Burnelli UB-14
Страна: США
Год: 1934


Транспортный самолет
Описание:
Burnelli (самолеты В. Бурнелли)
Flight, November 1935
AN UNORTHODOX TRANSPORT
Фотографии

Burnelli (самолеты В. Бурнелли)

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  Продолжая попытки создания коммерческого транспортного самолета с несущим фюзеляжем, Бурнелли в 1934 году спроектировал и построил UB-14, фюзеляж которого де-факто являлся центропланом крыла. UB-14 выглядел более элегантно, чем его предшественники. Хвостовое оперение с двумя килями крепилось к фюзеляжу на двух балках. Шасси убиралось и выпускалось гидравликой, силовая установка - два звездообразных мотора Pratt & Whitney. Пилот и второй пилот/штурман размещались в смещенной далеко вперед закрытой кабине на верхней поверхности крыла. В кабине длиной 3,35 м и шириной 3,66 м с комфортом можно было разместить до 14 пассажиров. Пассажирский салон был оборудован системой обогрева, вентиляцией, освещением, имелись туалет и багажный отсек. UB-14 был разрушен на земле в 1935 году, когда у него подломилось шасси.
  Бурнелли построил затем улучшенный UB-14B, один из таких самолетов был построен в 1938 году британской компанией "Cunliffe Owen Aircraft" - это был усовершенствованный вариант Cunliffe Owen OA-1, построенный в единственном экземпляре и оснащенный двумя звездообразными моторами Bristol Perseus XIVC мощностью по 710 л. с.
  В 1935 году Бурнелли спроектировал бомбардировщик А-1, работы по которому не пошли дальше постройки деревянного макета. Однако А-1 послужил базой для создания транспортного планера General Aircraft XCG-16A, построенного в 1943 году и рассчитанного на перевозку до 40 солдат с полной выкладкой. Разработанный Харли Боулсом, XCG-16A имел деревянную конструкцию, размах крыла 28,04 м, максимальную взлетную массу 8618 кг и мог перевозить груз массой до 3992 кг. XCG-16A во всех отношениях превосходил конкурента - самолет Waco XCG-13A, но в серийное производство запущен не был.
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ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Burnelli UB-14B

  Тип: транспортный самолет
  Силовая установка: два звездообразных мотора Pratt & Whitney Hornet мощностью по 750 л. с. (560 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: макс, скорость на уровне моря 338 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на высоте 3050 м-330 км/ч; практический потолок 6705 м; дальность 1996 км
  Масса: пустого 4173 кг; максимальная взлетная 7938 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 21,64 м; длина 13,41 м; высота 3,05 м; общая площадь несущей поверхности 63,73 м2

Flight, November 1935

AN UNORTHODOX TRANSPORT
A Surprisingly High Performance and Extraordinary Layout Characterise the New Burnelli Monoplane

  THE latest product of the Uppercu-Burnelli Corporation of Keyport, New Jersey, is the UB-14A transport monoplane, which incorporates the aerofoil section fuselage of earlier Burnelli designs, but takes advantage of modern aids to aerodynamic efficiency. As previously recorded in Flight, the agents in Great Britain are W. S. Shackleton, Ltd., 175, Piccadilly, W.1, and the machine was illustrated in the issue of November 7. Another photograph appears on p.531.
  Unusually spacious cabin arrangements have been made possible by the broad fuselage and, due to the high wing, an excellent downward view is possible from the side windows. Entrance doors are located on each side of the cabin proper, and there are baggage compartments in the wings. To the rear of the cabin, which has seats for fourteen passengers, there is a third large baggage compartment.
  All-metal construction is used for the cabin section, the skeleton structure being of extruded duralumin sections. Flat stressed skin is employed for the covering. The engine mounting, undercarriage, and main fittings are of chrome molybdenum steel tube, welded and heat treated.
  The hatch over the pilot's cockpit, which is located in the leading edge of the “fuselage,” is arranged to slide rearward. Vision, of course, is quite exceptionally good forward, rearward and overhead, and lateral downward view is increased by windows on each side. It is possible also for the pilots to look rearwards through the cabin windows below the wing.
  Hydraulic operation is used for landing gear and wing flaps, both items being visible and accessible to the pilot. It is possible to retract the wheels in 45 seconds, and to lower them in 12 seconds. The tail wheel, too, is retractable.
  The manufacturers claim that because the outer wing structure is not required to absorb heavy landing shocks, nor to withstand the strain of engine vibration, torque loads, or extraordinary strains in the event of airscrew failure, greater safety is obtained than in the case of more conventional designs. With the engines and airscrews attached to the outer sections of the wings in these designs, they maintain that, in the event of engine failure, single engine operation introduces a large turning moment which must be corrected by forces acting on the vertical tail surfaces, reducing available directional control and creating a potential source of difficulty. In the Burnelli design, with the engines in the nose of the aerofoil fuselage and with the airscrews close together, this undesirable feature is greatly reduced.
  Another of their contentions is that the forward location of the engines, directly ahead of the passenger compartment, provides valuable protection in the event of nosing over.
  The accessibility of the engines in flight is, of course, a valuable feature. Minor repairs to all fuel, oil and control leads are possible in flight. The retractable undercarriage is not only visible to the pilots, but, in the event of any failure of the operating mechanism, it is accessible for inspection and adjustments. The large cabin space is important for passenger carrying and also permits the stowage of bulky packages. Operators will appreciate that it is often impossible to carry the full payload of a machine, in weight at least, because of the actual bulk of the goods to be transported.

BURNELLI UB-14A
Twin-engined Transport Monoplane
Two Pratt and Whitney Hornet Engines (700 b.p. each)

DIMENSIONS.
  Span 71 ft.
  Length 44 ft.
  Height 10 ft.
  Total lifting surface 686 sq. ft.

WEIGHTS AND LOADINGS.
  Weight empty 8,000 lb.
  Weight loaded 14,000 lb.
  Surface loading 20.4 lb./sq. ft.
  Power loading 9.65 lb./h.p.

PERFORMANCE.
  Maximum speed at 10,000 ft 225 m.p.h.
  Cruising speed at 10,000 ft 200 m.p.h.
  Maximum speed at sea level 210 m.p.h.
  Maximum speed on one engine (7,000 ft.) 150 m.p.h.
  Service ceiling 22,000 ft.
  Stalling speed 68 m.p.h.
  Range at cruising speed 600 miles.
При весьма необычном внешнем облике UB-14 вполне мог стать транспортным самолетом, нашедшим практическое применение. Но самолеты Бурнелли были слишком экзотичными для своего времени.
The sole Burnelli UB-14B, X15320, in its original configuration, flying over New York in 1936.
ABOVE THE BATTERY. The new Pratt and Whitney Hornet-engined Burnelli transport tests its split flaps during a test flight over New York.
UNCONVENTIONAL: This unusual view of the Burnelli UB-14, taken by the Shell company, clearly shows the aerofoil section of the fuselage and the new tapered wings.
The prototype UB-14 with its rear fuselage resting on a barrel, illustrating the excellent forward vision from the cockpit.
AROUND THE WORLD NON-STOP? A "nose-on" view of the Burnelli UB 14 in which Clyde Pangborne hopes to make an attempt to fly around the world, refuelling from other aircraft on the way. A feature of the machine is the aerofoil section fuselage. Note the pilots' position.
Vincent Burnelli, left, with test pilot Clyde Pangborn between the two Pratt & Whitney Hornets of the prototype UB-14.
MODEL U.B.14. 14 passengers and 1,000 lbs. of mail
CLYDE PANGBORN with the new Burnelli fourteen-passenger U.B.14 transport. With two Pratt & Whitney "Hornet" engines, a cruising speed of over 200 m.p.h. is claimed.
TOWARD THE FLYING WING. The Burnelli UB-14A, which, fitted with two geared and supercharged Pratt and Whitney Hornets, is said to have a performance equal to, if not better than, that of more conventional monoplane transports with similar power. Fourteen passengers are carried and there is ample baggage accommodation in the wings and fuselage. This is the machine in which Clyde Pangbourne once intended to fly non-stop round the world.
The UB-14B in original configuration.
The UB-14B with modified tail with added fin area.
The UB-14B with modified rudders of larger area.
The UB-14B painted bright red and registered R15320 for the abandoned round-the-world flight.
The UB-14B at Hatfield in December 1937, during the demonstration by Clyde Pangbom.
THE BURNELLI IN ENGLAND: On Monday of this week the American version of the Burnelli was flown over to Croydon from Rotterdam by Mr. S. V. Morton. The owner is Sir Cuncliffe Owen, who originally entered this or a similar machine in the abandoned Atlantic race.
UB-14B NR15320 in its penultimate form, with larger engines.
The prototype UB-14 after its spectacular crash at Newark. Although the aircraft has been smashed to pieces the interior is virtually intact.
BRITISH BURNELLI ALL-METAL AIRCRAFT with flying - fuselage lifting 25% of the total weight ... as approved by the N.A.C.A.
UNILATERAL EXPANSION. At the Scotia Works, Willesden, a full-size mock-up of the British Burnelli has been completed. Note the plywood Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine. Some idea of the roominess of cabin and cockpit can be formed from the picture.
THE LIFTING FUSELAGE - No. 1. BULKHEAD. The inherent strength and simplicity of construction of the bulkhead is apparent - there are only four such bulkheads in the lifting fuselage as compared with the many bulkheads found in the stream line fuselage.
DURAL EXTRUSIONS FOR BULKHEADS, LONGERONS AND WING SPARS
A Section of the Works and Planning Department, Scotia Works
Simplicity of Construction No. 1 THE BRITISH BURNELLI FUSELAGE IS A STRAIGHTFORWARD STRUCTURE AND COMPRISES:- Two flat side panels - large sheets forming upper and lower surfaces - four simple rectangular bulkheads. These four bulkheads, in addition to forming the fuselage structure, are employed as supporting structure for engines, wings, and landing gear. Such a combination into one simple structure of several functions is exclusive to the Burnelli and accounts for the speed of construction and consequent low production costs.
1937 CLYDE CLIPPER (Under Burnelli Patents) 14-20 PASSENGER ALL-METAL AIR LINER
SCOTTISH AIRCRAFT AND ENGINEERING CO. LTD. ANNOUNCE THE ALL-METAL BRITISH BURNELLI BR. MARK II LIFTING FUSELAGE 14-PASSENGER MONOPLANE
The Burnelli Flying-Fuselage design
These general arrangement drawings of the Burnelli UB-14A show also the passenger seating arrangements.