Air Pictorial 1999-05
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Canberra: type by type
United States: The Glen L Martin Company built 403 B-57s for the US Air Force under licence, following a demonstration of the Canberra in February 1951. Variants included RB-57A, EB-57A, B-57B, EB-57B, B-57C, D and E, RB-57F and B-57G. Used extensively in Vietnam.
Germany: Three ex-RAF aircraft purchased for trials use with Erprobungstelle 61 in 1961. WK130, 137 and 138 retired as 99+36, 34 and 35 respectively.
France: Four B.6s and two B(I).6s ordered by Armee de I’Air in 1954 for trials work. First three diverted from RAF orders, F763 ex-WJ763, F779 cx-WJ799 and F784 cx-WJ784. Others were new-build airframes, F304, 316 and 318.
Бомбардировщик «Канберра» ВВС Эфиопии в полете, 1970-е гг.
Ethiopia: Four refurbished ex-RAF B.2s delivered in 1968 for the Ethiopian Air Force. Serialled 351 to 354.
Sweden: Two ex-RAF B.2s, WH711/52001 and WH905/52002, delivered in early 1960 for Elint operations with Flygvapnet's F6 wing at Barkaby. Designated Tp.52, both aircraft retired in January 1973.
Argentina: Ten B.62s (shown) and two T.64s ordered by the Fuerza Aerea Argentina with deliveries made in 1970-71. Participated in 1982 Falklands War, two being lost in action.
Canberra B. Mk 1: Designed by WEW Petter to B.3/45 as English Electric AI. Two-seat, high-altitude bomber with radar bomb-sight. Four prototypes, VN799 (shown) first flown on May 13, 1949, with two 6,000 lb thrust Rolls-Royce Avon R.A.2 turbojets, VN828 and VN850 also with Avons, and VN813 (f/f November 9, 1949) with Nenes.
Canberra B. Mk 2: Three-seater with provision for visual bomb aiming. Two prototypes, VX165 and VX169, powered by 6,500 lb Avon 101s (R.A.3s). Production commenced with WD929, named ‘Canberra’ by Australian PM, the Hon R G Menzies, on January 19, 1951, at RAF Biggin Hill. Built by EE, Avro, Handley Page and Shorts. Entered service with No 101 Sqn, Binbrook, May 1951. WD932 and WD940 to USAF as pattern aircraft for Martin B-57. Total B.2 production, 416.
Rhodesia: Fifteen B.2s and three T.4s ordered by Royal Rhodesian Air Force in 1957 and delivered two years later. The aircraft were initially serialled RRAF159 to 176, but following UDI on November 11, 1965, they received four-digit numbers with an R prefix. Eight B.2s and three T.4s survived to fly with the Air Force of Zimbabwe. One B.2 and one T.4 supplied in March 1981.
Canberra PR.Mk 3: Two-seat photographic reconnaissance version of B.2. Prototype VX181 flew March 19, 1951. Fuselage lengthened by 14 in to accommodate forward camera bay with one F49 vertical and six F52 oblique cameras. Joined No 540 Sqn at RAF Benson, December 1952, followed by 58 and 82 Sqn. PR.3 production, 35 aircraft.
Canberra T.Mk 4: Dual-control trainer version of B.2 designed to meet Spec T2/49. Prototype WN467 flew June 12, 1952. Incorporated solid nose and no bomb-aimer. Joined No 231 OCU, RAF Bassingbourne, in August 1953, of which four aircraft are seen here. T.4 production, 66 aircraft.
Canberra B.Mk 5: Target-marking variant to Spec B22/48. Prototype VX185 (PR.3 converted) powered by 7,500 lb Avon 109s (R.A.7s). Flew July 6, 1951. No production and aircraft converted in 1954 to prototype B(I).8.
Canberra B(I).Mk 6: Interim interdictor/tactical bomber fitted with ventral 4x20 mm gun pack and underwing bomb racks for ground-attack. Crew 3, Avon 109s. No 213 Sqn in 2nd TAF, was sole operator from July 1955. Total production, 22 aircraft. The B.6(BS) was a two-seat variant with Blue Shadow radar.
Canberra B.Mk 6: Three-seat tactical bomber successor to B.2, first production type to have Avon 109s. Nose lengthened by 56 in. Production by EE and Shorts. First aircraft WH945 made its first flight on January 26, 1954. Initial deliveries in June 1954 to No 101 Sqn. B.6 production, 97 aircraft.
Ecuador: Six new B.6s - BE-801 to 806 - ordered in May 1954 for use by Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana. Phased out of service in 1981.
Canberra PR.Mk 7: Two-seat PR version of B.6. First production aircraft WH773, flew August 16, 1953, with deliveries beginning in June 1954 to No 542 Sqn, RAF Wyton. Seen here in No 100 Sqn colours. Production, 74 aircraft.
Данный самолет был доработан в буксировщик мишеней (беспилотную мишень ???) U.Mk 10, задействованный в испытаниях ракетного оружия.
Canberra U.Mk 10: Pilotless target version, converted from B.2s by Shorts. WJ624 trials aircraft flown June 11, 1957, followed by 17 conversions for use on the ranges in Australia. Six more converted to D.14s for RN use.
Canberra T.Mk 11: Radar target conversion of B.2. WJ734 trials aircraft fitted with nose radome containing Airborne Interception Radar and Pilot’s Attack Sight System (AIRPASS). Eight further conversions used by No 228 OCU, RAF Leeming, from 1959.
Canberra B.Mk 15/16: Modified B.6s for the low-level attack role, armed with underwing unguided rockets, mainly for the Akrotiri Strike Wing. The B.16 differed in having Blue Shadow radar in place of one of the rear crew ejection seats. First B.15 (WH967) converted by Marshall’s of Cambridge with 38 conversions by Bristol and EE. Eight later modified into E.15s. B.15s of 32 and 73 Sqn fitted for firing Nord AS.30 air-to-ground missile. 19 B.6s converted to B.16s by Marshalls.
Canberra T.Mk 17: Dedicated electronic counter-measures/electronic warfare conversions of B.2s for joint RAF/RN unit, No 360 Sqn at RAF Cottesmore (later moving to Wyton). Prototype conversion, WJ977, first flew September 9, 1965, followed by 22 more. Electronics in solid nose and in bomb-bay. Upgraded equipment produced T.17A.
Canberra TT.Mk 18: Target-tug conversion of B.2 fitted with Rushton winches underwing for sleeve or Rushton Mk 2 targets. Converted by EE and Flight Refuelling with first aircraft flying on April 14, 1970, and joining No 7 Sqn in July. 23 aircraft conversions.
Canberra T.Mk 19: Conversion of eight T.11s entailing removal of AIRPASS radar. First, WH724, completed in 1965. Operated by No 85 Sqn, RAF Binbrook.
Canberra Mk 20: Licence-built Australian equivalent of RAF B.2 with improved navigation equipment and wing integral fuel tanks. WD939 and 983 transferred for training. A84-201 first flew at Avalon on May 29, 1953. Initial 27 powered by Avon 101s, remaining 21 (A84-227/248) had Avon 109s. Operated in Vietnam from April 1967 to June 1971. Canberra Mk 21: Seven T.4 variants built in Australia under licence between June 1958 and October 1959.
Canberra T.Mk 22: Modified PR.7 for the Royal Navy’s Fleet Requirements and Air Directional Training Unit. Used for radar training to replace ageing Sea Vixens. First of seven flown at Samlesbury in September 1973; all retired from service in September 1985.
Venezuela: Initial order for six B.2s (WH708, 709, 721, 722, 736, 737) as 1A-39, 2A-39, 3A-39, 1B-39, 2B-39, 3B-39, placed by Fuerza Aerea Venezolatia in 1953, with follow-on contract in 1957 for eight B(I).8s and two T.4s, later updated to B(I).88 and T.84. Twelve B.2s and two PR.3s were ordered in 1965 and were updated to B.82, B(I).82 and PR.83, until withdrawal of type from Grupo Aereo de Bombardeo 13 in 1990.
Chile: Three ex-RAF PR.9s delivered to the Fuerza Aerea de Chile in October 1982 (XH166, 167 and 173). Believed to be UK ‘part-payment’ for Chilean assistance during the Falklands War.
Peru: Eight B(I).8s ordered in November 1955 (474, 475, 476, 478-482) with first deliveries made in May 1956. Six refurbished ex-RAF B.2s (231-238) delivered in 1966 as B.72s, plus two T.4s (231-232). Repeat contracts were subsequently placed between 1968 and 1973 for three B.56s, three B(I).56s, one T.4 and 11 B(I).68s. The Fuerza Aerea Peruana also purchased five B(I).12s from South Africa in 1991.
Canberra B(I).Mk 8: Two-seat night interdictor/tactical bomber with distinctive offset fighter-type canopy to improve visibility in ground-attack role. Prototype VX185 (former B.5) first flight, July 23, 1954. 4x20 mm ventral gun pack and underwing pylons. First prod aircraft, WT326. Joined No 88 Sqn, RAF Wildenrath, in May 1956. Production, 82 aircraft.
Canberra PR.Mk 9: High-altitude, two-seat recce aircraft with offset canopy, longer wing with increased chord on centre-section and larger tailplane. Two 10,050 lb Avon 206s. Prototype WH793 (converted PR.3) flew July 8, 1955. 23 built by Shorts, commencing XH129 flying in July 1958. Joined No 58 Sqn, RAF Wyton, in February 1961 and continues in service with No 39 (1 PRU) Sqn, as seen here. Production, 23 aircraft.
Canberra B(I).Mk 12: Nine for New Zealand ordered in February 1958. As B(I).8, but with autopilot and changed nav equipment. WT329 for RAF transferred to RNZAF as NZ6101. Further two aircraft received, NZ6102-6111. Equipped No 14 Sqn, RNZAF, from October 1959 to July 1970. Aircraft sold to India.
South Africa: The SAAF ordered six B(I).12s in 1961 and three T.4s in 1963, for service with No 12 Sqn. Deliveries completed in 1964 and included the last production Canberra. Used operationally in Namibia and Angola, five survivors being sold to Peru in 1991.
India: The largest foreign user of the Canberra, India first ordered the type in 1957. Inventory comprised 72 B(I).58s (shown), ten PR.57s, eight T.4s, ten B(I).66s, two PR.67s, six TT.18/418s, plus eight B(I).12s and two T.13s from New Zealand. Operated in the Congo in 1961 and later in the Indo-Pakistan wars of 1965 and 1971.