Air International 1994-10
M.Hirst - Anatomy of an Airliner (2)
Operating costs are directly related to aircraft utilisation. This can vary from as little as 2,500 hours per year for short-haul business traffic routes, to 5,000 hours per year on long-haul routes. A Boeing 747-200 is seen taking-off at sunset.
Advances in cockpit displays and management systems have enabled savings to be made in the number of flight deck crew. This Boeing 747-204 is typical of the increasing trend towards a two-crew cockpit, although there is an optional third position available.
Airbus A340 undergoing water ingestion trials at Bretigny near Paris. The test, which takes the form of full-thrust rejected take-off through a water-filled trough ensured that engine and air-conditioning intakes function satisfactorily in wet conditions.
Mechanical vs Fly-by-Wire Controls. Though purely schematic, these diagrams are based on existing control systems and emphasise why fly-by-wire has so much to offer. The subjects are the pitch-and-roll circuits of the General Dynamics F-111 and an equivalent FBW system.
Note the wing deflection of the Airbus A320 static-test airframe which successfully demonstrated its ability to withstand 1.59 times the maximum load that it could be expected to encounter in service, during a test to destruction at the CEAT facilities, Toulouse.
Airliners from the same production line are like peas from the proverbial pod. However, there are many customising differences, such as the external paintwork detail as shown here on Airbus A320s in service with United Airlines, Gulf Air and Air Canada.
Airliners from the same production line are like peas from the proverbial pod. However, there are many customising differences, such as the external paintwork detail as shown here on Airbus A320s in service with United Airlines, Gulf Air and Air Canada.
Airliners from the same production line are like peas from the proverbial pod. However, there are many customising differences, such as the external paintwork detail as shown here on Airbus A320s in service with United Airlines, Gulf Air and Air Canada.
In addition to the aircraft cost, large operators will have invested in engine test-cells and flight-crew and cabin-crew simulators, test-sets for systems and so on. They might even have built new hangars. These Airbus A320 and Boeing 747-400 simulators are located at Johannesburg for South African Airways crew training.
Airbus A300-600 Flight Control Surfaces. Each wing of the A300-600 has three-segment, two- position leading edge slats, Krueger flap at the leading edge wing root, three trailing edge flaps, an all-speed aileron and seven spoilers. The flaps occupy 84% of the trailing edge and increase the wing chord by 25%.
1&2. Speed brake; 3. Roller spoiler; 4. All-speed aileron; 5. Outboard flaps; 6. Inboard flap; 7. Notch; 8. Slats; 9. Rudder; 10&11. Elevator; 12. Trimmable tailplane; 13. Krueger flap.
Flight testing, including a demonstration of the minimum unstick-speed, is a fundamental element of the certification process. This test was successfully completed by the Airbus A330 in June 1993.
Airbus Industrie A330-300
A significant electronic system development has seen the use of computers to present information to aircrew on cathode-ray tube displays. The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 instrument panel features six CRT displays for presenting operational, navigation, engine and systems data. Automatic system controllers in the overhead panel monitor and configure fuel, hydraulic, electrical and environmental systems. Dual flight management systems display units are shown in the forward centre console, with a third unit, which is also used by maintenance personnel to check the condition of flight deck systems at the rear of the console.
In addition to the aircraft cost, large operators will have invested in engine test-cells and flight-crew and cabin-crew simulators, test-sets for systems and so on. They might even have built new hangars. These Airbus A320 and Boeing 747-400 simulators are located at Johannesburg for South African Airways crew training.