Avro Type 707
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1949


Одно- или двухместный исследовательский самолет с дельтовидным крылом
Описание
Фотографии
Avro серии 707

   Когда фирма "Avro" начала работу над бомбардировщиком Vulcan - самым большим на тот момент самолетом с дельтовидным крылом - она еще не была уверена в хороших аэродинамических качествах и управляемости подобной машины. Для отработки аэродинамической схемы была построена небольшая серия одноместных самолетов-аналогов в уменьшенном масштабе, получивших обозначение серия 707.
   Первый Avro серии 707 поднялся в воздух в Боскомб-Дауне 4 сентября 1949 года и через два дня отправился на авиасалон в Фарнборо. В конце того же месяца машина потерпела катастрофу. Второй самолет серии 707B отличавшийся от предшественника углом стреловидности передней кромки крыла, совершил первый полет 6 сентября 1950 года. Он использовался для испытаний на малых скоростях. Третий экземпляр, серия 707A, поднялся в воздух в Боскомб-Дауне в июне 1951-го. Его отличали воздухозаборники двигателя, размещенные в корневых частях крыла, а не на верху фюзеляжа. Этот самолет был создан для аэродинамических исследований на больших скоростях и испытаний автоматических систем управления. Следующий 707A совершил первый полет в феврале 1953-го. Пятая машина, серия 707C, использовалась для ознакомительных полетов и имела двухместную кабину с расположением пилотов бок о бок. Все пять самолетов серии 707 оснащались турбореактивными двигателями Derwent.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

   Avro серии 707

   Тип: одно- или двухместный исследовательский самолет с дельтовидным крылом
   Силовая установка: один турбореактивный двигатель Rolls-Royce Derwent мощностью 16,01 кН
   Масса: макс, взлетная 4309 кг
   Размеры: размах крыла 10,06 м; длина 12,90 м; высота 3,61 м
707
Первый экземпляр серии 707 с регистрационным номером VX784 имел самый короткий срок эксплуатации. На нем стоял фонарь кабины от истаребителя Meteor.
Avro 707, VX 784, the first of five delta-winged 707s built as roughly 1/3rd-scale flight test machines for Avro's forthcoming Vulcan, VX 784, was first flown on 4 September 1949, powered by a 3.500lb s.t. Rolls-Royce Derwent 5 and was meant to test low speed Vulcan handling. Unfortunately, the aircraft had hardly entered flight testing, when, on 30 September, it crashed following a loss of control, killing Avro's Deputy Chief Test Pilot, E.S. Esler. This loss set the 707 research programme back by almost a year, with the first flight of the second low speed aircraft, 707B, VX 790, not taking place until 6 September 1950, thanks to the need to fit the machine with ejector seat and other modifications.
4 сентября 1949г.: поднялся в воздух экспериментальный Avro 707 с дельтовидным крылом, предназначенный для получения аэродинамических характеристик полета в рамках создания бомбардировщика Vulcan.
View of the first 707, VX784, which survived only 26 days before it crashed near Blackbushe, killing the pilot.
The first 707, VX784, on view at the SBAC display, Farnborough, in September 1949, shortly after its first flight.
Экспериментальный самолет «Авро 707»
View of the first 707, VX784, which survived only 26 days before it crashed near Blackbushe, killing the pilot.
The first prototype Avro 707, VX784. First flown by Eric “Red” Esler on September 4, 1949 at Boscombe Down, the little delta was exhibited in the static display at the 1949 Farnborough Air Show a few days later. At the end of the month it crashed, killing Esler.
707A
The third of the 707 quintet was WD 280, first of the two 707As, the variant cleared for exploring the higher speed region of the Vulcan's flight envelope. Employing a wing and wing root engine air intake identical to that of the forthcoming bomber, the two 707As made several vital contributions in hastening Vulcan development, along with improving its subsequent handling characteristics. A part of this involved stripping out WD 280's original flight controls and replacing them with a system of fully powered, irreversible, hydraulically actuated pitch and roll controls. The 707As did a surprisingly manful job when you consider that their 3.600lb s.t. Rolls-Royce Derwent 8s produced only 100lb s.t. more than the low speed first prototype's power output, despite a jump of 14 per cent in the 707A's all-up-weight. The fifth and final member of the family was the sole 707C, a side-by-side two seater, later to become Britain's first fly-by-wire aircraft.
Original Avro 707A WD280 was very much a Vulcan in miniature. It first flew on July 14, 1951, ten months after 707B VX790.
WD280, the first high speed 707A, flew on June 14, 1951 and was also the first of the series to have wing root intakes.
WD280, the first high speed 707A, flew in June 1951 and was also the first of the series to have wing root intakes.
Первый экземпляр самолета «Авро 707A» с исходным крылом
Первый экземпляр самолета «Авро 707A» с крылом «Фаза 2»
First photograph showing the modified Avro 707a, flying with compound sweep on the leading edge of the wing. This machine was used to test the qualities of the Avro Vulcan's new wing which also has a modified leading edge. This particular 707 is now in Australia and is being used for boundary layer research.
Второй экземпляр самолета «Авро 707A»
The second 707A, WZ736, was painted orange and first flew in February 1953. It is seen here at the SBAC show in September of that year.
The pilot for the 707A’s first flight was R. J. “Roly” Falk, seen here in the aircraft shortly afterwards.
707B
VX790, the low speed 707B, in takeoff attitude on December 28, 1950.
The Avro 707B VX790 during a test flight in the hands of R. J. Falk, winter 1949.
Original Avro 707A WD280 was very much a Vulcan in miniature. It first flew on July 14, 1951, ten months after 707B VX790, shown. The latter was designed for lower speeds, and had a prominent dorsal air intake in place of WD280's neat wingroot intakes.
«Авро 707B» в полете
The first Avro 707B delta wing test aircraft to fly was VX790.
VX790, the low speed 707B, presents its blue undersurfaces to the camera.
VX790, the low speed 707B, landing with brake parachute deployed before touchdown.
707C
The Avro 707c, WZ744, shortly before it was moved into one of the Aerospace Museum hangars at RAF Cosford
The two-seat trainer variant, the 707C WZ744, flew in 1953.
Another view of WZ744, the 707C two-seater.
Two of the developmental Avro 707s were assembled at neighbouring Bracebridge Heath, trundled down the A15 Road and flight tested from Waddington. Avro 707C WZ744 first flew from there on July 1, 1953.
Двухместный самолет "Авро 707C"
Avro 707C WZ744.
Духместный самолет серии 707C использовался для ознакомительных полетов. Эта машина продолжала летать в Фарнборо до 1963 года.
The last of the Avro 707 series to fly was the sole 707C, a side-by-side two-seat trainer.
The two-seat trainer variant, the 707C WZ744, flew in 1953. Four were originally ordered, but only one was built. It is now stored at RAF Finningley for the RAF Museum.
 
Vulcan in company with four Avro 707s in 1953.
Deltas in delta formation; top to bottom, 707A WZ736,707B VX790, Vulcan VX777, 707C WZ744, Vulcan VX770 and 707A WD280.
Aerial trigonometry: a Vulcan leads four 707s in an impressive flypast.
Демонстрационный полет первого и второго экземпляров «Вулкана» в сопровождении экспериментальных самолетов «Авро 707». Фарнборо, 1953 г.
Recent Farnborough Jubilee revealed the Avro 707B (VX790) with aerodynamic devices on the wings
Сборка самолета «Авро 707A». На заднем плане - первый опытный образец бомбардировщика «Вулкан»
Model of the Avro 707B showing the lift engine arrangement plus the control jets on the extreme nose and tail fuselage and on the wingtips.
Detail drawing showing the Avro 707B's complex internal arrangement.
Avro 707B VTOL development, dated February 1954.
Avro 707A
Avro 707B