Sarafand" was being designed it was decided to make it a biplane in order to afford a comparison with the civil machine, which was to have been a monoplane. It was, therefore, planned on strictly orthodox lines and incorporated few new aerodynamic features, thus enabling concentration to be directed towards the structural problems involved consequent upon the large increase in size. The experience gained with the “Sarafand” has been extremely valuable to Short Brothers, who feel confident that with the knowledge and experience accumulated since this machine was planned, the design of a very much larger flying boat of increased aerodynamic efficiency could be undertaken with every prospect of success.
In its general conception the Short "Sarafand" is a normal biplane flying boat of all-metal construction, the most notable features of the general lay-out being the thickening of the lower wing-roots to avoid the necessity for chine struts, and the placing of the six engines in three tandem pairs, each pair being carried on a single pair of inter-plane struts. This feature was first introduced in the Short "Singapore," a four-engined flying boat. The scheme of carrying two engines on such a simple structure was considered daring at the time, but was found quite satisfactory in actual service. It has the advantage of low drag. In the "Sarafand" the engines are Rolls-Royce "Buzzards" of the medium supercharged type, each developing a normal power of 825 b h.p. at 2,000 r.p.m., and a maximum of 930 b.h.p. at 2,300 r.p.m.
Large Petrol Load
Monocoque construction is used for the engine nacelles, which are built entirely of duralumin. The normal petrol load of 2,112 gallons is carried in four tanks in the upper plane. A further quantity of petrol, in the form of an overload of 1,272 gallons, is earned in two tanks, one on each side of the hull, in the lower wing. Normally the engines are fed from the upper tanks by gravity, via a distributor in the central nacelle. Fuel from the overload tanks is pumped into the upper tanks by wind-driven pumps. The machine can be refuelled either by a pump driven by the auxiliary power unit or by a Zwicky hand pump. The oil tanks are situated in the nacelles, with Vickers "U" type coolers included in the circuit. Provision is made for warming the oil for easy starting.
Separate water-cooling systems are provided for each engine, the radiators being mounted as pairs behind the front interplane struts, underneath the engines. Controlled shutters are fitted. The engines can be started by hand or by an R.A.E. Mark II starter. Two-bladed wooden airscrews are used on all six engines, those of the front engines having a diameter of 15ft., and those of the rear engines a diameter of 14ft.
Generally speaking, standard Short practice was followed in the construction of the wings. The main exception is provided by the main wing spars, which are of stainless steel. These spars were found to be considerably heavier than the duralumin spars normally used on Short flying boats, but have proved very satisfactory.
In spite of the large size of the Short "Sarafand," a monoplane tail is used. The fin is in two portions, of which the lower forms part of the hull structure, while the upper is attached to the tail-plane. The latter is braced by struts to the hull, and carries two adjustable fins, each composed of two halves, one above and one below the tail-plane. The single rudder is balanced by the set-back hinge method, and is servo-operated, the servo rudder being carried on outriggers from the main rudder. Extensive flying tests have shown the controls to be light and effective and adequate at the greatest loaded weight of 70,000 lb.
Considerable experimentation with hull construction was carried out with the "Sarafand." Originally the upper part of the hull was of duralumin construction, while the planing bottom was planked with stainless steel. This was later removed and a planking of Alclad substituted.
The bow compartment of the hull is arranged to take either a Lewis gun or a 1 1/2-pounder automatic gun. The bomb aimer is installed in this compartment, a hatch being provided for the bomb sight. Owing to the size of the anchor used on such a large flying boat a winch is provided.
Immediately aft of the bow compartment is the pilots' cockpit, which is totally enclosed and fitted with a sliding roof and opening windows. The two pilots are placed in tandem in order to give the first pilot a maximum of view. A passageway runs from the front compartment to the ward room, which is equipped with a large chart table. The engineers' control panels are fitted in this compartment.
Between the lower wing spars is a compartment normally used as the officers' quarters. This is equipped with four folding bunks and a removable table. Adjacent to this compartment is, on the starboard side, a drying cupboard and the hatch to the deck of the hull, while on the port side is the cooking equipment. The crew's quarters follow immediately aft, and is arranged like those of the officers.
Between the crew's quarters and the midship gun positions is a compartment fitted with two folding bunks and equipped with stretcher stowage, provision for spare airscrews, tool kit and suitcase stowage. A small workbench with vice is also installed. In the roof of this compartment there is a large hatch through which a spare engine can be lowered on to a supporting cradle for transport purposes.
The midship gun rings are staggered, and in the space opposite the foremost was originally fitted the wireless equipment. The W/T was subsequently moved forward to the ward room in order to provide closer contact with the pilot and navigator. Aft of the midship gun positions is the toilet and wash basin and various miscellaneous stowages. A walk-way is provided to the extreme aft end of the hull, where there is a Lewis gun mounting for the protection of the tail. The gunner is protected by a folding draught screen.
A complete electrical installation (12-volt) is fitted, including internal lighting, navigation lights, flares, etc. Power is obtained from a 1-kilowatt wind-driven generator mounted on the front strut of the centre engine nacelle. Another 1,000-watt generator is directly coupled to the auxiliary power unit for use when the aircraft is moored. A telephone inter-communication installation links up nine stations on the boat. A complete W/T set is installed, with trailing long- and short-wave aerials.
The hull has a complete bilging system, which includes the wing-tip floats. In the hull there is a central duct connected to a number of branch pipes running to the various compartments, each pipe being fitted with a hand-controlled valve.
On top of the lower centre-section is mounted the A.B.C. auxiliary power unit, which is used for refuelling, bilging, charging the air bottles, and for generating electricity. The petrol and bilge pumps have a capacity of approximately 2,600 gallons per hour, and the air compressor will charge a 400 cu. in. bottle to a pressure of 200 lb./sq. in. in four minutes.
A beaching chassis complete with tail trolley is provided, and a jib for changing either of the six engines while the aircraft is afloat is supported on the lower plane, with ties to the upper plane.
Although positions are provided for two pilots, a three-axes automatic pilot is carried, so that on a long flight the aircraft controls may be abandoned by the crew for quite long periods.
THE NEW 6-ENGINED SHORT FLYING BOAT (ROLLS-ROYCE "BUZZARDS"): Although launched only a fortnight ago, the boat could be demonstrated with every confidence on Monday last. It was flown by Mr. Lankester Parker. Like other Short flying boats, the new machine was "right" from the very start, and needed practically no modifications at all.
Sarafand создавался как разведывательная и патрульная летающая лодка большой дальности. Первый полет состоялся 30 июня 1932 года. Самолет имел бипланную коробку размахом 36,58 м и оснащался шестью двигателями Rolls-Royce Buzzard, установленными попарно тандемом.
The R6/28. 6 Rolls-Royce 'Buzzard' Engines designed & Built by SHORT BROS LTD. ROCHESTER
AN "EEL'S EYE" VIEW: The six-engined Short Military Flying Boat (Rolls-Royce "Buzzards") flying overhead, piloted by Mr. Lankester Parker. This photograph gives a very good idea of the shape of the underwater portion of the hull.
The flying boats: In the vee, left to right, are the Vickers-Supermarine "Scapa" and "Stranraer," Short "Sarafand" and "Singapore III," and Saro "London"; bringing up the rear is the Saro "Cloud" (Short "Knuckleduster" ???)
THE LARGEST FLYING-BOAT EVER CONSTRUCTED IN ENGLAND 6 ROLLS-ROYCE ENGINES
Short R6/28 (six R.R. "Buzzard")
SHORT-ROLlS-ROYCE GIANT FLYING BOAT FITTED WITH 6 ROLLS-ROYCE BUZZARD' ENGINES WEIGHT 35 TONS
The mighty "Sarafand" or R.6/28 (six 825 h.p. "Buzzards")
IN HER HOME WATERS: The Short six-engined flying boat ("Buzzards") at Moorings on the Medway. The official designation of this boat is "Flying Boat R.6/28."
A SHORT VISIT TO SCOTLAND: The Short six-engined flying-boat which paid a visit to Kirkwall Bay on September 21.
The biggest flying boat ever built in Great Britain.
THE LATEST OPEN SEA RECONNAISSANCE MULTI-SEATER FLYING-BOAT: This new six-engined Short machine has just been launched at the Rochester works of Short Brothers. The engines are Rolls-Royce "Buzzards."
One of the jacks used for lifting the flying boat off the ground when it is ashore. The ends of the beam are placed under points on the lower wing roots.
Although dual controls are provided, the pilots are arranged in tandem to give the first pilot the best possible view.
A view looking forward. The compartment in the foreground has a workbench with vice, etc., and a hatch through which can be lowered a spare engine.
The picture affords a peep into the W/T compartment.
The exchange: In this compartment are the switchboard for the electricity supply, telephones, etc., and the engine instruments under the care of the engineer.
The aft stowage space, and lavatory equipment. A gangway leads to the gun position in the extreme stern of the hull.