M.Simons The World's Vintage Sailplanes 1908-45
The Scud, designed by L. E. Baynes, first appeared in 1931. The intention was to produce a small, lightweight glider which might be used for soaring once the pilot had learned to handle the relatively clumsy BAC, Pruefling, or Falke
types. The wing was wooden, the plywood covering extending back from the leading edge to the rear spar whilst the trailing edge was a simple wire joining the ends of the ribs. For such a short span the ailerons were exceptionally large. The fuselage was a simple box set on edge to give a diamond cross-section, suspended below the wing on a cabane of steel tubular struts with the cockpit amongst them. Getting in and out required a good deal of physical agility. The rudder and each of the two separate, all-moving elevators, were identical and completely interchangeable.
The Scud was advertised by Abbott-Baynes Sailplanes at £95 ex works. Contemporary photographs show at least four under construction simultaneously. The Company also marketed complete kits of metal fittings and struts with blueprints for the rest of the structure. Counting the prototype and two others built by amateurs, at least seven Scud Is were completed. One of the amateur-built aircraft was in Jersey, where two Scud Is were still flying in 1937. Another was built in South Australia by Harold Bradley.
The Scud proved extremely sensitive on all controls. Its performance was poor even by the standards of its day, but it was the first British sailplane to make a soaring flight over one hour's duration, the pilot being E. Mole, at Dunstable in 1931.
In 1932 Baynes announced the Scud 2. The fuselage remained basically the same although it was slightly larger. The tail unit was built on the same jigs as the Scud 1. but with wooden trailing edges instead of wire. The wing spanned just over 12 metres, with a much improved aspect ratio. It tapered in planform outboard of the cabane, with a single mainspar, the plywood covering extending well aft, as before. The Goettingen 652 aerofoil was used instead of the thinner, less cambered Goettingen 535. The rigging system was simplified. The rectangular centre section was normally left in place on the cabane, and the outer wings were easily attached or removed, being held by three horizontal steel pins. The aileron connections were semi-automatic, and a simple chain-driven differential gearing system was used. After test flying, the ailerons were increased in area by giving them a lobate outer planform.
G. M. Buxton, who bought the prototype, flew it regularly at Dunstable. At an Easter camp in 1933 he set a new British altitude record of 716 metres. Buxton's aircraft had extra length built in to accommodate pilots with long legs. In it, Philip Wills made a record ascent of 1376 metres and later Buxton himself, during a competition at Sutton Bank, allowed himself to be drawn up into a storm. There were no blind flying instruments in the Scud. Buxton had a rate of climb indicator, an altimeter and an airspeed indicator. At times the airspeed increased but he managed to straighten up out of the spiral dive and keep control. As he passed through 1760 metres the rate of climb needle went off the dial and the altimeter wound up steadily. Suddenly he shot out into bright sunlight. The cloud spat him out 2537 metres above his take off point. His record stood for four years.
By August 1935 there were four Scud 2s in operation, the fourth having been partly built by Eric Collins before his death, and finished by Slingsby.
After the Second World War both Scud 3s and one of the Scud 2s survived. The Scud 2 was the one built by Slingsby from the Collins components. It was rebuilt by Vic Ginn and in 1950 began a second life. John Jeffries of the London Gliding Club logged over 200 hours in it, and made several flights of 100 km distance. This is almost without doubt the oldest airworthy sailplane in the world although after the rebuild before 1950, it may be that not all the original structure remains. At least one Scud 3 was also still flying in 1980.
Scud: Span, 7.72 m. Wing area, 7.9 sq m. Aspect ratio, 7.5. Flying weight, 114.76 kg. Wing loading, 14.54 kg/sq m. Aerofoil, Goettingen 535.
Scud 2: Span, 12.19 m. Wing area, 9.29 sq m. Aspect ratio, 16. Flying weight, 145.15 kg. Wing loading, 15.63 kg/sq m. Aerofoil, Goettingen 652.
Flight, February 1931
THE BRANT "SCUD" INTERMEDIATE GLIDER
A FEW weeks ago we made brief mention to the "Scud" glider, manufactured by Brant Aircraft, Ltd., of Croydon, and this week we are able to give further details, together with general arrangement drawings, of this glider.
The "Scud" has been designed as a British attempt to meet the requirements of gliding clubs and private owners for a practical glider of greater efficiency than the primary or Zogling type, and capable of soaring, but without the high first cost and practical difficulties of operation of the superefficient sailplanes as produced in Germany for record purposes.
It is a machine for the "B" or "C" licence pilot who is sufficiently skilled to appreciate and take advantage of really effective controls, and who wants to practice soaring flight as distinct from gliding down a hill on a machine with little or no control. It is at the same time a machine which embodies features of a practical nature, such as ease of operation, handling on the ground, and dismantling and ease of repair.
This has been achieved by a design which results in a very much smaller machine than contemporary German machines, and of little more than half the weight. One of the advantageous results of this feature is that the machine has not the sluggishness of control usually characteristic of gliders, caused by their relatively large moment of inertia and low air speed.
From a practical point of view a small light craft has also many advantages; it is possible, for instance, for four persons to carry the machine with ease, and to facilitate this four hand holes are provided, the weight to be carried by each person being only about 26 lb.
A further advantage of a light machine is the smaller launching party required. Furthermore, the small size of the machine, obviously, has many advantages from the all-important dismantling and stowing point of view, and a good deal of care has been taken and many features embodied in the design which should greatly facilitate this usually very tedious part of glider operation.
The attachment of wing to fuselage, for instance, is such that the complete wing may be detached by the withdrawal of four bolts locked by wing nuts, the struts remaining in position on the fuselage and the wing stowed as either one unit, of the wing may be separated into two halves by disconnecting the centre joint, as when it is necessary to pack the machine in a trailer. In the latter case the struts may also be folded down against the fuselage; moreover, when taking the wing off it is only necessary to withdraw two pins in order to disconnect the aileron controls from the fuselage, and on separating the wing into two halves it is not necessary to make any further disconnection in the aileron control, as the ailerons are operated by independent shafts in the wing connected to push-and-pull rods from the fuselage. Provision is made on the push rods for adjusting aileron trim, if necessary. There are no wires in either the wing truss or aileron controls.
The complete tail unit may be dismantled with even greater facility and without disconnecting any of the controls. There are no fixed surfaces, and the two elevators and rudder may be withdrawn from the short stub tubes which project from the fuselage by pulling out two draw-pins provided on each unit, and which are normally held in position by leather straps - the controls remaining attached inside the fuselage to the stub tubes. The complete tail unit may therefore be dismantled without the use of tools in about three minutes.
The elevator and rudder control cables run inside the fuselage direct to the controls without pulleys being necessary, and provision is made for ease of access in the event of adjustment being necessary.
The fuselage is an extremely simple and robust design, which in the event of damage should be very easy for the amateur to repair. It consists of a flat-sided rectangular box construction, having four ash longerons and ply covering, and is arranged in a diagonal diamond-like position such that one corner of the square section forms the keel, to which is attached the skid chassis. The top longeron is necessarily cut away in way of cockpit, but the wing-truss struts are so arranged that virtually they form a continuation of the top longeron over the cockpit - the top longeron, as a stressed member, thereby becoming redundant between the wing-drag strut attachments fore and aft.
Owing to the light structure weight of the machine, it is not necessary for the pilot to be much in front of the centre of gravity, and it has therefore been possible to arrange the pilot's seat upon the two fuselage bulkheads which form the points of attachment of the wing-lift struts and the skid shock-absorbers. This concentration of the main loads on to the two central bulkheads of the fuselage, results in a particularly stiff and light structure capable of dealing with severe landing loads. The design of the fuselage also lends itself to dealing with launching loads - both the hook and the release attachment on the tail - without putting strains other than direct tension on the longerons.
The wing is a simple cantilever construction covered with ply forward of the rear spar, the ply skin dealing with drag and torsional loads and forming with the two spars a box construction, particularly stiff in torsion.
The trailing edges are of cord, as a reminder to those handling the wing on the ground that this part of a wing, even when provided with a stiff trailing edge is quite unsuited for either handling or supporting the wing.
The landing skid is attached to the fuselage at the three points: in front, at the launching hook, in such a way that any side movement can take place without straining the attachment or the fuselage; the two shock absorbers under the main bulkheads form the other two points of attachment.
The shock-absorbers consist each of two sausage-shaped rubber blocks resting in a cup-like fitting on the skid, with the fuselage seating, at the apex of its V-shaped bottom, between the two blocks - giving a self-centring arrangement which, with a side load due to drift while landing, does not put a twisting strain on the shock-absorber assembly or its attachment to the fuselage. The only positive attachments of the skid at these points to the fuselage are leather sidepieces whose main function is to prevent the skid from falling away from the fuselage when the machine is off the ground. These leather attachments are each secured to the fuselage by one through bolt only, which on withdrawal permits the skid and shock absorbers being dropped clear for repair or the renewal of the rubber blocks, which may then be dropped into place on the skid fittings.
The principal characteristics of this glider are :-
Span 25 ft. 3 3/4 in
Length o.a. 13 ft. 4 in.
Height 4 ft. 0 1/2 in.
Main 'plane (including ailerons) 85 sq. ft.
Elevators 10 „
Rudder 5 ,,
Tare weight 103 lb.
Pilot 160 ,,
Gross 263 ,,
Wing loading 3-1 lb./sq. ft.
Gliding (L/D maximum): Optimum gliding angle, 15-1; machine speed, 35 m.p.h. = best gliding speed for maximum duration (calm air).
Soaring (L2/D2 maximum): Minimum rate of descent, 3-23 ft./sec.; machine air speed, 31 m.p.h. = best soaring speed for maximum climb and duration (minimum up-current required, 3-23 ft./sec).
Flight, September 1932
The Scud II
A High Efficiency Sailplane especially suitable for groups of "C" Licensed Glider Pilots who wish to possess their own Sailplane
IT has become clear that a gliding club contains too many pilots to operate sailplanes of the high efficiency type economically, because the expenses are mostly due to crashes which can only be avoided by the most rigid selection of pilots.
Thus, there is now a tendency for pilots, when they have gained sufficient experience on club machines - and there is a healthy increase in their numbers in the country - to form themselves into private-owner groups or private owners, and acquire machines of the high efficiency class.
The "Scud II" has therefore been designed by Mr. L. E. Baynes as a high-efficiency sailplane for private owners, and is a development of the well-known "Scud” intermediate machine.
The first "Scud II," the construction of which has just been completed by E. D. Abbott, Ltd., of Farnham, has been built to the order of Mr. N. Buxton, of the London Gliding Club.
The new design was for a machine of 40-ft. span and 100 sq. ft. wing area, and the weight empty 150 lb. These dimensions were of great interest when it was heard that the Darmstadt Academic Group was going to build a machine intended to be of high efficiency of very similar dimensions.
There is thus a notable tendency towards smaller machines, as the improved manoeuvrability that results is to-day considered essential for thermal soaring flights. The original "Scud" first showed the way, being less than half the weight and size of contemporary machines in its class, and apparently no less efficient. The "Scud II" is, as might be expected, again half the weight of the conventional sailplane. This is obviously not at the expense of strength, as the general construction is very robust and the design has been passed as up to the necessary load factors by the B.G.A., who now require a factor of 6 for the C.P. forward case. The estimated gliding angle is 23:1, the sinking speed 2.2 ft./sec, and the Schwingungzahl (wing beats) 250 per min.
If these figures are attained, it should prove an excellent private-owner's sailplane, as, apart from the manoeuvrability, small size and light weight are a great advantage from the storage and transport point of view.
The little "Scud" was original in its layout, and many novel features were incorporated in its design; these have mostly been retained in the new machine, such as the simple and light type fuselage, which is a square section turned on edge in the form of a diamond. The length has been increased, but the cross-sectional area remains the same.
The wing is, as before, carried above the fuselage by a system of struts, which also serve to carry the loads over the space for the pilot's cockpit, and thus save considerable fuselage weight.
The neat tail unit, with the interchangeable swivel-type rudder and elevators, has also been retained.
The biggest departure has been made in the wing design, which is now a single-spar, tapered and twisted wing with a pronounced sweep back of the leading edge, and is of much larger span and aspect ratio, namely, 16:1.
The aileron controls have been redesigned, and now incorporate an automatic release at the wing joints, and a chain and sprocket type differential gear.
A feature of the original “Scud'' was the very much higher wing loading than is conventional practice; this has been slightly increased on the new machine, and is now as high as 3.5 lb./sq. ft. The span loading is, however, owing to the light all-up weight, comparatively low.
The price of the "Scud II" will be ?150.
The Scud 2 flying at Sutton Bank in 1980. This, the oldest airworthy sailplane in the world, was rebuilt after being crushed when a hangar roof collapsed at the Southdown Gliding Club in 1948.
The pilot's position in the Scud 2. Note the highly cambered, thick Goettingen 652 wing profile, the cabane of eight slender steel struts with exposed aileron drive cables running from the fuselage into the wing, and the external instrument housings.
A three-quarter front view of Brant Aircraft Co's. "Scud."
Mr. Mole about to take off in the Scud at Rottingdean. The small size of this glider is very evident here.
Mr. I. Mole (left) who put up a flight of 1 hr. 2 min. on the "Scud" Intermediate glider which was designed by Mr. L. E. Baynes (right).
The Scud 1. The aileron pushrods ran almost vertically from the fuselage torque tube into the wing. Lifting handles were built into the fuselage.
A GUERNSEY GLIDER: The "Scud I" which is used by the Guernsey Gliding Club at St. Peter Port. The club propose to build a similar machine.
Three-quarter rear view of the "Scud" glider.
WELL UP: The little Scud caused a lot of enthusiasm for British built gliders at the recent International Glider Meeting at Balsdean. F. O. Mole made several excellent flights on it and E. D. Abott, Ltd., of Farnham, the builders, together with Mr. L. E. Baynes, the designer, will we trust reap the benefit of their enterprise.
Two views of the Baynes "Scud" making its one-hour flight at Dunstable.
A view down the gallery at the Agricultural Hall. The gliders from left to right are the Hols-der-Teufel, the Scud, the Albatross, and the B.A.C. VI. Between this last and the Albatross is one of the Rice folding caravans.
A line-up of rarities at Brooklands. From the foreground: Slingsby Falcon I replica; Slingsby Gull III; Schleicher Rheinland; Manuel Willow Wren BGA 162; Abbott-Baynes Scud II; Hols der Teufel replica; Bleriot XI G-LOTI.
THE SCUD: That excellent little high efficiency glider, the Scud, designed by Mr. Baynes, is now in production in the works of E. D. Abbott, Ltd., at Farnham, Surrey. The photographs show the fuselage assembly, and the wing shop, while above there are views of the trailer and the Scud in flight.
A BRITISH SAILPLANE: The "Scud II" flying at the London Gliding Club's ground, Dunstable.
Philip Wills and his Scud II in 1933
Mr. Philip Wills, holder of the British distance record, and the Abbott-Baynes Scud II, holder of the British height record (piloted by Flt. Lt. Buxton). Scud II is not a high-performance machine, but for height records this is not so important as strong construction and a very high degree of skill in the pilot.
EFFICIENT DESIGN: The "Scud II" sailplane designed by Mr. L. E. Baynes and built by E. D. Abbott ac Co., Ltd., of Farnham, won all the first prizes at the B.G.A. meeting at Thirsk on October 7 and 8, one of the best performances being the 15-mile flight of Mr. p. Wills, which won the Lord Wakefield Trophy for distance.
Three-quarter front and rear views of the Scud II outside Mr. E. D. Abbott's works at Farnham.
A front view of the Scud II showing the clean lines.
Rigging the Scud 2 at Camphill in 1950. Note the heavily cambered aerofoil and the layout of the instruments, with one mounted centrally and two housed externally. The gaps in the wing were normally closed in flight by simple plywood strip fairings, but Scuds were occasionally flown without them, at great cost in terms of performance. The sailplane in the background was an EON Baby.